Compendium of Phenomena

2.3 Sections

2.3.2. The Group of Pairs

Chapter 1 The Group On Cause

Which are the states that are causes?

  1. The three causes of good (karma).
  2. The three causes of bad (karma).
  3. The three causes of the indeterminate.
  4. The nine causes operative in the sensuous universe.
  5. The six causes operative in the universe of form.
  6. The six causes operative in the universe of the formless.
  7. The six causes operative in the life that is the Unincluded.
A In this connexion,

Which are the three causes of good karma?

The absence of lust, hate and dullness.

In this connexion,

What is the absence of lust?

The absence of lust, lusting, lustfulness is the absence of infatuation, of raving, of passionateness; the absence of covetousness, that absence of lust which is the root of good (karma).

What is the absence of hate?

  • The absence of hate, hating, hatred;
  • love, loving, loving disposition;
  • tender care, forbearance, considerateness;
  • seeking the general good, compassion;
  • the absence of malice, of malignity;
  • that absence of hate which is the root of good (karma).

What is the absence of dullness?

  • Knowledge about ill, about the uprising of ill, about the cessation of ill, and about the way leading to the cessation of ill;
  • knowledge about the former things, about the latter things, about both taken together;
  • knowledge about the assignable causation of causally determined states

— even that kind of wisdom which is understanding, search, research, searching the Truth, etc.

continue as in §34.

These are the three causes of good (karma).

B In this connexion,

Which are the three causes of bad?

Lust, hate, dullness.

In this connexion,

What is lust?

That which is

  • passion (rago),
  • infatuation (sarago),
  • fawning (anunayo),
  • compliance (anurodho),
  • (nandi),delighting in
  • taking passionate delight in (nandi-rago),
  • infatuation of mind (cittassa sarago),
  • longing (iccha),
  • languishing (muccha),
  • devouring (ajjhosanaṃ),
  • greed (gedho),
  • omnivorous greed (paligedho),
  • cleaving to (sango),
  • a slough (panko),
  • seduction (eja),
  • trickery (maya),
  • genitrix (janika),
  • progenitrix (sanjanani),
  • seamstress (sibbani),
  • she who ensnares (jalini),
  • the river (sarita),
  • she who is poisonous (visattika),
  • the thread (suttaṃ),
  • diffusion (visata),
  • she who toils (ayuhani),
  • the consort (dutiya),
  • hankering (panidhi),
  • she who leads to renewed existence, (bhavanetti)
  • the jungle (vanaṃ),
  • the undergrowth (vanatho),
  • intimacy (santhavo),
  • unctuous affection (sineho),
  • affection (apekkha),
  • connexion (patibandhu),
  • craving (asa),
  • wanting (asimsana),
  • cupidity (asimsitattaṃ),
  • craving for visual forms (rupasa, etc.),
  • craving for sounds,
  • craving for odours,
  • craving for tastes,
  • craving for the tangible,
  • craving for getting,
  • craving for wealth,
  • craving for children,
  • craving for life,
  • mumbling (jappa),
  • mumbling on,
  • mumbling over,
  • muttering,
  • murmuring,
  • self-indulgence (loluppaṃ),
  • self-indulging,
  • intemperateness,
  • agitation (puncikata),
  • longing for the agreeable (sadhu kamyata),
  • incestuous passion (adhammarago),
  • lawless lust (visamalobho),
  • appetite (nikanti),
  • hungering for (nikamana),
  • entreating (patthana),
  • envying (pihana),
  • imploring (sampatthana),
  • thirst for sensual indulgence (kamatanha),
  • thirst for existence (bhavatanha),
  • thirst for non-existence (vibhavatanha),
  • thirst for form,
  • thirst for formlessness,
  • thirst for annihilation,
  • thirst for visible forms,
  • thirst for sounds,
  • thirst for smells,
  • thirst for tastes,
  • thirst for the tangible,
  • thirst for mental states (dhammatanha),
  • a flood (ogho),
  • a yoke (yogo),
  • trammels (gantho),
  • attachment (upadanaṃ),
  • obstruction (avaranaṃ),
  • hindrance (nivaranaṃ),
  • counterfeiting (chadanaṃ),
  • bondage (bandhanaṃ),
  • depravity (upakkileso),
  • faltering (anusayo),
  • pervading (pariyutthanaṃ),
  • a creeper (lata),
  • avarice (vevicchaṃ),
  • root of pain,
  • source of pain (dukkhanidanaṃ),
  • (dukkhappabhavo),production of pain
  • Mara's trap (marapaso),
  • Mara's fish-hook (marabalisaṃ),
  • Mara's domain (maravisayo),
  • thirst,
  • thirst for delight (nanditanha),
  • the fishing-net of thirst (jalamtanha),
  • the leash of thirst (gaddulatanh a),
  • the ocean (samuddo),
  • covetousness (abhijjha),
  • the lust that is the root of evil

— this is what is called lust.

What is hate?

When annoyance springs up at the thought:

  • he has done me harm, is doing, will do me harm;
  • he has done harm, is doing harm, will do harm to someone dear and precious to me;
  • he has conferred a benefit, is conferring, will confer a benefit on someone I dislike and object to;
  • or when annoyance springs up groundlessly:

— all such vexation of

  • spirit,
  • resentment,
  • repugnance,
  • hostility;
  • ill-temper,
  • irritation,
  • indignation;
  • hate,
  • antipathy,
  • abhorrence;
  • mental disorder,
  • detestation;
  • anger,
  • fuming,
  • irascibility;
  • hate,
  • hating,
  • hatred;
  • disorder,
  • getting upset,
  • derangement;
  • opposition,
  • hostility;
  • churlishness,
  • abruptness,
  • disgust of heart

— this is what is called hate.

What is dullness?

  • Lack of knowledge about Ill,
  • lack of knowledge about the uprising of Ill,
  • lack of knowledge about the cessation of Ill,
  • lack of knowledge about the way leading to the cessation of Ill;
  • lack of knowledge about the former things, about the latter things and about both taken together;
  • lack of knowledge about the assignable causation of causally determined states

— even all that kind of lack of knowledge which is

  • lack of insight,
  • of understanding,
  • of wakefulness,
  • of enlightenment,
  • of penetration,
  • of comprehension,
  • of sounding,
  • of comparing,
  • of contemplation,
  • of perspicacity;
  • impurity,
  • childishness,
  • unintelligence,
  • the dullness that is stupidity,
  • obtuseness,
  • ignorance,
  • a flood of ignorance,
  • the yoke of ignorance,
  • the dependence of ignorance,
  • the being possessed by ignorance,
  • the barrier of ignorance,
  • the dullness that is the root of evil

— this is called dullness.

These are the three causes of bad [karma].

C In this connexion,

Which are the three causes of the indeterminate?

The absence of lust, hate and dullness coming to pass as the result of good states, or as the indeterminate states known as kiriya-thoughts.

Which are the nine causes operative in the sensuous universe?

The three causes of good [karma], the three causes of bad [karma], the three causes of indeterminate [states]—these are the nine.

Which are the six causes operative in the universe of form?

The three causes of good [karma], the three causes of indeterminate [states]—these are the six.

Which are the six causes operative in the universe of the formless?

The three causes of good [karma], the three causes of indeterminate [states]—these are the six.

Which are the six causes operative in the Unincluded?

The three causes of good [karma], the three causes of indeterminate [states]—these are the six.

In this connexion,

Which are the three causes of good [karma]?

The absence of lust, hate and dullness.

In this connexion,

What is the absence of lust … of hate … of dullness?

Answers as in §§1055–1057, but omitting in §1056, from ‘hatred’ to ‘the absence of malice’, exclusively.

These are the three causes of good [karma].

D In this connexion,

Which are the three causes of indeterminate [states]?

The absence of lust, hate and dullness coming to pass as the effect of good states—these are the three.

These are the six causes operative in the Unincluded. These are the states which are causes.

Which are the states that are not causes?

Every state, good, bad and indeterminate, whether related to the worlds of sense, of form, of the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded, except the states enumerated above; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that have causes as concomitants?

Those states, to wit, the four skandhas, which have as concomitant causes the states enumerated above.

Which are the states that have not concomitant causes?

Those states, to wit, the four skandhas, all form also, and uncompounded element, which have not as concomitant causes the states enumerated above.

Which are the states that are associated with a cause?

The states, to wit, the four skandhas, which are associated with those states enumerated above.

Which are the states that are not associated with a cause?

The states, to wit, the four skandhas, all form also, and uncompounded element, which are not associated with the states enumerated above.

Which are the states that both are causes and have causes as their concomitants?

Lust with dullness is both. dullness with lust is both. Hate with dullness is both. dullness with hate is both.

The absence of lust, the absence of hate, the absence of dullness—these also, taken one with the other, both are causes and have causes as their concomitants.

Which are the states that have causes as their concomitants, but are not causes?

The states, to wit, the four skandhas, which have as their concomitant causes those states [enumerated above as causes], the latter states themselves excepted.

Which are the states that are both causes and associated with a cause?

Which are the states that are associated with a cause, but are not causes?

Answers identical with those in the foregoing pair.

Which are the states that are not causes, but have a cause as their concomitant?

The states, to wit, the four skandhas, which are not the causes of those states enumerated above, but which have any of them as their concomitants.

Which are the states that are not causes and have not causes as their concomitants?

The states, to wit, the four skandhas, all form also, and uncompounded element, which neither are the causes of those states enumerated above, nor have any of them as their concomitants.

Chapter 3 The Short Intermediate Set Of Pairs

Which are the states that are conditioned?

The five skandhas, to wit, the skandhas of form, feeling, perception, syntheses and intellect.

Which are the states that are unconditioned?

‘And uncompounded element’.

Which are the states that are compound?

Those states which are conditioned.

Which are the states that are uncompounded?

That state which is unconditioned.

Which are the states that have visibility?

The sphere of [visible] forms.

Which are the states that have no visibility?

The spheres of the senses and sense-objects; the four skandhas; that form also which, being neither visible nor impingeing, is included under [mental] states; and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that impinge?

The spheres of the senses and sense-objects.

Which are the states that are non-impingeing?

The four skandhas; that form also which, being neither visible nor impingeing, is included under [mental] states; also uncompounded element.

Which are the states that have [material] form?

The four great principles as well as the form that is derived from the four great phenomena.

Which are the states that have no material form?

The four skandhas, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are mundane?

Co-Intoxicant states, good, bad and indeterminate, relating to the worlds of sense, of form, or of the formless, to wit, the five skandhas.

Which are the states that are supra-mundane?

The Paths that are the Unincluded, and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are cognizable in one way, and not cognizable in another way?

States that are cognizable by sight are not cognizable by hearing; conversely, states that are cognizable by hearing are not cognizable by sight.

States that are cognizable by sight are not cognizable by smell … by taste … by body-sensibility, and conversely.

States that are cognizable by hearing are not cognizable by smell … by taste … by body-sensibility … by sight, and conversely.

So for states that are cognizable by smell, by taste, and by body-sensibility.

Chapter 4 The Intoxicant Group

Which are the states that are Intoxicants?

The four Intoxicants, to wit,

  • the Intoxicant of sensuality,
  • the Intoxicant of renewed existence,
  • the Intoxicant of speculative opinion,
  • the Intoxicant of ignorance.

In this connexion

What is the Intoxicant of sensuality?

  • That sensual desire,
  • sensual passion,
  • sensual delight,
  • sensual craving,
  • sensual fondness,
  • sensual thirst,
  • sensual fever,
  • sensual languishing,
  • sensual rapacity,
  • which is excited by the pleasures of the senses

— this is called the Intoxicant of sensuality.

What is the Intoxicant of renewed existence?

  • The desire, the passion for coming into being,
  • delight in coming into being, craving,
  • fondness for coming into being,
  • the fever,
  • the yearning,
  • the hungering to come into being,
  • which is felt concerning rebirths

— this is called the Intoxicant of renewed existence.

What is the Intoxicant of speculative opinion?

To hold

  • that the world is eternal,
  • or that it is not eternal, infinite or finite;
  • that the living soul is the body,
  • or that the living soul is a different thing from the body;
  • or that he who has won truth exists after death,
  • or does not exist after death,
  • or both exists and does not exist after death,
  • or neither exists nor does not exist after death
  • — this kind of opinion,
  • this walking in opinion,
  • this jungle of opinion,
  • wilderness of opinion,
  • puppet-show of opinion,
  • scuffling of opinion,
  • the fetter of opinion,
  • the grip and tenacity of it,
  • the inclination towards it,
  • the being infected by it,
  • this by-path,
  • wrong road,
  • wrongness,
  • this ‘fording-place’,
  • this shiftiness of grasp

— this is called the Intoxicant of speculative opinion. Moreover, the Intoxicant of speculation includes all false theories.

What is the Intoxicant of ignorance?

Answer as in §1061 for ‘dullness’.

These are the states that are Intoxicants.

Which are the states that are not Intoxicants?

Every state, good, bad and indeterminate, which is not included in the foregoing (Intoxicants), whether relating to the worlds of sense, form or the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded, to wit, the four skandhas; all form also, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are co-Intoxicant?

Good, bad and indeterminate states, whether relating to the worlds of sense, form, or the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

Which are the states that are not co-Intoxicant?

The Paths that are the Unincluded, and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are ‘associated with Intoxicants’?

The states which are associated with those [Intoxicant] states, to wit, the four skandhas.

Which are the states that are ‘disconnected with Intoxicants’?

The states which are disconnected with those [Intoxicant] states, to wit, the four skandhas; all form also, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are both Intoxicants and co-Intoxicant?

The Intoxicants themselves.

Which are the states that are co-Intoxicant, but not Intoxicants?

The states which have the foregoing states (§1096) as their concomitants; that is to say, with the exception of the Intoxicants, all states whatever, good, bad and indeterminate, which are co-Intoxicant, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, of form or of the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

Which are the states that are both Intoxicants and associated with Intoxicants?

The Intoxicant of sensuality together with that of ignorance, and conversely. The Intoxicant of renewed existence together with that of ignorance, and conversely. The Intoxicant of speculative opinion together with that of ignorance, and conversely.

Which are the states that are associated with Intoxicants but are not Intoxicants?

The states which are associated with the foregoing states (§1096)—the latter themselves excepted—to wit, the four skandhas.

Which are the states that are disconnected with Intoxicants but co-Intoxicant?

The states which are disconnected with those abovenamed states (§1096), but which, good, bad, or indeterminate, have them as concomitants, whether they belong to the worlds of sense, of form, or of the formless, to wit, the five skandhas.

Which are the states that are disconnected with Intoxicants and are not co -Intoxicant?

The Paths that are the Unincluded and the Fruits of the Paths and uncompounded element.

Chapter 5 The Group Of The Fetters

Which are the states that are Fetters?

The ten Fetters, to wit, the Fetter of

  • sensuality,
  • repulsion,
  • conceit,
  • speculative opinion,
  • perplexity,
  • the contagion of mere rule and ritual,
  • the passion for renewed existence,
  • envy,
  • meanness,
  • ignorance.

In this connexion,

What is the Fetter of sensual passion?

  • That sensual desire,
  • sensual passion,
  • sensual delight,
  • sensual craving,
  • sensual fondness,
  • sensual fever,
  • sensual languor,
  • sensual rapacity,

which is excited by the pleasures of the senses

— this is called the Fetter of sensuality.

What is the Fetter of repulsion?

Answer as for ‘hate’, §1060.

What is the Fetter of conceit?

  • Conceit at the thought ‘I am the better man';
  • conceit at the thought ‘I am as good [as they]';
  • conceit at the thought ‘I am lowly’

— all such sort of

  • conceit,
  • overweening,
  • conceitedness,
  • loftiness,
  • haughtiness,
  • flaunting a flag,
  • assumption,
  • desire of the heart for self-advertisement

— this is called conceit.

What is the Fetter of speculative opinion?

Answer as for the ‘Intoxicant of speculative opinion’, §1099, with this supplement: And, with the exception of the ‘Fetter of the contagion of mere rule and ritual’, all wrong views are included in the Fetter of speculative opinion.

What is the Fetter of perplexity?

Answer as for ‘perplexity’, §1004.

What is the Fetter of the contagion of mere rule and ritual?

Answer as for the ‘contagion of’, etc., §1005.

What is the Fetter of the passion for renewed existence?

Answer as for the ‘Intoxicant of renewed existence’, §1098.

What is the Fetter of envy?

  • Envy,
  • envying,
  • enviousness—jealousy,
  • the expression and mood of jealousy at the gifts,
  • the hospitality,
  • the respect,
  • affection,
  • reverence and worship accruing to others

—this is called the Fetter of envy.

What is the Fetter of meanness?

  • The Five Meannesses,
  • to wit,
  • meanness as regards dwelling,
  • families,
  • gifts,
  • reputation,
  • doctrine

— all this sort of

  • meanness,
  • grudging,
  • mean spirit,
  • avarice and ignobleness,
  • niggardliness and want of generosity of heart

— this is called the Fetter of meanness.

What is the Fetter of ignorance?

Answer as for the Intoxicant of ignorance, §1100.

These are the states that are Fetters.

Which are the states that are not Fetters?

Every state, good, bad and indeterminate, which is not included in the foregoing [ten] states, whether it relates to the worlds of sense, or of form, or of the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) favourable to the Fetters?

Co-Intoxicant states, good, bad and indeterminate, relating to the worlds of sense, form, or the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

(b) unfavourable to the Fetters?

The Paths that are the Unincluded and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) associated with the Fetters?

(b) disconnected with the Fetters?

Answers identical with those given to corresponding questions respecting the ‘Intoxicants’, §§1105, 1106.

Which are the states that are

(a) both Fetters and favourable to the Fetters?

The Fetters themselves are both

(b) favourable to the Fetters but not themselves Fetters.

The states which are favourable to those [ten] states afore-named; that is to say, with the exception of the Fetters themselves, all co-Intoxicant states whatever, good, bad and indeterminate, whether relating to the worlds of sense, form or the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

Which are the states that are

(a) both Fetters and associated with Fetters?

The Fetter of sensuality in conjunction with the Fetter of ignorance, and conversely, is both. So is any one of the remaining eight Fetters when in conjunction with the Fetter of ignorance, and conversely.

(b) associated with the Fetters but not a Fetter?

The states which are associated with those ten states afore-named, with the exception of the Fetters themselves; in other words, the four skandhas.

Which are the states that are

(a) disconnected with the Fetters yet favourable to them?

The states which are disconnected with those aforementioned [ten] states, that is to say, good, bad and indeterminate states which are co-Intoxicant, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, or of form, or of the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

(b) disconnected with the Fetters and not favourable to them?

The Paths that are the Unincluded and the Fruits of the Paths; all form also, and uncompounded element.

  • (arahatta) path,
  • the Fetters of speculative opinion, perplexity, and the contagion of mere rule and ritual, in the first (sotapatti) path,
  • the Fetter of the passion for renewed existence in the fourth path,
  • the Fetters of envy and meanness in the first path,
  • the Fetter of ignorance in the fourth path.

Chapter 6 The Group Of The Ties

Which are the states that are Ties?

  • The four Ties,
  • to wit,
  • the bodily Tie of covetousness,
  • the bodily Tie of ill-will,
  • the bodily Tie of the contagion of mere rule and ritual,
  • the bodily Tie of the inclination to dogmatize.

In this connexion,

what is the bodily Tie of covetousness?

Answer as for ‘lust’, §1059.

what is the bodily Tie of ill-will?

Answer as for ‘hate’, §1060.

what is the bodily Tie of the contagion of mere rule and ritual?

Answer as in §1005, and, §1119, for the Fetter so-called.

what is the bodily Tie of the inclination to dogmatize?

  • ‘“The world is eternal”—this is true, all else is false!
  • “The world is not eternal”—this is true, all else is false!
  • “The world is finite … is infinite”—this is true, all else is false!
  • “The living soul is the body … is a different thing from the body”—this is true, all else is false!
  • “He who has won truth exists after death … does not exist after death … both exists and does not exist after death … neither exists nor does not exist after death”—this is true, all else is false!’
  • — this kind of opinion,
  • this walking in opinion,
  • this jungle of opinion,
  • wilderness of opinion,
  • puppet-show of opinion,
  • scuffling of opinion,
  • this Fetter of opinion,
  • the grip and tenacity of it,
  • the inclination towards it,
  • the being infected by it,
  • this by-path,
  • wrong road,
  • wrongness,
  • this ‘fording-place’,
  • this shiftiness of grasp

— this is called the bodily Tie of the inclination to dogmatize.

And, excepting only the bodily Tie of the contagion of mere rule and ritual, all wrong views are included under the bodily Tie of the inclination to dogmatize.

These are the states which are Ties.

Which are the states that are not Ties?

Every state, good, bad and indeterminate, which is not included in the foregoing [four] states, whether it relates to the worlds of sense or of form, or of the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that

(a) tend to become tied?

Good, bad and indeterminate states, relating to the worlds of sense, of form or of the formless, which are co-Intoxicant; in other words, the five skandhas.

(b) do not tend to become tied?

The Paths that are the Unincluded and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) associated with the Ties?

The states connected with those four afore-named states; in other words, the four skandhas.

(b) disconnected with the Ties?

The states which are disconnected with those [four aforenamed] states; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that

(a) are themselves Ties and tend to become tied?

The Ties themselves are both.

(b) tend to become tied, but are not Ties?

The states which tend to become tied by those [four afore-named] states, that is, every state, good, bad and indeterminate, which is not included in the latter, whether it relates to the worlds of sense, of form, or of the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

Which are the states that are

(a) Ties themselves, and associated with the Ties?

The bodily Tie of the contagion of mere rule and ritual in conjunction with the bodily Tie of covetousness, and conversely, is both. The bodily Tie of the inclination to dogmatize in conjunction with the bodily Tie of covetousness, and conversely, is both.

(b) associated with the Ties but not Ties?

The states which are associated with the four states aforenamed (the Ties), the latter themselves excepted; in other words, the four skandhas.

Which are the states that

(a) are disconnected with the Ties, but tend to become tied?

The states which are disconnected with the afore-named states, that is, good, bad and indeterminate states relating to the worlds of sense, of form, or of the formless, which are co-Intoxicant; in other words, the five skandhas.

(c) are disconnected with the Ties and do not tend to become tied?

The Paths that are the Unincluded and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Chapter 7 The Group Of The Floods

Which are the states that are Floods?

… continue as in the Group of Fetters.

Chapter 8 The Group Of The Bonds

Which are the states that are Bonds?

… continue as in the Group of Fetters.

Chapter 9 The Group Of The Hindrances

Which are the states that are Hindrances?

The six Hindrances, to wit,

  • the Hindrance of sensual desire,
  • the Hindrance of ill will,
  • the Hindrance of stolidity and torpor,
  • the Hindrance of excitement and worry,
  • the Hindrance of perplexity,
  • the Hindrance of ignorance.

In this connexion

What is the Hmclrance of sensual desire?

Answer as for the ‘Intoxicant of sensuality’, §1097.

What is the Hindrance of ill will?

Answer as for the ‘Tie of ill will’, §1137.

What is the Hindrance of stolidity and torpor?

First distinguish between stolidity and torpor.

In this connexion,

What is stolidity?

  • That which is indisposition, unwieldiness of intellect;
  • adhering and cohering;
  • clinging, cleaving to, stickiness;
  • stolidity, that is, a stiffening, a rigidity of the intellect

— this is called stolidity.

What is torpor?

  • That which is indisposition and unwieldiness of sense, a shrouding, enveloping, barricading within;
  • torpor that is sleep, drowsiness;
  • sleep, slumbering, somnolence

— this is called torpor.

Now this is the stolidity and this is the torpor which are called ‘the Hindrance of stolidity and torpor’.

What is the Hindrance of excitement and worry?

First distinguish between ‘excitement’ and ‘worry’.

In this connexion,

What is excitement?

  • That excitement of mind which is disquietude, agitation of heart, turmoil of mind

— this is called excitement.

What is worry?

  • Consciousness of what is lawful in something that is unlawful;
  • consciousness of what is unlawful in something that is lawful;
  • consciousness of what is immoral in something that is moral;
  • consciousness of what is moral in something that is immoral
  • — all this sort of worry,
  • fidgeting,
  • overscrupulousness,
  • remorse of conscience,
  • mental scarifying

— this is what is called Worry.

Now this is the excitement and this is the worry which are what is called ‘the Hindrance of excitement and worry’.

What is the Hindrance of ignorance?

Answer as for ‘dullness’, §1061.

Which are the states that are not Hindrances?

Every state, good, bad and indeterminate, which is not included in the foregoing [six] states, whether it relates to the worlds of sense, of form, or of the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) favourable to the Hindrances?

Co-Intoxicant states, good, bad and indeterminate, whether relating to the worlds of sense, form or the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

(b) unfavourable to the Hindrances?

The Paths that are the Unincluded and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) associated with the Hindrances?

(b) disconnected with the Hindrances?

Answers identical with those given to corresponding questions respecting the Intoxicants, §§1105, 1106.

Which are the states that are

(a) Hindrances themselves and favourable to the Hindrances?

The Hindrances themselves are both.

(b) favourable to the Hindrances, but not themselves Hindrances?

The states which are favourable to the Hindrances afore named; that is to say, with the exception of the Hindrances, all co-Intoxicant states whatever, good, bad and indeterminate, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, form or the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

Which are the states that are

(a) both themselves Hhidrances and associated with Hindrances?

The following pairs are both themselves Hindrances and associated with Hindrances:

  • Sensual desire in conjunction with ignorance, and conversely.
  • Ill-will in conjunction with ignorance, and conversely.
  • Stolidity and torpor,
  • Excitement,
  • Worry,
  • Perplexity,
  • Sensual desire,
  • Ill-will,
  • Stolidity and torpor,
  • Excitement,
  • Excitement,
  • Perplexity,

(b) associated with Hindrances, but not themselves Hindrances?

The states which are associated with the [six aforementioned] states, the latter themselves being excepted; in other words, the four skandhas.

Which are the states that are

(a) disconnected with the Hindrances, but favourable to them?

The states which are disconnected with those [six] states afore-named, that is to say, co-Intoxicant states, good, bad and indeterminate, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, form or the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

(b) disconnected with the Hindrances and unfavourable to them?

The Paths that are the Unincluded, and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Chapter 10 The Group On Contagion

Which are the states that are contagious?

The Contagion of speculative opinion.

In this connexion,

What is the ‘Contagion of speculative opinion’?

Answer as for the ‘Intoxicant of speculative opinion,’ viz.: ‘To hold that the world is eternal, or that it is not eternal’, etc. (§1099).

Which are the states that are not a Contagion?

Answer as in the case of the ‘states that are not Hindrances’ (§1163).

Which are the states that are

(a) infected?

(b) uninfected?

Answers as in the corresponding answers relating to the Hindrances (§§1164, 1165).

Which are the states that are

(a) associated with the Contagion?

(b) disconnected with the Contagion?

Answers as in the corresponding answers relating to the Hindrances (§§1166, 1167).

Which are the states that are

(a) themselves Contagious and infected?

The Contagion itself is both.

(b) infected but not Contagious?

The states which are infected by the states afore-named; that is to say, with the exception of the latter, all co-Intoxicant states whatever, good, bad and indeterminate, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, form, or the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

Which are the states that are

(a) disconnected with the Contagion, yet infected?

(b) disconnected with the Contagion and uninfected?

Answers as in the corresponding sections on the Hindrances (§§1172, 1173).

Chapter 11 The Great Intermediate Set Of Pairs

Which are the states that have

(a) a concomitant object of thought?

The four skandhas.

(b) no concomitant object of thought?

All form, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) of the intellect?

Cognition applied to sense-impressions; the element of ideation and the element of ideational cognition.

(b) not of the intellect?

The skandhas of feeling, perception and syntheses; all form, moreover, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) involved in the life of sense?

The skandhas of feeling, perception and syntheses.

(b) not involved in the life of sense?

Intellect and all form and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) associated with thought?

The skandhas of feeling, perception and syntheses.

(b) disconnected with thought?

All form and uncompounded element. (Thought must not be described as associated or disconnected with itself.)

Which are the states that are

(a) conjoined with thought?

(b) detached from thought?

Answers as in §§1191, 1192 respectively, (Thought must not be described as conjoined with, or detached from itself.)

Which are the states that are

(a) sprung from thought?

The skandhas of feeling, perception and syntheses; bodily and vocal intimation; or whatever other form there be which is born of thought, caused by thought, sprung from thought, whether it be in the spheres of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, or the tangible, the elements of space or fluidity, the lightness, plasticity or wieldiness of form, the integration or subsistence of form, or bodily nutriment.

(b) not sprung from thought?

Thought; also every other kind of form, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that

(a) come into being together with thought?

The skandhas of feeling, perception and syntheses; bodily and vocal intimation.

(b) do not come into being together with thought?

Thought; also all other kinds of form, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) consecutive to thought?

(b) not consecutive to thought?

Answers as in the two foregoing answers respectively,

Which are the states that are

(a) conjoined with aiid sprung from thought?

The skandhas of feeling, perception and syntheses.

(b) not conjoined with and sprung from thought?

Thought itself; all form also, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that

(a) are conjoined with and sprung from, and that come into being together loith, thought?

(b) are not such as are conjoined with and sprung from and as come into being together with thought?

Answers as in the two foregoing answers respectively.

Which are the states that are

(a) conjoined with and sprung from and consecutive to thought?

(b) not conjoined with, sprung from and consecutive to thought?

Answers as in the two foregoing answers.

Which are the states that are

(a) of the self?

The spheres of the five senses and of ideation.

(b) external?

The spheres of the five objects of sense and of ideas.

Which are the states that are

(a) derived?

The spheres of the five senses … and bodily nutriment.

(b) not derived?

The four skandhas, the four great phenomena and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) the issue of grasping?

Co-Intoxicant good and bad states, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, of form, or of the formless; in other words, the four skandhas, and such form as is due to karma having been wrought.

(b) not the issue of grasping?

Co-Intoxicant good and bad states, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, of form, or of the formless; in other words, the four skandhas; also such kiriya-thoughts as are neither good, nor bad, nor the effects of karma; the Paths, moreover, that are the Unincluded and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Chapter 12 The Group On Grasping

Which are the states that have the attribute of Grasping?

The four Graspings: —

  1. the Grasping after sense,
  2. the Grasping after speculative opinion,
  3. the Grasping after mere rule and ritual,
  4. the Grasping after a theory of soul.

In this connexion,

What is the Grasping after sense?

  • That sensual desire,
  • sensual passion,
  • sensual delight,
  • sensual craving,
  • sensual cleaving,
  • sensual fever,
  • sensual languishing,
  • sensual rapacity,

which is excited by the pleasures of the senses.

What is the Grasping after speculative opinion?

  • ‘There is no such thing as alms, or sacrifice, or offering;
  • there is neither fruit, nor result of good, or of evil deeds;
  • there is no such thing as this world, or the next;
  • there is no such thing as mother or father, or beings springing into birth without them;
  • there are in the world no recluses or brahmins who have reached the highest point, who have attained the height, who, having understood and realized by themselves alone both this world and the next, make known the same’
  • — all this sort of speculation,
  • this walking in opinion,
  • wilderness of opinion,
  • puppet-show of opinion,
  • scuffling of opinion,
  • this Fetter of opinion,
  • the grip and tenacity of it,
  • the inclination towards it,
  • the being infected by it,
  • this by-path,
  • wrong road,
  • wrongness,
  • this ‘fording-place’,
  • this shiftiness of grasp

— this is what is called the Grasping after speculative opinion.

And with the exception of the Graspings after mere rule and ritual and after soul-theory, all wrong views are included in the Grasping after speculative opinion.

What is the Grasping after mere rule and ritual?

Answer as for the ‘Contagion of mere rule and ritual’, §1005.

What is the Grasping after soul-theory?

Answer as for the ‘Theory of individuality’, §1003.

Which are the states that have not the attribute of Grasping?

All other states whatever, good, bad and indeterminate (except the foregoing), whether they relate to the worlds of sense, or of form, or of the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are favourable Grasping?

Co-Intoxicant states, good, bad and indeterminate whether they relate to the worlds of sense, form or the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

Which are the states that are not favourable to Grasping?

The Paths that are the Unincluded, and the Fruits of the Paths; and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

  • (a) associated with Grasping?
  • (b) disconnected with Grasping?
  • (c) Grasping and also favourable to Grasping?
  • (d) favourable to Grasping but not Grasping?

Answers exactly analogous to those given to corresponding questions in other Groups, e.g., §§1125, 1141, 1164.

Which are the states that are

(a) both Grasping and associated with Grasping?

The Grasping after speculation in conjunction with that after sense is both, and conversely.

So is each of the other tivo Grasping s in conjunction with that after sense, and conversely.

  • (b) associated with Grasping but not Grasping?
  • (c) disconnected with Grasping yet favourable to it?
  • (d) disconnected with Grasping and not favourable to it?

Answers as in the Groups specified above, §§1125, 1141, 1164 et seq.

Chapter 13 The Group On The Corruptions

Which are the states that have the attribute of corruption?

The ten bases of corruption, to wit:

  1. lust,
  2. perplexity,
  3. hate,
  4. stolidity,
  5. dullness,
  6. excitement,
  7. conceit,
  8. unconscientiousness,
  9. speculative opinion,
  10. disregard of blame.

In this connexion,

  • What is lust?
  • … hate?
  • … dullness?
  • … conceit?
  • … speculative opinion?
  • … perplexity?
  • … stolidity?
  • … excitement?

Answers as in §§1059–1061, 1116–1118, 1156, 1159.

What is unconscientiousness?

The absence of any feeling of conscientious scruple when scruples ought to be felt; the absence of conscientious scruple at attaining to bad and evil states.

What is disregard of blame?

The absence of any sense of guilt where a sense of guilt ought to be felt, the absence of a sense of guilt at attaining to bad and evil states.

These are the states which have the attribute of corruption.

Which are the states that have not the attribute of corruption?

All other states whatever (i.e., all except the afore-named ten), good, bad and indeterminate, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, form or the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded; in other words, the four skandhas, all form also and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) baneful?

Co-Intoxicant states, good, bad and indeterminate, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, of form or of the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

(b) harmless?

The Paths that are the Unincluded, and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) corrupt?

The three roots of bad (karma), to wit, lust, hate, dullness, as well as the Corruptions united with them, the four skandhas associated with them, and the action, bodily, vocal and mental, springing from them.

(b) not corrupt?

Good and indeterminate states, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, form, or the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

  • (a) associated with the Corruptions?
  • (b) disconnected with the Corruptions?
  • (c) both Corruptions and baneful?
  • (d) baneful but not themselves Corruptions?

Answers as in the corresponding pairs in the ‘Graspings’, §§1221–1224.

Which are the states that are

(a) both Corruptions and corrupt?

The Corruptions themselves.

(b) corrupt but not themselves Corruptions?

The states which by those ten states are made corrupt, the ten themselves excepted; in other words, the four skandhas.

Which are the states that are

(a) both Corruptions and associated with Corruptions?

  • Lust,
  • hate,
  • conceit,
  • speculative
  • opinion,
  • perplexity,
  • stolidity,
  • excitement,
  • unconscientiousness
  • and disregard of blame

taken severally in conjunction with dullness, and dullness in conjunction with each of them.

  • Lust, also, in conjunction with excitement, and conversely, and so for the remaining eight bases.
  • Lust, also, in conjunction with unconscientiousness, and conversely, and so for the remaining eight.
  • Lust, also, in conjunction with disregard of blame, and conversely, and so for the remaining eight.
  • (b) associated with Corruptions but not themselves Corruptions?
  • (c) disconnected with Ills but baneful?
  • (d) disconnected with Ills and harmless?

Answers to these three questions as in former groups. See §§1226–1228, 1171–1173, etc.

Chapter 14 The Supplementary Set Of Pairs

Which are the states that are to be put away by insight?

The Three Fetters, to wit: theory of individuality, perplexity and the contagion of mere rule and ritual.

Identical with §§1003–1006.

Which are the states that are not to be put away by insight?

All states whatever, good, bad and indeterminate, except the three afore-mentioned, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, form or the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) to be put away by cultivation?

All the remaining lust, hate and dullness as well as the Corruptions united with them, the four skandhas associated with them, and the action, bodily, vocal and mental, springing from them.

(b) not to be put away by cultivation?

Answer as for those states which are not to be put away by insight [§1258].

Which are the states the causes of which are to be put away by insight?

The Three Fetters, to wit: theory of individuality, perplexity and the contagion of mere rule and ritual.

Identical with §§1003–1006.

Which are the states the causes of which are not to be put away by insight?

Answer as for those ‘states which are not to be put away by insight’, §1258.

Which are the states the causes of which are

(a) to be put away by cultivation?

All the remaining lust, hate and dullness: these are the causes that are to be put away by cultivation. And the Corruptions united with them, the four skandhas associated with them, and the action, bodily, vocal and mental, springing from them, are the states the causes of which are to be put away by cultivation.

(b) not to be put away by cultivation?

Answer as for the ‘ states which are not to be put away by cultivation’, §1260.

Which are the states

(a) ‘wherein conception works’?

The four skandhas when associated with conception (the latter not being included), [which springs up] in a soil wherein conception works, either in the worlds of sense or form, or in the life that is Unincluded.

(b) ‘void of the working of conception’?

The four skandhas when springing up in a soil void of conception, either in the worlds of sense, form or the formless, or in the life that is Unincluded; conception itself also, and all form and uncompounded element.

(c) ‘wherein works thought discursive’?

(d) ‘void of the working of thought discursive’?

Answers (substituting ‘discursive thought’ for ‘conception') as in §§1268, 1269 respectively.

Which are the states that are

  • (a) joyous?
  • (b) not joyous?
  • (c) accompanied by joy?
  • (d) unaccompanied by joy?
  • (e) accompanied by ease?
  • (f) unaccompanied by ease?

Answers to each pair of questions analogous to those in §§1268, 1269, ‘joy’ or ‘ease’ being substituted in due order for ‘conception’.

Which are the states that are

(a) accompanied by disinterestedness?

The three skandhas of perception, syntheses and intellect, when associated with disinterestedness (the latter not being included), [which springs up] in a soil congenial to it, either in the worlds of sense, form or the formless, or in the life that is Unincluded.

(b) unaccompanied by disinterestedness?

The four skandhas [when springing up] in a soil uncongenial to disinterestedness, either in the worlds of sense or form, or in the life that is Unincluded; disinterestedness itself also, and all form and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that

(a) relate (belong) to the universe of sense?

Take from the waveless deep of woe beneath up to the heaven above of the Parinimittavasavatti gods inclusive—then whatever has there its range, and is therein included, whether it be skandha, element or sphere—form, feeling, perception, syntheses, intellect: these are states that relate (belong) to the universe of sense.

(b) do not relate (belong) to the universe of sense?

The universe of form, that of the formless and the life that is Unincluded.

(c) relate (belong) to the universe of form?

Take from the Brahma-world below up to the heaven above of the Akanittha gods inclusive—then whatever states, both of sense and intellect, have therein their range and are therein included, whether they are states of one who has attained [Jhāna having potential good], or of one in whom [resultant Jhāna] has arisen, or of one living happily under present conditions.

(d) do not relate (belong) to the universe of form?

The universe of sense, that of the formless and the life that is Unincluded.

(e) relate (belong) to the universe of the formless?

Take from the entrance among the gods of ‘the sphere of infinite space’ as the lower limit, and up to the entrance above among the gods of ‘the sphere where there is neither perception nor non-perception’—then whatever states, both of sense and intellect, have therein their range and are therein included, whether they are states of one who has attained [Jhāna having potential good], or of one in whom [resultant Jhāna] has arisen, or of one living happily under present conditions: these are states that relate (belong) to the universe of the formless.

(f) do not relate (belong) to the universe of the formless?

The universe of sense, that of form, and the life that is Unincluded.

(g) belong to the Included?

Co-Intoxicant states, good, bad and indeterminate, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, of form or of the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

(h) belong to the Unincluded?

The Paths, and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states by which

(a) there is a going away?

The four Paths that are the Unincluded.

(b) there is no going away?

All states, good, bad and indeterminate, except those four, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, form or the formless, or to the Hfe that is Unincluded; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) fired in their consequences?

The five acts that have immediate results, and those wrong views that are fixed in their consequences; the four Paths also that are the Unincluded.

(b) not fixed in their consequences?

Answer as in §1289.

Which are the states that have

(a) something beyond?

Co-Intoxicant states, good, bad and indeterminate, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, of form, or of the formless; in other words, the five skandhas.

(b) no ‘beyond’?

The four Paths that are the Unincluded, and the Fruits of the Paths, and uncompounded element.

Which are the states that are

(a) concomitant with war?

The three roots of bad (karma): lust, hate and dullness—and the Corruptions united with them; the four skandhas associated with them; the action, bodily, vocal and mental, springing from them.

(b) not concomitant with war?

Good, bad and indeterminate states, whether they relate to the worlds of sense, form or the formless, or to the life that is Unincluded; in other words, the four skandhas; all form also, and uncompounded element.