The chapter on confession (pācittiya)

Monks’ Confession 1: the training rule on lying

Venerables, these ninety-two rules entailing confession come up for recitation.

Homage to the Master, the Perfected One, the fully Awakened One

Origin story

At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Monastery. Just then Hatthaka the Sakyan had been beaten in debate. While talking with ascetics of other sects, he would assert things after denying them, and he would deny things after asserting them. He evaded the issues, lied, and made sham appointments. The ascetics of other sects complained and criticized him, “When Hatthaka talks with us, how can he assert things after denying them, deny things after asserting them, evade the issues, lie, and make sham appointments?”

The monks heard the complaints of those ascetics of other sects, and they went to Hatthaka and said, “Is it true, Hatthaka, that you are acting in this way?”

“These ascetics of other sects should be beaten, whatever it takes. They should not be allowed to win.”

The monks of few desires … complained and criticized him, “When Hatthaka talks with ascetics of other sects, how can he assert things after denying them, deny things after asserting them, evade the issues, lie, and make sham appointments?”

After criticizing Hatthaka in many ways, they informed the Master. The Master then had the Order of monks assembled and questioned Hatthaka, “Is it true, Hatthaka, that you are acting in this way?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha rebuked him, “… Foolish man, when you talk with ascetics of other sects, how can you assert things after denying them, deny things after asserting them, evade the issues, lie, and make sham appointments? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Final ruling

‘If a monk lies in full awareness, he commits an offense entailing confession.’”

Definitions

Lies in full awareness: the speech of one who is intent on deceiving—his words, his way of speaking, his breaking into speech, his verbal expression, his eight kinds of ignoble speech: he says that he has seen what he has not seen; he says that he has heard what he has not heard; he says that he has sensed what he has not sensed; he says that he has known what he has not known; he says that he has not seen what he has seen; he says that he has not heard what he has heard; he says that he has not sensed what he has sensed; he says that he has not known what he has known.

Permutations

Definitions

Not seen: not seen with the eye. Not heard: not heard with the ear. Not sensed: not smelled with the nose, not tasted with the tongue, not touched with the body. Not known: not known with the mind. Seen: seen with the eye. Heard: heard with the ear. Sensed: smelled with the nose, tasted with the tongue, touched with the body. Known: known with the mind.

Exposition

Falsely claiming to have experienced what he has not experienced: a single sense door

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied.

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when four conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view of what is true.

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when five conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view of what is true; in misrepresenting his belief of what is true.

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when six conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view of what is true; in misrepresenting his belief of what is true; in misrepresenting his acceptance of what is true.

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view of what is true; in misrepresenting his belief of what is true; in misrepresenting his acceptance of what is true; in misrepresenting his sentiment of what is true.

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he says that he has heard what he has not heard … saying that he has sensed what he has not sensed … saying that he has known what he has not known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied.

… when four conditions are fulfilled … when five conditions are fulfilled … when six conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known what he has not known, he commits an offense entailing confession when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view of what is true; in misrepresenting his belief of what is true; in misrepresenting his acceptance of what is true; in misrepresenting his sentiment of what is true.

Falsely claiming to have experienced what he has not experienced: multiple sense doors

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen and heard what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen and sensed what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen and known what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen and heard and sensed what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen and heard and known what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen and heard and sensed and known what he has not seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has heard and sensed what he has not heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has heard and known what he has not heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has heard and seen what he has not heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has heard and sensed and known what he has not heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has heard and sensed and seen what he has not heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has heard and sensed and known and seen what he has not heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has sensed and known what he has not sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has sensed and seen what he has not sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has sensed and heard what he has not sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has sensed and known and seen what he has not sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has sensed and known and heard what he has not sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has sensed and known and seen and heard what he has not sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen what he has not known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and heard what he has not known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and sensed what he has not known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen and heard what he has not known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen and sensed what he has not known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen and heard and sensed what he has not known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

Falsely claiming not to have experienced what he has experienced

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has not seen what he has seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … saying that he has not heard what he has heard … saying that he has not sensed what he has sensed … saying that he has not known what he has known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

Falsely claiming to have experienced with one sense what he has experienced with another

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has heard what he has seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … saying that he has sensed what he has seen … saying that he has known what he has seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has heard and sensed what he has seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … saying that he has heard and known what he has seen … saying that he has heard and sensed and known what he seen, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has sensed what he has heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … saying that he has known what he has heard … saying that he has seen what he has heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has sensed and known what he has heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … saying that he has sensed and seen what he has heard … saying that he has sensed and known and seen what he heard, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known what he has sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … saying that he has seen what he has sensed … saying that he has heard what he has sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen what he has sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … saying that he has known and heard what he has sensed … saying that he has known and seen and heard what he sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen what he has known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … saying that he has heard what he has known … saying that he has sensed what he has known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … If he lies in full awareness, saying that he has seen and heard what he has known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled … saying that he has seen and sensed what he has known … saying that he has seen and heard and sensed what he known, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

Making claims while having doubts

If he has doubts about what he has seen, is not sure about what he has seen, does not remember what he has seen, is confused about what he has seen … If he has doubts about what he has heard, is not sure about what he has heard, does not remember what he has heard, is confused about what he has heard … If he has doubts about what he has sensed, is not sure about what he has sensed, does not remember what he has sensed, is confused about what he has sensed … If he has doubts about what he has known, is not sure about what he has known, does not remember what he has known, is confused about what he has known, but he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen … is confused about what he has known, but he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and heard … is confused about what he has known, but he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and sensed … is confused about what he has known, but he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen and heard … is confused about what he has known, but he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen and sensed … is confused about what he has known, but he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen and heard and sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when three conditions are fulfilled …

… when four conditions are fulfilled … when five conditions are fulfilled … when six conditions are fulfilled … is confused about what he has known, but he lies in full awareness, saying that he has known and seen and heard and sensed, he commits an offense entailing confession when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view of what is true; in misrepresenting his belief of what is true; in misrepresenting his acceptance of what is true; in misrepresenting his sentiment of what is true.

Non-offenses

There is no offense: if he speaks playfully; if he is speaks too fast; (speaks playfully means: speaking quickly; speaks too fast means: thinking to say one thing, he says something else); if he is insane; if he is the first offender.


The first rule, the training rule on lying, is finished.