The chapter on confession (pācittiya)

Monks’ Confession 2: the training rule on abusive speech

Origin story

At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Monastery. At that time the monks from the group of six were arguing with and abusing good monks. They reviled and insulted them about their caste, name, family, work, craft, illnesses, physical traits, defilements, and offenses, and by calling them names. The monks of few desires … complained and criticized them, “How can the monks from the group of six argue with and abuse good monks? How can they revile and insult them about these things?”

After criticizing those monks in many ways, they informed the Master. … “Is it true, monks, that you are acting in this way?” “It’s true, Master.” The Buddha rebuked them, “… Foolish men, how can you argue with and abuse good monks? How can you revile and insult them about their caste, name, family, work, craft, illnesses, physical traits, defilements, and offenses, and by calling them names? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it …” … and after rebuking them … he gave a teaching and addressed the monks:

Jataka

“Once upon a time, monks, there was a brahmin in Takkasilā who had an ox called Nandivisāla. On one occasion the ox said to the brahmin, ‘Go, brahmin, and make the following bet worth one thousand coins with a prominent merchant: “My ox will pull one hundred carts tied together.”’ And that brahmin did just that. Then, after tying one hundred carts together and yoking Nandivisāla to them, he said, ‘Go, you fraud; pull, you liar.’ But Nandivisāla just stood right there.

Then that brahmin became depressed because he had lost one thousand coins. And Nandivisāla said to him, ‘Why are you depressed?’

‘Because I lost one thousand coins because of you.’

‘But why did you disgrace me by calling me a fraud when I’m not? Now go, brahmin, and make the same bet worth two thousand coins with that merchant. But don’t disgrace me by calling me a fraud.’ Once again that brahmin did just that. Then, after tying one hundred carts together and yoking Nandivisāla to them, he said, ‘Go, good ox; pull, good ox.’ And Nandivisāla pulled those one hundred carts.

One should say what is pleasant,
Never what is unpleasant.
For him of pleasant speech,
Heavy loads got carried,
And he obtained wealth;
And he was delighted with that.

Even at that time, monks, reviling and insulting was unpleasant to me. How then could reviling and insulting be pleasant now? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Final ruling

‘If a monk speaks abusively, he commits an offense entailing confession.’”

Definitions

Speaks abusively: he abuses in ten ways: about caste, about name, about family, about work, about craft, about illnesses, about physical traits, about defilements, about offenses, and by insulting.

Permutations

Definitions

Caste: there are two kinds of castes: low castes and high castes. Low castes: outcasts, bamboo workers, hunters, chariot-makers, waste-removers—these are called “low castes.” High castes: aristocrats and brahmins—these are called “high castes.”

Name: there are two kinds of names: low names and high names. Low names: Avakaṇṇaka, Javakaṇṇaka, Dhaniṭṭhaka, Saviṭṭhaka, Kulavaḍḍhaka, or names, in whatever countries, that are despised, looked down upon, scorned, treated with contempt, disregarded—these are called “low names.” High names: those connected with the Buddha, connected with the Teaching, or connected with the Order, or names, in whatever countries, that are highly regarded, highly thought of, respected, valued, esteemed—these are called “high names.”

Family: there are two kinds of families: low families and high families. Low families: the Kosiya family, the Bhāradvāja family, or families, in whatever countries, that are despised, looked down upon, scorned, treated with contempt, disregarded—these are called “low families.” High families: the Gotama family, the Moggallāna family, the Kaccāna family, the Vāsiṭṭha family, or families, in whatever countries, that are highly regarded, highly thought of, respected, valued, esteemed—these are called “high families.”

Work: there are two kinds of work: low work and high work. Low work: carpentry, waste-removing, or work, in whatever countries, that is despised, looked down upon, scorned, treated with contempt, disregarded—this is called “low work.” High work: farming, trade, cattle-keeping, or work, in whatever countries, that is highly regarded, highly thought of, respected, valued, esteemed—this is called “high work.”

Craft: there are two kinds of crafts: low crafts and high crafts. Low crafts: reed-work, pottery, weaving, leather-work, hairdressing, or crafts, in whatever countries, that are despised, looked down upon, scorned, treated with contempt, disregarded—these are called “low crafts.” High crafts: calculating, accounting, writing, or crafts, in whatever countries, that are highly regarded, highly thought of, respected, valued, esteemed—these are called “high crafts.”

Illnesses: all are low, but there is the disease of diabetes which is high.

Physical traits: there are two kinds of physical traits: low physical traits and high physical traits. Low physical traits: too tall, too short, too dark, too fair—these are called “low physical traits.” High physical traits: not too tall, not too short, not too dark, not too fair—these are called “high physical traits.”

Defilements: all are low.

Offenses: all are low, but there is the attainment of stream-entry which is high.

Insults: there are two kinds of insults: low insults and high insults. Low insults: “you’re a camel/you’re a ram/you’re an ox/you’re a donkey/you’re an animal/you’re bound for hell; you’re not going to a good destination/you can only expect a bad destination,” or adding the disparaging endings ya or bha to someone’s name, or calling someone words for the male and female genitals—these are called “low insults.” High insults: “you’re wise/you’re competent/you’re intelligent/you’re learned/you’re an expounder of the Teaching; you’re not going to a bad destination/you can only expect a good destination”—these are called “high insults.”

Exposition

Abuse about caste

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—an outcast/a bamboo worker/a hunter/a chariot-maker/a waste-remover—caṇḍālosi, venosi, nesādosi, rathakārosi, pukkusosī”ti bhaṇati → vadetīti uddeso. bhaṇatīti vitthāro (vajirabuddhi) saying, “You’re an outcast/you’re a bamboo worker/you’re a hunter/you’re a chariot-maker/you’re a waste-remover,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—an aristocrat/a brahmin—saying, “You’re an outcast/you’re a bamboo worker/you’re a hunter/you’re a chariot-maker/you’re a waste-remover,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—an outcast/a bamboo worker/a hunter/a chariot-maker/a waste-remover— saying, “You’re an aristocrat/you’re a brahmin,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—an aristocrat/a brahmin—saying, “You’re an aristocrat/you’re a brahmin,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Abuse about name

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—an Avakaṇṇaka/a Javakaṇṇaka/a Dhaniṭṭhaka/a Saviṭṭhaka/a Kulavaḍḍhaka—saying, “You’re an Avakaṇṇaka/you’re a Javakaṇṇaka/you’re a Dhaniṭṭhaka/you’re a Saviṭṭhaka/you’re a Kulavaḍḍhaka,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—a Buddharakkhita/a Dhammarakkhita/a Sangharakkhita—saying, “You’re an Avakaṇṇaka/you’re a Javakaṇṇaka/you’re a Dhaniṭṭhaka/you’re a Saviṭṭhaka/you’re a Kulavaḍḍhaka,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—an Avakaṇṇaka/a Javakaṇṇaka/a Dhaniṭṭhaka/a Saviṭṭhaka/a Kulavaḍḍhaka—saying, “You’re a Buddharakkhita/you’re a Dhammarakkhita/you’re a Sangharakkhita,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—a Buddharakkhita/a Dhammarakkhita/a Sangharakkhita—saying, “You’re a Buddharakkhita/you’re a Dhammarakkhita/you’re a Sangharakkhita,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Abuse about family

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—one from the Kosiya family/one from the Bhāradvāja family—saying, “You’re a Kosiya/you’re a Bhāradvāja,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—one from the Gotama family/one from the Moggallāna family/one from the Kaccāna family/one from the Vāsiṭṭha family—saying, “You’re a Kosiya/you’re a Bhāradvāja,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—one from the Kosiya family/one from the Bhāradvāja family—saying, “You’re a Gotama/you’re a Moggallāna/you’re a Kaccāna/you’re a Vāsiṭṭha,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—one from the Gotama family/one from the Moggallāna family/one from the Kaccāna family/one from the Vāsiṭṭha family—saying, “You’re a Gotama/you’re a Moggallāna/you’re a Kaccāna/you’re a Vāsiṭṭha,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Abuse about work

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—a carpenter/a waste-remover—saying, “You’re a carpenter/you’re a waste-remover,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—a farmer/a trader/a cattle-keeper— saying, “You’re a carpenter/you’re a waste-remover,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—a carpenter/a waste-remover—saying, “You’re a farmer/you’re a trader/you’re a cattle-keeper,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—a farmer/a trader/a cattle-keeper—saying, “You’re a farmer/you’re a trader/you’re a cattle-keeper,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Abuse about craft

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—a reed-worker/a potter/a weaver/a leather-worker/a hairdresser—saying, “You’re a reed-worker/you’re a potter/you’re a weaver/you’re a leather-worker/you’re a hairdresser,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—a calculator/an accountant/a scribe—saying, “You’re a reed-worker/you’re a potter/you’re a weaver/you’re a leather-worker/you’re a hairdresser,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—a reed-worker/a potter/a weaver/a leather-worker/a hairdresser—saying, “You’re a calculator/you’re an accountant/you’re a scribe,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—a calculator/an accountant/a scribe—saying, “You’re a calculator/you’re an accountant/you’re a scribe,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Abuse about illnesses

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—a leper/one with boils/one with tuberculosis/an epileptic— saying, “You’re a leper/you have boils/you have tuberculosis/you’re an epileptic,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—a diabetic—saying, “You’re a leper/you have boils/you have tuberculosis/you’re an epileptic,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—a leper/one with boils/one with tuberculosis/an epileptic—saying, “You’re a diabetic,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—a diabetic—saying, “You’re a diabetic,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Abuse about physical traits

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—one who is too tall/one who is too short/one who is too dark/one who is too fair—saying, “You’re too tall/you’re too short/you’re too dark/you’re too fair,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—one who is not too tall/one who is not too short/one who is not too dark/one who is not too fair—saying, “You’re too tall/you’re too short/you’re too dark/you’re too fair,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—one who is too tall/one who is too short/one who is too dark/one who is too fair—saying, “You’re not too tall/you’re not too short/you’re not too dark/you’re not too fair,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—one who is not too tall/one who is not too short/one who is not too dark/one who is not too fair—saying, “You’re not too tall/you’re not too short/you’re not too dark/you’re not too fair,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Abuse about defilements

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—one full of sensual desire/one full of ill-will/one full of confusion—saying, “You’re full of sensual desire/you’re full of ill-will/you’re full of confusion,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—one without sensual desire/one without ill-will/one without confusion—saying, “You’re full of sensual desire/you’re full of ill-will/you’re full of confusion,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—one full of sensual desire/one full of ill-will/one full of confusion—saying, “You’re without sensual desire/you’re without ill-will/you’re without confusion,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—one without sensual desire/one without ill-will/one without confusion—saying, “You’re without sensual desire/you’re without ill-will/you’re without confusion,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Abuse about offenses

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—one who has committed an offense entailing expulsion/one who has committed an offense entailing suspension/one who has committed a serious offense/one who has committed an offense entailing confession/one who has committed an offense entailing acknowledgment/one who has committed an offense of wrong conduct/one who has committed an offense of bad speech—saying, “You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion/you’ve committed an offense entailing suspension/you’ve committed a serious offense/you’ve committed an offense entailing confession/you’ve committed an offense entailing acknowledgment/you’ve committed an offense of wrong conduct/you’ve committed an offense of bad speech,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—a stream-enterer—saying, “You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion/you’ve committed an offense entailing suspension/you’ve committed a serious offense/you’ve committed an offense entailing confession/you’ve committed an offense entailing acknowledgment/you’ve committed an offense of wrong conduct/you’ve committed an offense of bad speech,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—one who has committed an offense entailing expulsion/one who has committed an offense entailing suspension/one who has committed a serious offense/one who has committed an offense entailing confession/one who has committed an offense entailing acknowledgment/one who has committed an offense of wrong conduct/one who has committed an offense of bad speech—saying, “You’re a stream-enterer,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—a stream-enterer—saying, “You’re a stream-enterer,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Insulting abuse

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low—a camel/a ram/an ox/a donkey/an animal/one bound for hell—saying, “You’re a camel/you’re a ram/you’re an ox/you’re a donkey/you’re an animal/you’re not going to a good destination/you can only expect a bad destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is low to one who is high—one who is wise/one who is competent/one who is intelligent/one who is learned/one who is an expounder of the Teaching—saying, “You’re a camel/you’re a ram/you’re an ox/you’re a donkey/you’re an animal/you’re not going to a good destination/you can only expect a bad destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is low—a camel/a ram/an ox/a donkey/an animal/one bound for hell—saying, “You’re wise/you’re competent/you’re intelligent/you’re learned/you’re an expounder of the Teaching/you’re not going to a bad destination/you can only expect a good destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says what is high to one who is high—one who is wise/one who is competent/one who is intelligent/one who is learned/one who is an expounder of the Teaching—saying, “You’re wise/you’re competent/you’re intelligent/you’re learned/you’re an expounder of the Teaching/you’re not going to a bad destination/you can only expect a good destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense entailing confession.

Indirect abuse

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says this, “There are outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers, right here,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says this, “There are aristocrats/brahmins, right here,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says this, “There are Avakaṇṇakas/Javakaṇṇakas/Dhaniṭṭhakas/Saviṭṭhakas/Kulavaḍḍhakas, right here” … “There are Buddharakkhitas/Dhammarakkhitas/Sangharakkhitas, right here” … “There are Kosiyas/Bhāradvājas, right here” … “There are Gotamas/Moggallānas/Kaccānas/Vāsiṭṭhas, right here” … “There are carpenters/waste-removers, right here” … “There are farmers/traders/cattle-keepers, right here” … “There are reed-workers/potters/weavers/leather-workers/hairdressers, right here” … “There are calculators/accountants/scribes, right here” … “There are lepers/ones with boils/ones with tuberculosis/epileptics, right here” … “There are diabetics right here” … “There are some who are too tall/some who are too short/some who are too dark/some who are too fair, right here” … “There are some who are not too tall/some who are not too short/some who are not too dark/some who are not too fair, right here” … “There are some who are full of sensual desire/some who are full of ill-will/some who are full of confusion, right here” … “There are some without sensual desire/some without ill-will/some without confusion, right here” … “There are some who have committed an offense entailing expulsion/ … / some who have committed an offense of bad speech, right here” … “There are stream-enterers right here” … “There are camels/rams/oxen/donkeys/animals/those bound for hell/those who are not going to a good destination/those who can only expect a bad destination, right here,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says this, “There are wise ones/competent ones/intelligent ones/learned ones/expounders of the Teaching/those who are not going to a bad destination/those who can only expect a good destination, right here,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.


If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says this, “Perhaps these are outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. …

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says this, “Perhaps these are wise ones/competent ones/intelligent ones/learned ones/expounders of the Teaching,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.


If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, says this, “We’re not outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers” … “We’re not wise ones/we’re not competent ones/we’re not intelligent ones/we’re not learned ones/we’re not expounders of the Teaching/we’re not going to a bad destination/we can only expect a good destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

Abuse of one who is not fully ordained

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate someone who is not fully ordained, says what is low to one who is low … says what is low to one who is high … says what is high to one who is low … says what is high to one who is high—one who is wise/one who is competent/one who is intelligent/one who is learned/one who is an expounder of the Teaching—saying, “You’re wise/you’re competent/you’re intelligent/you’re learned/you’re an expounder of the Teaching/you’re not going to a bad destination/you can only expect a good destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate someone who is not fully ordained, says this, “There are outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers, right here” … “There are wise ones/competent ones/intelligent ones/learned ones/expounders of the Teaching/those not going to a bad destination/those who can only expect a good destination, right here,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate someone who is not fully ordained, says this, “Perhaps these are outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers” … “Perhaps these are wise ones/competent ones/intelligent ones/learned ones/expounders of the Teaching,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

If one who is fully ordained, wishing to revile, wishing to insult, wishing to humiliate someone who is not fully ordained, says this, “We’re not outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers” … “We’re not wise ones/we’re not competent ones/we’re not intelligent ones/we’re not learned ones/we’re not expounders of the Teaching/we’re not going to a bad destination/we can only expect a good destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

Not intending to abuse, direct speech

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says what is low to one who is low—an outcast/a bamboo worker/a hunter/a chariot-maker/a waste-remover—saying, “You’re an outcast/you’re a bamboo worker/you’re a hunter/you’re a chariot-maker/you’re a waste-remover,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says what is low to one who is high—an aristocrat/a brahmin—saying, “You’re an outcast/you’re a bamboo worker/you’re a hunter/you’re a chariot-maker/you’re a waste-remover,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says what is high to one who is low—an outcast/a bamboo worker/a hunter/a chariot-maker/a waste-remover—saying, “You’re an aristocrat/you’re a brahmin,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says what is high to one who is high—an aristocrat/a brahmin—saying, “You’re an aristocrat/you’re a brahmin,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says what is low to one who is low … says what is low to one who is high … says what is high to one who is low … says what is high to one who is high—one who is wise/one who is competent/one who is intelligent/one who is learned/one who is an expounder of the Teaching—saying, “You’re wise/you’re competent/you’re intelligent/you’re learned/you’re an expounder of the Teaching/you’re not going to a bad destination/you can only expect a good destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

Not intending to abuse, indirect speech

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says this, “There are outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers, right here” … “There are wise ones/competent ones/intelligent ones/learned ones/expounders of the Teaching/those not going to a bad destination/those who can only expect a good destination, right here,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says this, “Perhaps these are outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers” … “Perhaps these are wise ones/competent ones/intelligent ones/learned ones/expounders of the Teaching,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate another who is fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says this, “We’re not outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers” … “We’re not wise ones/we’re not competent ones/we’re not intelligent ones/we’re not learned ones/we’re not expounders of the Teaching/we’re not going to a bad destination/we can only expect a good destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

Not intending to abuse one who is not fully ordained

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate someone who is not fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says what is low to one who is low … says what is low to one who is high … says what is high to one who is low … says what is high to one who is high—one who is wise/one who is competent/one who is intelligent/one who is learned/one who is an expounder of the Teaching—saying, “You’re wise/you’re competent/you’re intelligent/you’re learned/you’re an expounder of the Teaching/you’re not going to a bad destination/you can only expect a good destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate someone who is not fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says this, “There are outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers, right here” … “There are wise ones/competent ones/intelligent ones/learned ones/expounders of the Teaching/those not going to a bad destination/those who can only expect a good destination, right here,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate someone who is not fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says this, “Perhaps these are outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers” … “Perhaps these are wise ones/competent ones/intelligent ones/learned ones/expounders of the Teaching,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

If one who is fully ordained, not wishing to revile, not wishing to insult, not wishing to humiliate someone who is not fully ordained, but wanting to have fun, says this, “We’re not outcasts/bamboo workers/hunters/chariot-makers/waste-removers” … “We’re not wise ones/we’re not competent ones/we’re not intelligent ones/we’re not learned ones/we’re not expounders of the Teaching/we’re not going to a bad destination/we can only expect a good destination,” then for every statement, he commits an offense of bad speech.

Non-offenses

There is no offense: if he is aiming at what is beneficial; if he is aiming at giving a teaching; if he is aiming at giving instruction; if he is insane; if he is deranged; if he is overwhelmed by pain; if he is the first offender.


The second rule, the training rule on abusive speech, is finished.