Theravāda Vinayapiṭaka

Monks’ rules and their analysis

Monks’ Expiation (Pācittiya) 42

… at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, spoke thus to a monk, who shared (his) brother’s cell:

“Come, your reverence, we will enter the village for alms-food.” Without having had (alms-food) given to him, he dismissed him, saying: “Go away, your reverence. Neither talking nor sitting down with you comes to be a comfort for me; either talking or sitting down alone comes to be a comfort for me.”

Then that monk, when the meal-time was near, was not able to walk for alms, and returning he did not achieve participation in the meal; he became famished. Then that monk, having gone to the monastery, told this matter to the monks. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, saying to a monk, ‘Come, your reverence, we will go into the village for alms-food,’ without having had (alms-food) given to him, dismiss him …?” …

“Is it true, as is said, that you, Upananda, saying to a monk, ‘Come …’ dismiss him? It is not, foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk, saying to a monk, ‘Come, your reverence, we will go into a village or little town for alms-food,’ either causing to be given or not causing to be given (alms-food) to him, should dismiss him, saying, ‘Go away, your reverence, neither talking nor sitting down with you comes to be a comfort for me; either talking or sitting down alone comes to be a comfort for me’—if doing it for just this object, not for another, there is an offence of expiation.”


Whatever means: … is monk to be understood in this case.

Monk means: another monk.

Come, your reverence, to a village or little town means: a village and a little town and a town, a village as well as little town.

Causing to be given (alms-food) to him means: causing conjey or solid food or soft food to be given.

Not causing to be given means: not causing anything to be given.

Should dismiss means: if desiring to laugh, desiring to sport together with a woman, if desiring to sit down in private, if desiring to indulge in bad habits, he speaks thus: ‘Go away, your reverence, neither talking … sitting down alone comes to be a comfort for me,’ (and) dismisses him, there is an offence of wrong-doing. Dismissing him from sight or from hearing is an offence of wrong-doing. When he is dismissed, there is an offence of expiation.

If doing it for just this object, not for another means: there comes to be no other object whatever (for which) to dismiss him.


If he thinks that he is ordained when he is ordained, (and) dismisses him, there is an offence of expiation. If he is in doubt as to whether he is ordained … If he thinks that he is not ordained when he is ordained, (and) dismisses him, there is an offence of expiation. If he finds fault with another, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he dismisses one who is not ordained, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he finds fault with another, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that he is ordained when he is not ordained there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he is in doubt as to whether he is not ordained, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that he is not ordained when he is not ordained, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


There is no offence if he dismisses him, saying: ‘Together we will not both keep going’; if, seeing costly goods, he dismisses him, saying, ‘It will produce a state of greed’; if, seeing a woman, he dismisses him, saying, ‘She will produce dissatisfaction’; if he dismisses him, saying, ‘Take back conjey or solid food or soft food for one who is ill, or for one who is left behind, or for a guardian of the dwelling-place’; if, not desiring to indulge in bad habits, he dismisses him if it ought to be done; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.

The Second