Monks’ rules and their analysis
Monks’ Expiation (Pācittiya) 88
… at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time the group of six monks had a couch and a chair made covered with cotton. People, having seen (this) as they were touring the dwelling-places, looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying:
“How can the recluses, sons of the Sakyans, have a couch and a chair made covered with cotton, like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses?” Monks heard these people who … spread it about. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying:
“How can this group of six monks have a couch and a chair made covered with cotton?” …
“Is it true, as is said, that you, monks, had … covered with cotton?” “It is true, lord.”
The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying:
“How can you, foolish men, have a couch and a chair made covered with cotton? It is not, foolish men, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:
“Whatever monk should have a couch or a chair made covered with cotton, there is an offence of expiation involving tearing off.”
Whatever means: … monk is to be understood in this case.
Couch means: there are four (kinds of) couch …
Chair means: there are four (kinds of) chair … one with removable legs.
Cotton means: there are three (kinds of) cotton: cotton from trees, cotton from creepers, cotton from grass.
Should have made means: if he makes (it) or causes it to be made, in the business there is an offence of wrong-doing; having torn it off on acquisition, an offence of expiation is to be confessed.
If what was incompletely executed by himself he has finished by himself … If he makes others finish what was incompletely finished by others, there is an offence of expiation. If he makes it or causes it to be made for another, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If, having acquired what was made for another, he makes use of it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.
There is no offence if it is for a binding, for a girdle, for a shoulder-strap, for a bag for carrying the bowl in, for a water-strainer; if he is making a squatting-mat; if, having acquired what was made for another, having torn it off, he makes use of it; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.