Theravāda Collection on Monastic Law

Monks’ rules and their analysis

Monks’ Expulsion

2. The second training rule

Origin story

First sub-story

At one time, the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. At that time a number of monks who were friends had made grass huts on the slope of Mount Isigili and had entered the rains there. Among them was Venerable Dhaniya, the potter’s son. After three months, when the rains residence was over, the monks demolished their grass huts, put away the grass and wood, and departed to wander around the country. But Venerable Dhaniya also spent the winter and the summer there.

Then, on one occasion, while Venerable Dhaniya was in the village to collect almsfood, some women gathering grass and firewood demolished the grass hut and took away the grass and sticks. A second time Dhaniya collected grass and sticks and made a grass hut, and again the hut was demolished in the same way. The same thing happened a third time.

Dhaniya thought, “Three times this has happened. But I’m well-trained and experienced in my own craft of pottery. Why don’t I knead mud myself and make a hut consisting of nothing but clay?”

Then Dhaniya did just that. And he collected grass, wood, and cow-dung, and he baked his hut. It was a beautiful and charming little hut, and it was red just like a scarlet rain-mite. And when hit it sounded just like the sound of a bell.

Just then the Master, while descending from Mount Vulture Peak with a number of monks, saw that hut. He said to the monks, “Monks, what’s this beautiful and charming thing, which is red like a scarlet rain-mite?” The monks informed the Master, and the Buddha criticized Dhaniya:

“It’s not suitable, monks, for that foolish man, it’s not proper, it’s not worthy of an ascetic, it’s not allowable, it’s not to be done. How can he make a hut out of nothing but clay? Certainly that foolish man can have no consideration, compassion, and mercy for living beings. Go, monks, and demolish this hut. Don’t let future generations take up the destruction of living beings. And, monks, you should not make a hut consisting of nothing but clay. If you do, you commit an offense of wrong conduct.”

“Yes, Venerable,” the monks replied, and they went to that hut an demolished it.

Dhaniya said to them, “Why are you demolishing my hut?”

“The Master has asked us to.”

“Demolish it, if the Lord of the Truth has said so.”

Then Dhaniya thought, “Three times, while I was in the village to collect almsfood, women gathering grass and firewood demolished my hut and took away the grass and sticks. And now my hut made of nothing but clay has been demolished at the Master’s request. But the caretaker of the wood-store is a friend of mine. Why don’t I ask him for wood and make a hut out of that?”

Dhaniya then went to the caretaker of the wood-store and told him what had happened, adding: “Please give me some wood, I want to make a wooden hut.”

“There’s no such wood, Venerable, that I could give you. This wood is held by the King, and it’s meant for the repair of the town and put aside in case of emergencies. You can only take it if the King gives it away.”

“It’s been given by the King.”

The caretaker of the wood-store thought, “These Sakyan ascetics live according to the Truth. They are celibate and their conduct is good, and they are truthful, moral, and have a good character. Even the King has faith in them. These venerables wouldn’t say something is given if it were not.” And he said to Dhaniya, “You may take it, Venerable.” Dhaniya then had that wood broken up into pieces, removed it by means of carts, and made a wooden hut.

Soon afterwards the brahmin Vassakāra, the chief minister of Magadha, while inspecting the works in Rājagaha, went to the caretaker of the wood-store and said to him: “What’s going on? Where’s the wood held by the King that’s meant for the repair of the town and put aside in case of emergencies?”

“Sir, that wood was given by the King to Venerable Dhaniya.”

The brahmin Vassakāra was upset and thought, “How could the King give away this wood to Dhaniya, the potter’s son?”

The brahmin Vassakāra then went to King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha and said, “Is it true, sir, that the wood held by the King, meant for the repair of the town and put aside in case of emergencies was given by the King to Dhaniya, the potter’s son?”

“Who said that?”

“The caretaker of the wood-store, sir.”

“Well then, brahmin, send for the caretaker of the wood-store.” And Vassakāra had the caretaker of the wood-store bound and taken by force.

Dhaniya saw the caretaker of the wood-store being bound and taken by force, and he said to him, “Why is this happening to you?”

“Because of that business with the wood, Venerable.”

“Go, and I’ll come too.”

“Please come before I’m done for.”

Dhaniya then went to the dwelling of King Bimbisāra and sat down on the appointed seat. The King approached Dhaniya, bowed down to him, and sat down to one side. He then said, “Is it true, Venerable, that I have given the wood held by the King—meant for the repair of the town and put aside in case of emergencies—to you?”

“Yes, great king.”

“We kings are very busy— we may give and not remember. Please remind me, Venerable.”

“Do you remember, great king, when you were first anointed, speaking these words: ‘Let the ascetics and brahmins enjoy gifts of grass, sticks, and water’?”

“I remember, Venerable. There are ascetics and brahmins who have a sense of conscience, who are afraid of wrongdoing and desirous of training. They have a sense of conscience even in regard to small matters. What was uttered by me was meant for these, and it concerned what’s ownerless in the wilderness. Yet you, Venerable, imagine that you can take wood not given to you by means of this trick? But how could I presume to beat, imprison, or banish an ascetic or a brahmin living in my kingdom? Go, you’re free because of your status, but don’t do such a thing again.”

But people grumbled and complained: “These Sakyan ascetics are shameless and immoral liars. They claim to live according to the Truth, to be celibate and of good conduct, to be truthful, moral, and of good character. But they don’t have the qualities of an ascetic or a brahmin; they’ve lost the plot. They even deceive the King—what then other people?”

Monks heard the complaints of those people. The monks of few desires who had a sense of conscience, who were contented, afraid of wrongdoing, and desirous of training, complained and criticized Venerable Dhaniya: “How can he take wood belonging to the King that hasn’t been given to him?”

After criticizing Dhaniya in many ways, they informed the Master. The Master then convened the Order of monks and questioned Venerable Dhaniya: “Is it true, Dhaniya, that you’ve taken wood belonging to the King that wasn’t given to you?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha rebuked him: “Foolish man, it’s not suitable, it’s not proper, it’s not worthy of an ascetic, it’s not allowable, it’s not to be done. How can you take wood belonging to the King that hasn’t been given to you? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it or increase the confidence of those who have it, but it will hinder confidence in those without it, and it will cause some with confidence to change their minds.”

At that time a former judge who had gone forth with the monks was sitting near the Master. The Master said to him, “For what amount of theft does King Bimbisāra beat, imprison, or banish a thief?”

“For a pāda coin, Master, for the worth of a pāda, or for more than a pāda.” At that time in Rājagaha a pāda coin was worth five māsaka coins.

After criticizing Venerable Dhaniya in many ways for being difficult to support … “… And, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Preliminary ruling

‘If a monk, intending to steal, takes what has not been given to him— the sort of theft for which kings, having caught a thief, would beat, imprison, or banish him, saying, “You’re a bandit, you’re a fool, you’ve gone astray, you’re a thief”— he too is expelled and not in communion.’”

In this way the Master laid down this training rule for the monks.

Second sub-story

At one time monks from the group of six went to the dyers’ spread of cloth, took the dyers’ goods to the monastery, and shared it out. Other monks said, “You have great merit, since you’ve obtained so much robe(-cloth).”

“How is there merit for us? Just now we went to the dyers’ spread of cloth and took the dyers’ goods.”

“Hasn’t a training rule been laid down by the Master? Why then do you take the dyers’ goods?”

“It’s true that a training rule has been laid down by the Master, but it concerns the village, not the wilderness.”

“But that’s just the same. It’s not suitable, it’s not proper, it’s not worthy of an ascetic, it’s not allowable, it’s not to be done. How can you take the dyers’s goods? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it or increase the confidence of those who have it, but it will hinder confidence in those without it and it will cause some with confidence to change their minds.”

After criticizing those monks in various ways, they informed the Master.

The Master convened the Order of monks and questioned those monks: “Is it true, monks, that you went to the dyers’ spread of cloth and took the dyers’ goods?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha rebuked them: “It’s not suitable, foolish men, it’s not proper, it’s not worthy of an ascetic, it’s not allowable, it’s not to be done. How can you go to the dyers’ spread of cloth and take the dyers’ goods? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it or increase the confidence of those who have it, but it will hinder confidence in those without it, and it will cause some with confidence to change their minds.” Then, after criticizing those monks from the group of six in various ways, the Master spoke in dispraise of being difficult to support … but he spoke in praise … of putting forth energy. Having given a teaching on what is right and proper, he addressed the monks … “… And so, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Final ruling

‘If a monk, intending to steal, takes from a village or from the wilderness what has not been given to him— the sort of theft for which kings, having caught a thief, would beat, imprison, or banish him, saying, “You’re a bandit, you’re a fool, you’ve gone astray, you’re a thief”— he too is expelled and not in communion.’”

Definitions

A: whoever … Monk: … The monk who has been given the full ordination by a complete Order through a formal procedure consisting of one motion and three announcements that is unchallengeable and fit to stand— this sort of monk is meant in this case.

A village: a village of one hut, a village of two huts, a village of three huts, a village of four huts, an inhabited village, an uninhabited village, an enclosed village, an unenclosed village, a disorganized village, and even a caravan settled for more than four months is called “a village.”

The vicinity of a village: of an enclosed village: the outward stone-throw of a man of average height standing at the threshold of the village gateway; of an unenclosed village: the outward stone-throw of a man of average height standing within the vicinity of a house.

The wilderness: apart from the village and the vicinity of the village, the remainder is called “the wilderness.”

What has not been given: what has not been given, what has not been let go of, what has not been relinquished; what is guarded, what is protected, what is regarded as “mine;” what belongs to someone else. This is called “what has not been given.”

Intending to steal: the thought of stealing, the thought of taking.

Takes: takes, carries off, takes away, interrupts the movement of, removes from its base, does not fulfill an agreement.

The sort: a pāda coin, the worth of a pāda, or more than a pāda.

Kings: kings of the earth, kings of a region, rulers of islands, rulers of border areas, judges, ministers, or whoever metes out physical punishment— these are called “kings.”

A thief: whoever, intending to steal, takes anything having a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsaka coins that has not been given— he is called “a thief.”

Would beat: would beat with the hand, the foot, a whip, a cane, a cudgel, or by mutilation.

Would […] imprison: would imprison by constriction with a rope, by constriction with shackles, by constriction with chains, by constriction to a house, by constriction to a city, by constriction to a village, by constriction to a town, by being guarded.

Would […] banish: would banish from a village, from a town, from a city, from a country, or from a district.

You’re a bandit, you’re a fool, you’ve gone astray, you’re a thief: this is a rebuke.

He too: this is said with reference to the preceding offense entailing expulsion.

Is expelled: just as a fallen, withered leaf is incapable of becoming green again, so too a monk who, intending to steal, takes a pāda coin, the worth of a pāda, or more than a pāda that had not been given to him, is not an ascetic, not a son of the Sakyan— therefore it is said, “he is expelled.”

Not in communion: Communion: common formal procedures, the same recital, the same training— this is called “communion.” He does not take part in this— therefore it is called “not in communion.”

Permutations

Permutations part 1

Summary

Being in the earth, being on the ground, being inthe air, being above ground, being in water, being in a boat, being in a vehicle, carried as a burden, being in a park, being in a monastic dwelling, being in a field, being on a plot of land, being in a village, being in the wilderness, water, toothbrush, forest tree, that which is carried, that which is deposited, customs station, a living being, footless, two-footed, four-footed, many-footed, a spy, a keeper of entrusted property, a mutually agreed theft, an arranged action, the making of a sign.

Exposition

Being in the earth: the goods have been put down into the earth, buried, covered. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll take the goods in the earth,” and he seeks for a companion, or he seeks for a hoe or a basket, or he just goes to the goods, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he breaks a piece of wood or a creeper growing there, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he digs the soil or piles it up or removes it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches the container, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he makes it move from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he puts his own vessel into the container and touches something worth five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he makes it enter his own vessel or takes it with his fist, there is an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he touches goods held together by a string, or a bracelet, a necklace, an ornamental girdle, a robe, or a turban, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he grasps it at the top and pulls it, he commits a serious offense. If, while stroking it, he lifts it, he commits a serious offense. If he removes the goods even as much as a hair’s breadth over the rim of the container, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he drinks—in a single action—ghee, oil, honey, or molasses having a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he destroys it, throws it away, burns it, or renders it useless, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

Being on the ground: the goods have been put down on the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods on the ground,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Being in the air: the goods are in the air— a peacock, a partridge, or a quail; or a robe, a turban, or gold that falls after being cut loose. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods in the air,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he cuts off their course of movement, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Being above ground: the goods are above ground— on a bed, on a bench, on a bamboo robe-rack, on a clothes line for robes, on a peg in the wall, on an elephant-tusk peg, in a tree, or even just fastened to a bowl stand. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods that are above ground,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Being in the water: the goods have been deposited in the water. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods in the water,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. He either dives into the water or floats on the surface, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches the goods, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he touches either a blue, red, or white lotus growing there, or the sprout of a lotus, or a fish, or a turtle having a value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

A boat: that by mean of which one crosses. Being in a boat: the goods have been deposited in a boat. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods in the boat,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the boat,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he loosens the moorings, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, after loosening the moorings, he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he makes it move up or down or across the water, even as much as a hair’s breadth, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

A vehicle: a wagon, a carriage, a cart, a chariot. Being in a vehicle: the goods have been deposited in a vehicle. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods in the vehicle,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the vehicle,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

A burden: a burden carried on the head, a burden carried on the shoulder, a burden carried on the hip, one hanging down. If, intending to steal, he touches the burden on the head, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he lowers it to the shoulder, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If, intending to steal, he touches the burden on the shoulder, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he lowers it to the hip, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If, intending to steal, he touches the burden on the hip, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he causes it to quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he takes it with a hand, there is an offense entailing expulsion. If, intending to steal a burden in the hand, he deposits it on the ground, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If, intending to steal, he takes it from the ground, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

A park: a park with flowers, an orchard. Being in a park: the goods have been deposited in a park in four places: in the earth, on the ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods in the park,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he touches something growing there—a root, a piece of bark, a leaf, a flower, or a fruit—having a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he claims the park, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he evokes doubt in the owner as to his ownership, he commits a serious offense. If the owner thinks, “I won’t get it back,” and he gives up the effort of reclaiming it, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law and defeats the owner, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law but is defeated, he commits a serious offense.

Being in a monastic dwelling: the goods have been deposited in a monastic dwelling in four places: in the earth, on the ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods in the monastic dwelling,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he claims the monastic dwelling, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he evokes doubt in the owner as to his ownership, he commits a serious offense. If the owner thinks, “I won’t get it back,” and he gives up the effort of reclaiming it, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law and defeats the owner, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law but is defeated, he commits a serious offense.

A field: where grain or vegetables grow. Being in a field: the goods have been deposited in a field in four places: in the earth, on the ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods in the field,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he touches grain or vegetables that grow there, having a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he claims the field, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he evokes doubt in the owner as to his ownership, he commits a serious offense. If the owner thinks, “I won’t get it back,” and he gives up the effort of reclaiming it, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law and defeats the owner, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law but is defeated, he commits a serious offense.

If he moves a post, a cord, a fence, or a boundary, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. When one action of the moving remains, he commits a serious offense. When the last action of the moving is completed, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

A plot of land: the plot of land of a park or a monastery, the plot of land of a monastic dwelling. Being on a plot of land: the goods have been deposited on a plot of land in four places: in the earth, on the ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods on the plot of land,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he claims the plot of land, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he evokes doubt in the owner as to his ownership, he commits a serious offense. If the owner thinks, “I won’t get it back,” and he gives up the effort of reclaiming it, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law and defeats the owner, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law but is defeated, he commits a serious offense.

If he moves a post, a cord, a fence, or a boundary, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. When one action of the moving remains, he commits a serious offense. When the last action of the moving is completed, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Being in a village: the goods have been deposited in a village in four places: in the earth, on the ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods in the village,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

The wilderness: any wilderness which is owned by people. Being in the wilderness: the goods have been deposited in the wilderness in four places: in the earth, on the ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I’ll steal the goods in the wilderness,” and he either searches for a companion or just goes there himself, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he touches something that belongs there—a piece of wood, a creeper, or grass—having a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Water: in a vessel, in a pond, or in a reservoir. If, intending to steal, he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he puts his own vessel into the container holding the water, and he touches water having a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he puts it into his own vessel, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he breaks the embankment, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, after breaking the embankment, he allows water to escape that has a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he allows water to escape that has a value of more than one māsaka but less than five māsakas, he commits a serious offense. If he allows water to escape that has a value of a māsaka or less than a māsaka, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

Toothbrush: either ready for use or not. If, intending to steal, he touches what has a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Forest tree: whatever tree is owned by people. If, intending to steal, he fells it, then for each blow he commits an offense of wrong conduct. When one blow remains before the tree is felled, he commits a serious offense. When the last blow is completed, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Goods being carried: the goods of another are being carried. If, intending to steal, he touches them, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he thinks, “Together with the carrier I’ll carry off the goods,” and he makes the carrier move one foot, he commits a serious offense. If he makes him move the second foot, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he thinks, “I’ll take the fallen goods,” and he makes them fall, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, intending to steal, he touches fallen goods having a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Deposit: goods deposited with a monk. If he is told, “Give me my goods,” and he says, “I’m not getting them,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he evokes doubt in the mind of the owner as to whether he will get them back, he commits a serious offense."If the owner thinks, “He won’t give them to me,” and he gives up the effort of getting them back, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law and defeats the owner, he commits an offense entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law but is defeated, he commits a serious offense.

Customs station: it is established by a king in a mountain-pass, at a ford in a river, or at the gateway of a village so that tax can be collected from a person passing through. If, intending to steal and having entered the customs station, he touches goods that have a tax value to the king of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he goes beyond the customs station with one foot, he commits a serious offense. If he goes beyond the customs station with the second foot, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If, standing within the customs station, he makes the goods fall outside the customs station, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he avoids the customs station altogether, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

Creature: a human being is what is meant. If, intending to steal, he touches the person, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes the person quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves the person from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he thinks, “I’ll take the person away on foot,” and he makes them move the first foot, he commits a serious offense. If he makes them move the second foot, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Footless: snakes and fish. If, intending to steal, he touches what has a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Two-footed: humans and birds. If, intending to steal, he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he thinks, “I’ll take it away on foot,” and he makes it move the first foot, he commits a serious offense. If he makes it move the second foot, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Four-footed: elephants, horses, camels, cattle, asses, domesticated animals. If, intending to steal, he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he thinks, “I’ll take it away on foot,” and he makes it move the first foot, he commits a serious offense. If he makes it move the second foot, he commits a serious offense. If he makes it move the third foot, he commits a serious offense. If he makes it move the fourth foot, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Many-footed: scorpions, centipedes, caterpillars. If, intending to steal, he touches what has a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If he thinks, “I’ll take it away on foot,” and he makes it move, he commits a serious offense for each leg that moves. When the last leg moves, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

A spy: having spied out goods. If he describes them and says, “Steal such-and-such goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense.

A protector of goods: a monk who guards goods that have been brought to him. If, intending to steal, he touches what has a value of five māsaka coins or more than five māsakas, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he makes them quiver, he commits a serious offense. If he moves them from their base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

A mutually agreed theft: many have agreed together. If only one steals the goods, there is an offense entailing expulsion for all of them.

An arranged action: one makes an arrangement for before the meal or for after the meal, for the night or for the day. If he says, “Take those goods according to this agreement,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the other takes those goods according to that agreement, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both. If he takes those goods before or after the time of the agreement, there is no offense for the instigator, but an offense entailing expulsion for the thief.

Making a sign: he makes a sign. If he says, “When I wink/raise my eyebrow/nod, at that sign, steal the goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, at that sign, the other steals the goods, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both. If he steals the goods before or after the sign, there is no offense for the instigator, but an offense entailing expulsion for the thief.

Permutations part 2

If a monk tells another monk, “Steal such-and-such goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the other monk steals them, thinking they are the ones he has been asked to steal, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both.

If a monk tells another monk, “Steal such-and-such goods,” but the other monk steals something else, thinking they are the ones he has been asked to steal, there is no offense for the instigator, but there is an offense entailing expulsion for the thief.

If a monk tells another monk, “Steal such-and-such goods,” and the other monk steals them, thinking they are something else than what he has been asked to steal, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both.

If a monk tells another monk, “Steal such-and-such goods,” but the other monk steals something else, thinking it is something else, there is no offense for the instigator, but there is an offense entailing expulsion for the thief.


If a monk tells another monk, “Tell so-and-so to tell so-and-so to steal such-and-such goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. In informing the next person, there is an offense of wrong conduct. If the potential thief agrees, there is a serious offense for the instigator. If he steals those goods, there is an offense entailing expulsion for all of them.

If a monk tells another monk, “Tell so-and-so to tell so-and-so to steal such-and-such goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the other monk tells someone else than the one he was told to tell, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the potential thief agrees, there is an offense of wrong conduct. If he steals those goods, there is no offense for the instigator, but there is an offense entailing expulsion for the conveyor of the message and the thief.


If a monk tells a second monk, “Steal such-and-such goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the second monk goes there, but returns, saying, “I’m not able to steal those goods,” and if he tells him again, “When you’re able, then steal those goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the second monk steals the goods, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both.

If a monk tells a second monk, “Steal such-and-such goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, after telling him, he regrets it, but does not say to him, “Don’t steal,” and the second monk then steals those goods, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both.

If a monk tells a second monk, “Steal such-and-such goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, after telling him, he regrets it and says, “Don’t steal,” but the second monk says, “I’ve been told by you to do so,” and he then steals those goods, there is no offense for the instigator, but an offense entailing expulsion for the thief.

If a monk tells a second monk, “Steal such-and-such goods,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, after telling him, he regrets it and says to him, “Don’t steal,” and the second monk says, “Very well,” and desists, there is no offense for either.

Permutations part 3

For one who steals there is an offense entailing expulsion when five factors are fulfilled: it is the possession of another; he perceives it as such; it is a valuable possession worth at least five māsaka coins; he has the intention to steal it; if he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense/ if he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

For one who steals there is a serious offense when five factors are fulfilled: it is the possession of another; he perceives it as such; it is an ordinary possession worth more than one māsaka coin, but less than five; he has the intention to steal it; if he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he makes it quiver, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he moves it from its base, he commits a serious offense.

For one who steals there is an offense of wrong conduct when five factors are fulfilled: it is the possession of another; he perceives it as such; it is an ordinary possession worth one māsaka coin or less; he has the intention to steal it; if he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he makes it quiver, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he moves it from its base, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.


For one who steals there is an offense entailing expulsion when six factors are fulfilled: he does not perceive it as his own; he does not take it on trust; he does not borrow it; it is a valuable possession worth at least five māsaka coins; he has the intention to steal it; if he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he makes it quiver, he commits a serious offense/ if he moves it from its base, he commits an offense entailing expulsion.

For one who steals there is a serious offense when six factors are fulfilled: he does not perceive it as his own; he does not take it on trust; he does not borrow it; it is an ordinary possession worth more than one māsaka coin, but less than five; he has the intention to steal it; if he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he makes it quiver, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he moves it from its base, he commits a serious offense.

For one who steals there is an offense of wrong conduct when six factors are fulfilled: he does not perceive it as his own; he does not take it on trust; he does not borrow it; it is an ordinary possession worth one māsaka coin or less; he has the intention to steal it; if he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he makes it quiver, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he moves it from its base, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.


For one who steals there is an offense of wrong conduct when five factors are fulfilled: it is not the possession of another; but he perceives it as the possession of another; it is a valuable possession worth at least five māsaka coins; he has the intention to steal it; if he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he makes it quiver, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he moves it from its base, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

For one who steals there is an offense of wrong conduct when five factors are fulfilled: it is not the possession of another; but he perceives it as the possession of another; it is an ordinary possession worth more than one māsaka coin, but less than five; he has the intention to steal it; if he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he makes it quiver, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he moves it from its base, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

For one who steals there is an offense of wrong conduct when five factors are fulfilled: it is not the possession of another; but he perceives it as the possession of another; it is an ordinary possession worth one māsaka coin or less; he has the intention to steal it; if he touches it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he makes it quiver, he commits an offense of wrong conduct/ if he moves it from its base, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

Non-offenses

There is no offense: if he perceives it as his own; if he takes it on trust; if he borrows it; if it is the possession of a ghost; if it is the possession of an animal; if he perceives it as discarded; if he is insane; if he is deranged; if he is overwhelmed by pain; if he is the first offender.

The first section on stealing is finished.


Case rulings

Mnemonic list

Five are told with dyers,
And four with blankets;
Five with darkness,
And five with a carrier.

Five are told with speech,
Another two with wind;
Fresh, the dropping of a grass ticket,
With the sauna it is ten.

Five are told with animal kills,
And five without grounds;
During a shortage of food: boiled rice, and meat,
Cakes, pastries, confectioneries.

Six on articles, bag,
Cushion, bamboo, on not coming out;
And taking food on trust,
Another two on perceiving as one’s own.

Seven on “We didn’t take,”
And seven where they did take;
Seven where they took from the Order,
Another two with flowers.

And three on taking messages,
Three on taking jewels past;
And pigs, deer, fish,
And he set a vehicle in motion.

Two on a piece, two on wood,
Discarded, two on water;
"Step by step, by arrangement,
Another did not amount to it.

Four handfuls at Sāvatthī,
Two on scraps of meat, two about grass;
Seven where they divided the belongings of the Order,
And seven on non-owners.

Wood, water, clay, two on grass,
Seven on taking the Order’s bedding;
And one should not take away what has an owner,
One may borrow what has an owner.

Campā, and in Rājagaha,
And Ajjuka at Vesālī;
And Benares, Kosambī,
And Sāgalā with Dalhika.

Case details

On one occasion monks from the group of six went to the dyers’ spread of cloth and took the dyers’ goods. They became remorseful, thinking, “The Master has laid down a training rule. Could it be that we’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion?” They informed the Master. “Monks, you have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk went to the dyers’ spread of cloth, saw a valuable garment, and had the intention to steal it. He became remorseful, thinking, “The Master has laid down a training rule. Could it be that I’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion?” He informed the Master. “There’s no offense for the arising of a thought.”


On one occasion a monk went to the dyers’ spread of cloth, saw a valuable garment, and intending to steal it, he touched it. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion a monk went to the dyers’ spread of cloth, saw a valuable garment, and intending to steal it, he made it quiver. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk went to the dyers’ spread of cloth, saw a valuable garment, and intending to steal it, he moved it from its base. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk who was an alms-collector saw a valuable blanket and had the intention to steal it. … “There’s no offense for the arising of a thought.” … intending to steal it, he touched it. … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.” … intending to steal it, he made it quiver. … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.” … intending to steal it, he moved it from its base. … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk saw some goods during the day, and he took note of them with the thought, “I’ll steal them at night.” And he stole them, thinking they were the ones he had seen. … But he stole something else, thinking they were the ones he had seen. … And he stole them, thinking they were something else. … But he stole something else, thinking it was something else. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”

On one occasion a monk saw some goods during the day, and he took note of them with the thought, “I’ll steal them at night.” But he stole his own goods, thinking they were the ones he had seen. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion a monk who was carrying the goods of another on his head touched the burden, intending to steal it. … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.” … intending to steal it, he made it quiver. … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.” … intending to steal it, he lowered it onto his shoulder. … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.” …

intending to steal it, he touched the burden on the shoulder. … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.” … intending to steal it, he made it quiver. … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.” … intending to steal it, he lowered it onto his hip. … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.” …

intending to steal it, he touched the burden on the hip. … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.” … intending to steal it, he made it quiver. … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.” … intending to steal it, he took hold of it with his hand. … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.” …

intending to steal the burden in his hand, he deposited it on the ground. … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.” … intending to steal it, he picked it up from the ground. … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk spread out his robe out in the open and entered his dwelling. A second monk, thinking, “May it not be lost,” put it away. The first monk came out of his dwelling and asked the monks, “Who’s taken my robe?” The second monk said, “I’ve taken it.” The first monk took hold of him and said, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” The second monk became remorseful, and he informed the Master. The Master said, “What was your intention?”

“Master, it was just a way of speaking.”

“If it was just a way of speaking, there’s no offense.”


On one occasion a monk put down his robe on a bench … put down his sitting-mat on a bench … put his bowl under a bench and entered his dwelling. A second monk, thinking, “May it not be lost,” put it away. The first monk came out and asked the monks, “Who’s taken my bowl?” The second monk said, “I’ve taken it.” The first monk took hold of him and said, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” The second monk became remorseful … “If it was just a way of speaking, there’s no offense.”


On one occasion a nun spread out her robe on a fence and entered her dwelling. A second nun, thinking, “May it not be lost,” put it away. The first nun came out and asked the nuns, “Venerables, who’s taken my robe?” The second nun said, “I’ve taken it.” The first nun took hold of her and said, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” The second nun became remorseful … She informed the nuns, who in turn informed the monks, who in turn informed the Master. … “If it was just a way of speaking, there’s no offense.”


On one occasion a monk saw a robe blown up by a whirlwind. He took hold of it, thinking, “I’ll give it to the owners.” But the owners rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful … “What was your intention, monk?”

“I didn’t intend to steal it, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who doesn’t intend to steal.”


On one occasion a monk took hold of a turban that had been blown up by a whirlwind, intending to steal it before the owners saw it. The owners rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk went to a charnel ground and took the rags from a fresh corpse. The ghost was still dwelling in that body, and it said to the monk, “Venerable, don’t take my robe.” The monk took no notice and went away. Then the body got up and followed closely behind that monk. The monk entered his dwelling and closed the door, and the body fell down at that very place. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion. But a monk shouldn’t take rags from a fresh corpse. If he does, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion robe(-cloth) belonging to the Order was being distributed. A monk, intending to steal, disregarded his grass ticket and took a robe(-cloth). He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion when Venerable Ānanda was in a sauna, he thought that the inner robe of another monk was his own, and he put it on. The other monk said, “Venerable Ānanda, why did you put on my inner robe?”

“I thought it was my own.”

They informed the Master. He said, “There’s no offense for one who perceives it as his own.”


On one occasion a number of monks were descending from Mount Vulture Peak when they saw the remains of a lion’s kill. They had it cooked and ate it. They became remorseful … “There’s no offense when it’s the remains of a lion’s kill.”


On one occasion a number of monks were descending from Mount Vulture Peak when they saw the remains of a tiger’s kill … saw the remains of a panther’s kill … saw the remains of a hyena’s kill … saw the remains of a wolf’s kill. They had it cooked … “There’s no offense when it’s the possession of an animal.”


On one occasion when rice belonging to the Order was being distributed, a monk said without having a proper reason, “Give me a portion for someone else,” and he took it away. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense entailing confession for lying.”


On one occasion when food belonging to the Order was being distributed … when cakes belonging to the Order were being distributed … when sugar-cane belonging to the Order was being distributed … when timbarūsaka fruits belonging to the Order were being distributed, a monk said without having a proper reason, “Give me a portion for someone else,” and he took it away. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense entailing confession for lying.”


On one occasion during a shortage of food, a monk, intending to steal, entered a rice kitchen and took a bowlful of rice. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion during a shortage of food, a monk, intending to steal, entered a slaughterhouse and took a bowlful of meat. … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion during a shortage of food, a monk, intending to steal, entered a bakery and took a bowlful of cakes … took a bowlful of pastries … took a bowlful of confectioneries. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk saw an article during the day, and he took note of it with the thought, “I’ll steal it at night.” He then took it, thinking it was the one he had seen … He then took something else, thinking it was the one he had seen … He then took it, thinking it was something else than what he had seen … He then took something else, thinking it was something else than what he had seen. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk saw an article during the day, and he took note of it with the thought, “I’ll steal it at night.” But he took his own article, thinking it was what he had seen. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion a monk saw a bag on a bench. He thought, “If I take it from there I shall be expelled,” and so he took it by moving the bench. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk, intending to steal it, took a cushion belonging to the Order. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk, intending to steal it, took a robe from a bamboo robe-rack. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk stole a robe in a dwelling. He thought, “If I come out from here, I shall be expelled,” and he remained in that dwelling. They informed the Master. He said, “Whether that foolish man comes out or not, he has committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


At one time two monks were friends. One of them went into the village for almsfood. When food belonging to the Order was being distributed, the second monk took his friend’s portion. Taking it on trust, he ate it. Finding out about this, the first monk rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful …

“What was your intention, monk?”

“I took it on trust, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who takes on trust.”


On one occasion a number of monks were making robes. When food belonging to the Order was being distributed, they took their shares and put them aside. A certain monk, thinking it was his own, ate another monk’s portion. When the other monk found out about this, he rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful …

“What was your intention, monk?”

“I thought it was my own, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who perceives it as his own.”


On one occasion a number of monks were making robes. When food belonging to the Order was being distributed, they brought a certain monk’s share in the bowl of another monk and put it aside. The monk who was the owner of the bowl ate the food, thinking it was his own. Finding out about this, the owner of the food rebuked him … “There’s no offense for one who perceives it as his own.”


On one occasion mango thieves cut down some mangoes, collected them in a bundle, and left. The owners pursued them. When they saw the owners, the thieves dropped the bundle and ran away. Some monks, who perceived the mangoes as discarded, had them offered and ate them. But the owners rebuked them, saying, “You’re no longer ascetics.” They became remorseful and informed the Master.

“What was your intention?”

“Master, we perceived them as discarded.”

“There’s no offense for one who perceives something as discarded.”


On one occasion black plum thieves … bread-fruit thieves … jack-fruit thieves … palm-fruit thieves … sugar-cane thieves … thieves of timbarūsaka fruit took some, collected them in a bundle, and left. The owners pursued them. When they saw the owners, the thieves dropped the bundle and ran away. Some monks, who perceived the mangoes as discarded, had them offered and ate them. But the owners rebuked them, saying, “You’re no longer ascetics.” They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who perceives something as discarded.”


On one occasion mango thieves cut down some mangoes, collected them in a bundle, and left. The owners pursued them. When they saw the owners, the thieves dropped the bundle and ran away. Some monks, intending to steal them before the owners saw it, ate them. The owners rebuked those monks, saying, “You’re no longer ascetics.” They became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion black plum thieves … bread-fruit thieves … jack-fruit thieves … palm-fruit thieves … sugar-cane thieves … thieves of timbarūsaka fruit took some, collected them in a bundle, and left. The owners pursued them. When they saw the owners, the thieves dropped the bundle and ran away. Some monks, intending to steal them before the owners saw it, ate them. The owners rebuked those monks, saying, “You’re no longer ascetics.” They became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk, intending to steal it, took a mango belonging to the Order … a black plum … a bread-fruit … a jack-fruit … a palm-fruit … a sugar-cane … a timbarūsaka fruit belonging to the Order. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk went to a flower-garden, and intending to steal it, he took a flower worth five māsaka coins that had already been plucked. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk went to a flower-garden, and intending to steal it, he picked a flower worth five māsaka coins and took it away. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion, as he was going to the village, a monk said to another monk, “I can take a message to the family that supports you.” He went there and brought back a robe that he used himself. The other monk, finding out about this, rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion. But you should not say, ‘I can take a message.’ If you do, you commit an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion a certain monk was going to the village. Another monk said to him, “Please take a message to the family that supports me.” He went there and brought back a pair of robes. He used one himself and gave the other to the other monk. The other monk, finding out about this, rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion. But you shouldn’t say, ‘Please take a message.’ If you do, you commit an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion, as he was going to the village, a monk said to another monk, “I can take a message to the family that supports you.” He replied, “Please do.” He went there and brought back an āḷhaka measure of ghee, a tulā measure of sugar, and a doṇa measure of husked rice, which he ate himself. The other monk, finding out about this, rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion. But you should not say, ‘I can take a message;’ nor should you say, ‘Please do.’ If you do, you commit an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a man who was carrying a valuable jewel was walking along a main road together with a monk. The man saw a customs station and he put the jewel into the monk’s bag without his knowing. When they had gone past the customs station, he retrieved it. The monk was remorseful …

“What was your intention, monk?”

“I didn’t know, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who doesn’t know.”


At one time, a man who was carrying a valuable jewel was walking along a main road together with a monk. The man saw a customs station, and pretending to be sick, he gave his own bag to the monk. When they had passed the customs station, he said to the monk, “Give me my bag, Venerable, I’m not sick.”

“Then why did you say so?”

The man informed the monk. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who does not know.”


At one time, a monk was traveling along a main road together with a caravan. A man befriended that monk with a gift. Seeing a customs station, he gave the monk a valuable jewel, saying, “Venerable, please take this jewel past the customs.” And the monk took the jewel past the customs station. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk, feeling compassion, released a pig trapped in a snare. He became remorseful … “What was your intention, monk?”

“I was motivated by compassion, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who is motivated by compassion.”


On one occasion a monk released a pig trapped in a snare, intending to steal it before the owners saw it. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk, feeling compassion, released a deer trapped in a snare. … “There’s no offense for one who is motivated by compassion.” he released a deer trapped in a snare, intending to steal it before the owners saw it. … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.” … feeling compassion, released fish trapped in a fish-net … “There’s no offense for one who is motivated by compassion.” … he released fish trapped in a fish-net, intending to steal them before the owners saw it. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk saw some goods in a vehicle. He thought, “If I take them from there, I’ll be expelled.” So he took them by setting the vehicle in motion. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk seized a piece of flesh taken up by a hawk, intending to give it to the owners. But the owners rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who does not intend to steal.”


On one occasion a monk seized a piece of flesh taken up by a hawk, intending to steal it before the owners saw it. The owners rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


At one time, some men made a raft and put it on the river Aciravatī. When the binding ropes were destroyed, the sticks were scattered about. Some monks, perceiving them as discarded, removed them from the water. The owners rebuked those monks, saying, “You’re no longer ascetics.” They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who perceives something as discarded.”


At one time, some men made a raft and put it on the river Aciravatī. When the binding ropes were destroyed, the sticks were scattered about. Some monks removed them from the water, intending to steal them before the owners saw it. The owners rebuked those monks, saying, “You’re no longer ascetics.” They became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a cowherd hung his robe on a tree and went to relieve himself. A monk thought it had been discarded and took it. The cowherd rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who perceives something as discarded.”


On one occasion, as a monk was crossing a river, a robe that had escaped from the hands of dyers stuck to his foot. The monk took hold of it, thinking, “I’ll give it to the owners.” But the owners rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who does not intend to steal.”


On one occasion, as a monk was crossing a river, a robe that had escaped from the hands of dyers stuck to his foot. The monk took hold of it, intending to steal it before the owners saw it. The owners rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer a ascetic.” He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk saw a pot of ghee and ate it little by little. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a number of monks made an arrangement and then left, thinking, “We’ll steal these goods.” One of them stole the goods. The others said, “We’re not expelled; the one who took them is expelled.” They informed the Master. He said, “You’ve all committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


At one time, a number of monks made an arrangement, stole some goods, and shared them out. When it was being shared out, each of them received a share with a value of less than five māsaka coins. They said, “We’re not expelled.” They informed the Master. He said, “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion when Sāvatthī was short of food, a monk, intending to steal, took a handful of rice belonging to a shopkeeper. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion when Sāvatthī was short of food, a monk, intending to steal, took a handful of green gram … a handful of black gram … a handful of sesame belonging to a shopkeeper. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


At one time, in the Dark Wood near Sāvatthī, some thieves killed a cow, ate some of the flesh, put the remainder aside, and went away. Some monks, perceiving it as discarded, had it offered and ate it. The thieves rebuked those monks, saying, “You’re no longer ascetics.” They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who perceives something as discarded.”


At one time, in the Dark Wood near Sāvatthī, some thieves killed a pig … “There’s no offense for one who perceives something as discarded.”


On one occasion a monk went to a meadow, and intending to steal it, he took some cut grass worth five māsaka coins. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk went to a meadow, and intending to steal it, he cut grass worth five māsaka coins and took it away. He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion some visiting monks divided up the mangoes belonging to the Order and ate them. The resident monks rebuked those monks, saying, “You’re no longer ascetics.” They became remorseful … They informed the Master.

“What was your intention, monks?”

“We thought they were meant for eating, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who thinks something is meant for eating.”


On one occasion some visiting monks divided up the black plums belonging to the Order … the bread-fruit … the jack-fruit … the palm fruits … the sugar-cane … the timbarūsaka fruits belonging to the Order and ate them. The resident monks rebuked those monks, saying, “You’re no longer ascetics.” They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who thinks something is meant for eating.”


On one occasion the keepers of a mango-grove gave a mango to some monks. The monks, thinking, “They have the authority to guard, but not to give,” were afraid of wrongdoing and did not accept it. They informed the Master. He said, “There’s no offense when it’s a gift from a guardian.”


On one occasion the keepers of a black plum grove … of a bread-fruit grove … of a jack-fruit grove … of a palm grove … of a sugar-cane field … of a timbarūsaka grove gave timbarūsaka fruit to some monks. The monks, thinking, “They have the authority to guard, but not to give,” were afraid of wrongdoing and did not accept it. They informed the Master. He said, “There’s no offense when it’s a gift from a guardian.”


On one occasion a monk borrowed a piece of wood belonging to the Order and used it to support the wall of his own dwelling. The monks rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” He became remorseful and informed the Master. He said, “What was your intention, monk?”

“I was borrowing it, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who is borrowing.”


On one occasion a monk, intending to steal it, took water belonging to the Order … intending to steal it, took clay belonging to the Order … intending to steal it, took a pile of grass belonging to the Order. … He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk who had the intention to steal set fire to a pile of grass belonging to the Order. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion a monk, intending to steal it, took a bed belonging to the Order. … He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk, intending to steal it, took a bench belonging to the Order … took a cushion … a pillow … a door … a window … intending to steal it, he took a rafter belonging to the Order. … He became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion the furniture and dwelling equipment belonging to a certain lay follower were used elsewhere by some monks. That lay follower complained and criticized them: “How can those venerables use elsewhere furniture belonging somewhere else?” They informed the Master. “You should not use elsewhere furniture belonging somewhere else. If you do, you commit an offense of wrong conduct.”


At that time, being afraid of wrongdoing, the monks did not take any equipment to the observance hall or to meetings, and they sat down on the bare ground. Their limbs and robes became dusty. They informed the Master. “I allow you to borrow.


On one occasion at Campā, a nun who was a pupil of the nun Thullanandā went to a family who supported Thullanandā and said, “The Venerable wants to drink rice-porridge containing the three pungent ingredients.” When it was ready, she took it away and ate it herself. When Thullananadā found out about this, she rebuked her, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” She became remorseful … She then informed the nuns, who in turn informed the monks, who then informed the Master. “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense entailing confession for lying.”


On one occasion in Rājagaha, a nun who was a pupil of the nun Thullanandā went to a family who supported Thullanandā and said, “The Venerable wants to eat a honey-ball.” When it was ready, she took it away and ate it herself. When Thullanandā found out about this, she rebuked her, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.” She became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense entailing confession for lying.”


At one time in Vesāli, a householder who was a supporter of Venerable Ajjuka had two children living with him, a son and a nephew. That householder said to Ajjuka, “Venerable, please assign this estate to the one of these two boys who has faith and confidence.”

At that time the householder’s nephew had faith and confidence, and so Ajjuka assigned that estate to him. He then established a household with that wealth and made a gift.

The householder’s son then said to Venerable Ānanda, “Venerable Ānanda, who’s the father’s heir, the son or the nephew?”

“The son is the father’s heir.”

“Venerable, this Venerable Ajjuka has assigned our wealth to our housemate.”

“Venerable Ajjuka is no longer an ascetic.”

Ajjuka then said to Ānanda, “Ānanda, please investigate.”

On that occasion, Venerable Upāli was siding with Ajjuka, and he said to Ānanda, “Ānanda, when one is asked by the owner to assign an estate to so-and-so, and one does so, what offense has one committed?”

“One hasn’t committed any offense, Venerable, not even one of wrong conduct.”

“Venerable Ajjuka was asked by the owner to assign an estate to so-and-so, and he did so. There’s no offense for Venerable Ajjuka.”


At that time, in Benares, a family that supported Venerable Pilindavaccha was harassed by criminals, and two of their children were kidnapped. Pilindavaccha brought the children back by his supernormal powers and placed them in a stilt house.

People saw those children and said, “This is the majesty of the supernormal powers of Venerable Pilindavaccha,” and they placed confidence in him.

But the monks complained and criticized him: “How can Venerable Pilindavaccha bring back children who have been kidnapped by criminals?” And they informed the Master. He said, “There’s no offense in the area of supernormal powers for one who possesses them.”


At one time, the two monks Paṇḍaka and Kapila were friends. One was staying in a village and one at Kosambī. Then, while the first monk was traveling from that village to Kosambī, he had to cross a river. As he did so, a lump of fat that had escaped from the hands of pork-butchers stuck to his foot. He took hold of it, thinking, “I’ll give it to the owners.” But the owners rebuked him, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic.”

Then a woman cowherd who had seen him crossing said, “Come, Venerable, have sexual intercourse.” Thinking he was no longer an ascetic, he had sexual intercourse with her.

When he arrived at Kosambī, he informed the monks, and they in turn informed the Master. He said, “There’s no offense entailing expulsion for stealing, but there’s an offense entailing expulsion for having sexual intercourse.”


At that time, at Sāgalā, a monk who was a student of Venerable Daḷhika was plagued by discontent. He then took a turban from a shopkeeper and said to Daḷhika, “Venerable, I’m no longer an ascetic; I’ll disrobe.”

“But what have you done?” He told him. After getting the turban brought, Venerable Daḷhika had it valued, and it was not worth five māsaka coins. “There’s no offense entailing expulsion,” and he gave a teaching. That monk was delighted.


The second offense entailing expulsion is finished.