Theravāda Collection on Monastic Law

Monks’ rules and their analysis

Monks’ Suspension

2. The training rule on physical contact

Origin story

At one time, the Buddha was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Monastery. At that time Venerable Udāyī was staying in the wilderness. He had a beautiful dwelling with a room in the middle and corridors on all sides. The bed and bench were nicely made up, and the water for drinking and that for washing had been well placed. The precincts were well swept. Many people came to see Udāyī’s dwelling.

Among them was a certain brahmin and his wife. They approached Udāyī and said, “Venerable, we would like to have look at your dwelling.”

“Well then, brahmin, have a look.”

Udāyī took the key, unlatched the bolt, opened the door, and entered the dwelling. The brahmin entered after him and then the brahmin lady. Opening some windows and closing others, Udāyī walked around the inner room and came up from behind the brahmin lady, touching her here and there. Then the brahmin thanked Udāyī and departed.

The brahmin then expressed his delight, “These Sakyan ascetics who live in the wilderness are superb. Venerable Udāyī is superb!”

But the brahmin lady said, “What’s superb about him? Just as you touch me here and there, so did he.”

The brahmin then complained and criticized him, “These Sakyan ascetics are shameless and immoral liars. They claim to live according to the Truth, to be celibate and of good conduct, to be truthful, moral, and of good character. But they don’t have the qualities of an ascetic or a brahmin. They’ve lost the plot. How can the ascetic Udāyī touch my wife with his genitals? It’s not possible to go to a monastery or a monk’s dwelling with wives of respectable families, with daughters, girls, daughters-in-law, or female slaves of respectable families. If you do, the Sakyan ascetics might molest them.”

The monks heard the criticism of that brahmin. The monks of few desires … complained and criticized Udāyī, “How can Venerable Udāyī make physical contact with a woman?”

They then informed the Master. The Master had the Order of monks assembled and questioned Udāyī,

“Is it true, Udāyī, that you made physical contact with a woman?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha rebuked him, “Foolish man, it’s not suitable, it’s not proper, it’s not worthy of a recluse, it’s not allowable, it’s not to be done. How can you make physical contact with a woman? Haven’t I given many teachings for the sake of dispassion, not for the sake of passion … for the stilling of the fever for sense pleasures? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Final ruling

‘If a lustful monk makes physical contact with a woman— holding her hand or hair, or touching any part of her body— he commits an offense entailing suspension.’”

Definitions

A: whoever … Monk: … The monk who has been given the full ordination by a complete Order through a formal procedure consisting of one motion and three announcements that is unchallengeable and fit to stand— this sort of monk is meant in this case.

Lustful: having lust, longing for, in love with.

A woman: a human female, not a female spirit, not a female ghost, not a female animal; even a girl born on that very day, all the more an older one.

With: together.

Makes physical contact: misconduct is what is meant.

Hand: from the elbow to the tip of the nails.

Hair: just the hair; or hair with strings in it, with a garland, with gold, with pearls, or with gems.

Any part of her body: anything apart from the hand and the hair is called “any part of her body.”

Summary

Physical contact, touching, stroking downwards, stroking upwards, pulling down, raising up, pulling, pushing, squeezing, pressing, taking hold of, contacting.

Sub-definitions

Physical contact: mere physical contact.

Touching: touching here and there.

Stroking downwards: lowering down.

Stroking upwards: raising up.

Pulling down: lowering.

Raising up: lifting.

Pulling: drawing to.

Pushing: sending away.

Squeezing: taking hold of a bodily part and then pressing.

Pressing: pressing with something.

Take hold of: mere taking hold of.

Contacting: mere contact.


He commits an offense entailing suspension: Therefore, too, it is called “an offense entailing suspension.”

Permutations

Permutations part 1

Making direct contact with a single woman, etc.: body to body

It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the woman, body to body, if he touches her, strokes her downwards, strokes her upwards, pulls her down, raises her up, pulls her, pushes her, squeezes her, presses her, takes hold of her, contacts her, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

It is a woman, but he is unsure of it, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the woman, body to body, if he touches her … takes hold of her, contacts her, he commits a serious offense.

It is a woman, but he perceives her as a sexual non-conformist, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the woman, body to body, if he touches her … takes hold of her, contacts her, he commits a serious offense.

It is a woman, but he perceives her as a man, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the woman, body to body, if he touches her … takes hold of her, contacts her, he commits a serious offense.

It is a woman, but he perceives her as an animal, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the woman, body to body, if he touches her … takes hold of her, contacts her, he commits a serious offense.


It is a sexual non-conformist, he perceives him as a sexual non-conformist, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the sexual non-conformist, body to body, if he touches him … takes hold of him, contacts him, he commits a serious offense.

It is a sexual non-conformist, but he is unsure of it, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the sexual non-conformist, body to body, if he touches him … takes hold of him, contacts him, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

It is a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives him as a man, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the sexual non-conformist, body to body, if he touches him … takes hold of him, contacts him, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

It is a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives him as an animal, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the sexual non-conformist, body to body, if he touches him … takes hold of him, contacts him, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

It is a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives him as a woman, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the sexual non-conformist, body to body, if he touches him … takes hold of him, contacts him, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.


It is a man, he perceives him as a man, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the man, body to body, if he touches him … takes hold of him, contacts him, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

It is a man, but he is unsure of it … It is a man, but he perceives him as an animal … It is a man, but he perceives him as a woman … It is a man, but he perceives him as a sexual non-conformist, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the man, body to body, if he touches him … takes hold of him, contacts him, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.


It is an animal, he perceives it as an animal, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the animal, body to body, if he touches it … takes hold of it, contacts it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

It is an animal, but he is unsure of it … It is an animal, but he perceives it as a woman … It is an animal, but he perceives it as a sexual non-conformist … It is an animal, but he perceives it as a man, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the animal, body to body, if he touches it … takes hold of it, contacts it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

The section on one root item is finished.

Making direct contact with two beings of the same kind: body to body

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the two women, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses entailing suspension.

It is two women, but he is unsure about both, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the two women, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two serious offenses.

It is two women, but he perceives them as sexual non-conformists … but he perceives them as men … but he perceives them as animals, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the two women, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two serious offenses.


It is two sexual non-conformists, he perceives them both as sexual non-conformists, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the two sexual non-conformists, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two serious offenses.

It is two sexual non-conformists, but he is unsure about both … but he perceives them as men … but he perceives them as animals … but he perceives them as women, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the two sexual non-conformists, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct.


It is two men, he perceives them both as men, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the two men, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct.

It is two men, but he is unsure about both … but he perceives them as animals … but he perceives them as women … but he perceives them as sexual non-conformists, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the two men, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct.


It is two animals, he perceives them both as animals, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the two animals, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct.

It is two animals, but he is unsure about both … but he perceives them as women … but he perceives them as sexual non-conformists … but he perceives them as men, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with the two animals, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct.

Making direct contact with two beings of different kinds: body to body

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct.

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he is unsure about both, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct.

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as sexual non-conformists, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two serious offenses.

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as men, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct.

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as animals, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct.


It is a woman and a man, but he perceives both as women and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct.

It is a woman and a man, but he is unsure about both … but he perceives both as sexual non-conformists … but he perceives both as men … but he perceives both as animals, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct.


It is a woman and an animal, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct.

It is a woman and an animal, but he is unsure about both … but he perceives them as sexual non-conformists … but he perceives them as men … but he perceives them as animals, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct.


It is a sexual non-conformist and a man, but he perceives both as sexual non-conformists, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct.

It is a sexual non-conformist and a man, but he is unsure about both … but he perceives both as men … but he perceives both as animals … but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct.


It is a sexual non-conformist and an animal, but he perceives both as sexual non-conformists, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct.

It is a sexual non-conformist and an animal, but he is unsure about both … but he perceives both as men … but he perceives both as animals … but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct.


It is a man and an animal, but he perceives both as men, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct.

It is a man and an animal, but he is unsure about both … but he perceives both as animals … but he perceives both as women … but he perceives both as sexual non-conformist, and he has lust. If the monk makes physical contact with both, body to body, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct.

The section on two root items is finished.

Making indirect contact: body to what is connected to the body

It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the monk, with his own body, makes physical contact with something connected to her body, if he touches it … takes hold of it, contacts it, he commits a serious offense. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with his own body, makes physical contact with something connected to the body of both, if he touches it … takes hold of it, contacts it, he commits two serious offenses. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with his own body, makes physical contact with something connected to the body of both, if he touches it … takes hold of it, contacts it, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct. …


It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the monk, with something connected to his own body, makes physical contact with her body, if he touches it … takes hold of it, contacts it, he commits a serious offense. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something connected to his own body, makes physical contact with both their bodies, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two serious offenses. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something connected to his own body, makes physical contact with both their bodies, if he touches them … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct. …

Making indirect contact: what is connected to the body to what is connected to the body

It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the monk, with something connected to his own body, makes physical contact with something connected to her body, if he touches it … takes hold of it, contacts it, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. … pe ….

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something connected to his own body, makes physical contact with something connected to both their bodies, if he touches those things … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something connected to his own body, makes physical contact with something connected to both their bodies, if he touches those things … takes hold of them, contacts them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

Making indirect contact: contact by releasing

It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the monk, with something released by him, makes physical contact with her body, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something released by him, makes physical contact with both their bodies, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something released by him, makes physical contact with both their bodies, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …


It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the monk, with something released by him, makes physical contact with something connected to her body, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something released by him, makes physical contact with something connected to both their bodies, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something released by him, makes physical contact with something connected to both their bodies, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …


It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the monk, with something released by him, makes physical contact with something released by her, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something released by him, makes physical contact with something released by both of them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If the monk, with something released by him, makes physical contact with something released by both of them, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

The successive series on a monk is finished.

Others making direct contact with a monk: body to body

It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the woman makes physical contact with the monk, body to body, if she touches him, strokes him downwards, strokes him upwards, pulls him down, raises him up, pulls him, pushes him, squeezes him, presses him, takes hold of him, contacts him, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits an offense entailing suspension. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the women make physical contact with the monk, body to body, if they touch him, stroke him downwards, stroke him upwards, pull him down, raise him up, pull him, push him, squeeze him, press him, take hold of him, contact him, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits two offenses entailing suspension. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If they both make physical contact with the monk, body to body, if they touch him … take hold of him, contact him, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. …

Others making indirect contact with a monk: body to what is connected to the body

It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the woman, with her own body, makes physical contact with something connected to his body, if she touches it … takes hold of it, contacts it, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits a serious offense. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the women, with their own bodies, make physical contact with something connected to his body, if they touch it … take hold of it, contact it, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits two serious offenses. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If they both, with their own bodies, make physical contact with something connected to his body, if they touch it … take hold of it, contact it, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct. …


It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the woman, with something connected to her own body, makes physical contact with his body, if she touches him … takes hold of him, contacts him, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits a serious offense. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the women, with something connected to their own bodies, make physical contact with his body, if they touch him … take hold of him, contact him, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits two serious offenses. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If they both, with something connected to their own bodies, make physical contact with his body, if they touch him … take hold of him, contact him, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits one serious offense and one offense of wrong conduct. …

Others making indirect contact with a monk: what is connected to the body to what is connected to the body

It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the woman, with something connected to her own body, makes physical contact with something connected to his body, if she touches it … takes hold of it, contacts it, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the women, with something connected to their own bodies, make physical contact with something connected to his body, if they touch it … take hold of it, contact it, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If they both, with something connected to their own bodies, make physical contact with something connected to his body, if they touch it … take hold of it, contact it, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

Others making indirect contact with a monk: contact by releasing

It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the woman, with something released by her, makes physical contact with his body, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the women, with something released by them, make physical contact with his body, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If they both, with something released by them, make physical contact with his body, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …


It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the woman, with something released by her, makes physical contact with something connected to his body, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the women, with something released by them, make physical contact with something connected to his body, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If they both, with something released by them, make physical contact with something connected to his body, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …


It is a woman, he perceives her as a woman, and he has lust. If the woman, with something released by her, makes physical contact with something released by him, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body, but does not experience contact, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. …

It is two women, he perceives them both as women, and he has lust. If the women, with something released by them, make physical contact with something released by him, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body, but does not experience contact, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

It is a woman and a sexual non-conformist, but he perceives both as women, and he has lust. If they both, with something released by them, make physical contact with something released by him, and he, aiming at association, makes an effort with the body, but does not experience contact, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. …

Permutations part 2

If, aiming at association, he makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

If, aiming at association, he makes an effort with the body, but does not experience contact, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

If, aiming at association, he makes no effort with the body, but experiences contact, there is no offense.

If, aiming at association, he makes no effort with the body and does not experience contact, there is no offense.


If, aiming to free himself, he makes an effort with the body and experiences contact, there is no offense.

If, aiming to free himself, he makes an effort with the body, but does not experience contact, there is no offense.

If, aiming to free himself, he makes no effort with the body, but experiences contact, there is no offense.

If, aiming to free himself, he makes no effort with the body and does not experience contact, there is no offense.

Non-offenses

There is no offense: if it is unintentional; if he is not mindful; if he does not know; if he does not consent; if he is insane; if he is deranged; if he is overwhelmed by pain; if he is the first offender.

Case rulings

Mnemonic list

Mother, daughter, and sister,
Wife, and female spirit, a sexual non-conformist;
Asleep, dead, female animal,
And with a wooden doll.

About oppression, bridge, road,
Tree, and boat, and rope;
A stick, pushed with a bowl,
When paying respect, made an effort but did not touch.

Case details

At one time, a monk touched his mother out of affection. He became remorseful, thinking, “The Master has laid down a training rule. Could it be that I’ve committed an offense entailing suspension?” He informed the Master, and the Master said, “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a monk touched his daughter out of affection … his sister out of affection. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a monk made physical contact with his former wife. He became remorseful … “You’ve committed an offense entailing suspension.”


At one time, a monk made physical contact with a female spirit. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s a serious offense.”


At one time, a monk made physical contact with a sexual non-conformist. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s a serious offense.”


At one time, a monk made physical contact with a sleeping woman. He became remorseful … “You’ve committed an offense entailing suspension.”


At one time, a monk made physical contact with a dead woman. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s a serious offense.”


At one time, a monk made physical contact with a female animal. … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a monk made physical contact with a wooden doll. … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a number of women harassed a monk by leading him about arm-in-arm. He became remorseful … “Did you consent, monk?”

“I didn’t consent, Master.”

“There’s no offense if one doesn’t consent.”


At one time, a monk, being lustful, shook the bridge on which a woman was standing. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a monk saw a woman coming in the opposite direction, and being lustful, he gave her a blow with the shoulder. He became remorseful … “You’ve committed an offense entailing suspension.”


At one time, a monk, being lustful, shook the tree that a woman had climbed. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a monk, being lustful, shook the boat that a woman had boarded. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a monk, being lustful, pulled the rope that a woman was holding. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s a serious offense.”


At one time, a monk, being lustful, pulled the stick that a woman was holding. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s a serious offense.”


At one time, a monk, being lustful, pushed a woman with his bowl. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s a serious offense.”


At one time, a monk, being lustful, raised his foot when a woman was paying respect to him. He became remorseful … “You’ve committed an offense entailing suspension.”


At one time, a monk, thinking, “I’ll take hold of a woman,” exerted himself, but did not make contact. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”

The second rule, the training rule on physical contact, is finished.