Theravāda Collection on Monastic Law

Monks’ rules and their analysis

Monks’ Suspension

5. The training rule on mediation

Origin story

First sub-story

At one time, the Buddha was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Monastery. At that time Venerable Udāyī was associating with and visiting a number of families in Sāvatthī.

At this time, when Udāyī saw a young man without a wife or a young woman without a husband, he would praise the young woman in the presence of the parents of the young man, “The young woman of such-and such a family is beautiful, intelligent, skilled, and diligent. She is suitable for your son.” They would reply, “Venerable, they don’t know who we are. If you would persuade them to give the girl, we would take her for our son.”

And he praised the young man in the presence of the parents of the young woman, “The young man of such-and-such a family is handsome, intelligent, skilled, and diligent. He is suitable for your daughter.” They would reply, “Venerable, they don’t know who we are, and we would be ashamed to speak to them for the sake of the girl. But if you would persuade them to ask us, we would give our girl to the young man.” In this way he arranged for the taking of a bride, for the giving of a bride, and for marriage.

At this time, there was a certain former courtesan who had a beautiful daughter. On one occasion some lay followers of the Ājīvaka sect came from another village and said to that courtesan, “Lady, please give your girl to our boy.”

“Sirs, I don’t know who you are. And I won’t give my only daughter to be taken to another village.”

Some people asked those Ājīvaka lay followers why they had come, and they replied, “We came to ask that courtesan to give her daughter to our son, but she has refused.”

“But why did you ask the courtesan? You should speak to Udāyī. He’ll persuade her.”

They then approached Udāyī and said, “Venerable, we’ve asked that courtesan here to give her daughter to our son, but she has refused. Would you please persuade her to give us her daughter?”

Udāyī agreed. Soon afterwards he went to that courtesan and said, “Why didn’t you give them your daughter?”

“I don’t know who they are, Venerable, and I won’t give my only daughter to be taken to another village.”

“I know them. Please give her to them.”

“If you know them, Venerable, I’ll give her.”

She then gave her daughter to those Ājīvaka followers, and they took her away. For a month they treated her like a daughter-in-law, but after that like a slave.

The girl sent a message to her mother: “Mum, I’m unhappy and miserable. For a month they treated me like a daughter-in-law, but after that like a slave. Come, mum, and take me home.”

Soon afterwards, the courtesan went to those Ājīvakas and said, “Sirs, please don’t treat my girl like a slave, but like a daughter-in-law.”

They replied, “We deal with the ascetic, not with you. Go away! We don’t want to know you.” Being dismissed, she returned to Sāvatthī.

A second time the girl sent the same message to her mother. That courtesan then approached Udāyī and said, “Venerable, my girl is unhappy and miserable. They treated her like a daughter-in-law for a month, but then like a slave. Please tell them to treat her like a daughter-in-law.”

And Udāyī went to the Ājīvakas and said, “Sirs, don’t treat this girl like a slave, but like a daughter-in-law.”

“We deal with the courtesan, not with you. An ascetic shouldn’t get involved; you should behave like a good ascetic. Go away! We don’t want to know you.” Being dismissed, he returned to Sāvatthī.

A third time that girl sent the same message to her mother, and a second time the courtesan approached Udāyī and told him the same thing.

He replied, “When I went the first time, they just dismissed me. Please go yourself. I’m not going.”

Then that courtesan complained and criticized him, “May Venerable Udāyī be miserable and unhappy, just as my girl is miserable and unhappy because of her nasty mother-in-law, nasty father-in-law, and nasty husband.”

And the girl, too, complained and criticized him in the same way,

as did other women who were unhappy with their mothers-in-law, their fathers-in-law, and their husbands.

But those women who were happy with their mothers-in-law, their fathers-in-law, and their husbands wished him well, “May Venerable Udāyī be happy and well, just as we are happy and well because of our good mothers-in-law, good fathers-in-law, and good husbands.”

The monks heard that some women were criticizing him whereas others were wishing him well. And the monks of few desires … complained and criticized him, “How can Venerable Udāyī act as a matchmaker?”

They informed the Master. The Master had the Order of monks assembled and questioned Udāyī, “Is it true, Udāyī, that you acted as a matchmaker?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha rebuked him, “… Foolish man, how can you act as a matchmaker? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Preliminary ruling

‘If a monk mediates a man’s intentions to a woman or a woman’s intentions to a man, for marriage or for an affair, he commits an offense entailing suspension.’”

In this way the Master laid down this training rule for the monks.

Second sub-story

Soon afterwards, a number of low-minded men who were amusing themselves in a pleasure grove sent a messenger to a prostitute: “Please come; let’s enjoy ourselves in the pleasure grove.”

She replied, “Sirs, I don’t know who you are. I already have much wealth, and I don’t want to go outside the city.”

The messenger returned the message. A certain man then said to those men, “Why did you ask the prostitute? You should’ve spoken to Venerable Udāyī. He’ll persuade her.”

But a certain Buddhist lay follower said, “No way. That’s not allowable for the Sakyan ascetics. Venerable Udāyī won’t do it.” And they made a bet on whether he would.

Those low-minded men approached Udāyī and said, “Venerable, while we were enjoying ourselves in the pleasure grove, we sent a message to such-and-such a prostitute, asking her to come, but she refused. Would you please persuade her?”

Udāyī agreed. And he went to that prostitute and said, “Why don’t you go to those men?”

“I don’t know them, Venerable.”

“I know them. Please go.”

“If you know them, Venerable, I’ll go.” And those men took her to the pleasure grove.

Then that lay follower complained and criticized him, “How can Venerable Udāyī act as a matchmaker for a brief affair?”

The monks heard it, and the monks of few desires complained and criticized him, “How can Venerable Udāyī act as a matchmaker for a brief affair?”

They rebuked Udāyī in many ways and then informed the Master. … “Is it true, Udāyī, that you acted as a matchmaker for a brief affair?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha rebuked him, “… Foolish man, how can you act as a matchmaker for a brief affair? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And so, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Final ruling

‘If a monk mediates a man’s intentions to a woman or a woman’s intentions to a man, for marriage or for an affair, even if just a brief one, he commits an offense entailing suspension.’”

Definitions

A: whoever … Monk: … The monk who has been given the full ordination by a complete Order through a formal procedure consisting of one motion and three announcements that is unchallengeable and fit to stand—this sort of monk is meant in this case.

Mediates: sent by a woman he goes to a man, or sent by a man he goes to a woman.

A man’s intentions to a woman: he informs a woman of a man’s intention.

A woman’s intentions to a man: he informs a man of a woman’s intention.

For marriage: you will be his wife.

For an affair: you will be his mistress.

Even if just a brief one: you will be in a short relationship.

He commits an offense entailing suspension: … Therefore, too, it is called “an offense entailing suspension.”

Permutations

Permutations part 1

Summary

There are ten kinds of women: the one protected by her mother, the one protected by her father, the one protected by her parents, the one protected by her brother, the one protected by her sister, the one protected by her relatives, the one protected by her kinsmen, the one protected by her religion, the one otherwise protected, the one protected by the threat of punishment.

There are ten kinds of wives: the bought wife, the wife by choice, the wife through property, the wife through clothes, the wife through the bowl-of-water ritual, the wife through removing the head pad, the slave wife, the servant wife, the captured wife, the momentary wife.

Definitions

The one protected by her mother: her mother protects, guards, wields authority, controls.

The one protected by her father: her father protects, guards, wields authority, controls.

The one protected by her parents: her parents protect, guard, wield authority, control.

The one protected by her brother: her brother protects, guards, wields authority, controls.

The one protected by her sister: her sister protects, guards, wields authority, controls.

The one protected by her relatives: her relatives protect, guard, wield authority, control.

The one protected by her kinsmen: her kinsmen protect, guard, wield authority, control.

The one protected by her religion: her fellow believers protect, guard, wield authority, control.

The one otherwise protected: even when she is in the womb, there is a master who thinks, “This is mine;” and even when she is engaged for marriage.

The one protected by the threat of punishment: those who punish will punish anyone going to her.

The bought wife: after buying her with money, they live together.

The wife by choice: being dear to each other, they live together.

The wife through property: after giving wealth, they live together.

The wife through clothes: after giving clothes, they live together.

The wife through the bowl-of-water ritual: after touching a bowl of water, they live together.

The wife through removing the head pad: after taking down the head pad, they live together.

The slave wife: she is a slave and a wife.

The servant wife: she is a servant and a wife.

The captured wife: this refers to one brought back as a captive.

The momentary wife: this refers to a wife for one occasion.

Exposition

Mediating between a man and a single bought wife

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her father … so-and-so protected by her parents … so-and-so protected by her brother … so-and-so protected by her sister … so-and-so protected by her relatives … so-and-so protected by her kinsmen … so-and-so protected by her religion … so-and-so otherwise protected … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The setting out of the steps.

Mediating between a man and two bought wives

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her father and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her parents … so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her brother … so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her sister … so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her relatives … so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her kinsmen … so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her religion … so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so otherwise protected … so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The unconnected permutation series.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her parents and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her brother … so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her sister … so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her relatives … so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her kinsmen … so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her religion … so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so otherwise protected … so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The linked permutation series, the basis in brief.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her father … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her parents … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her brother … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her sister … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her relatives … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her kinsmen … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her religion … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so otherwise protected and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The section on one root item is finished.

Mediating between a man and three to nine bought wives

The sections on two root items, three root items, up to nine root items, are to be done in the same way.

Mediating between a man and ten bought wives

This is the section on ten root items:

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her parents and so-and-so protected by her brother and so-and-so protected by her sister and so-and-so protected by her relatives and so-and-so protected by her kinsmen and so-and-so protected by her religion and so-and-so otherwise protected and so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The permutation series on bought wives is finished.

Mediating between a man and other kinds of wives

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the wife by choice of so-and-so … his wife through property … his wife through clothes … his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual … his wife through removing the head pad … his slave wife … his servant wife … his captured wife … his momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

Mediating between a man and a single momentary wife

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her father and say … so-and-so protected by her parents … so-and-so protected by her brother … so-and-so protected by her sister … so-and-so protected by her relatives … so-and-so protected by her kinsmen … so-and-so protected by her religion … so-and-so otherwise protected … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the momentary wife of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The setting out of the steps.

Mediating between a man and two momentary wives

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her father and say, ‘Please be the momentary wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her parents … so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the momentary wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The unconnected permutation series.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her parents and say, ‘Please be the momentary wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her brother … so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the momentary wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the momentary wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The linked permutation series, the basis in brief.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the momentary wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so protected by her father … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and so-and-so otherwise protected and say, ‘Please be the momentary wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The section on one root item is finished.

Mediating between a man and three to nine momentary wives

The sections on two root items, etc., are to be done in the same way.

Mediating between a man and ten momentary wives

This is the section on ten root items:

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her parents and so-and-so protected by her brother and so-and-so protected by her sister and so-and-so protected by her relatives and so-and-so protected by her kinsmen and so-and-so protected by her religion and so-and-so otherwise protected and so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the momentary wives of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The permutation series on momentary wives is finished.

Mediating between a man and one protected by her mother: a single motive

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the wife of so-and-so by choice … his wife through property … his wife through clothes … his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual … his wife through removing the head pad … his slave wife … his servant wife … his captured wife … his momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The setting out of the steps.

Mediating between a man and one protected by her mother: combinations of two motives

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so and his wife by choice.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so and his wife through property … his bought wife and his wife through clothes … his bought wife and his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual … his bought wife and his wife through removing the head pad … his bought wife and his slave wife … his bought wife and his servant wife … his bought wife and his captured wife … his bought wife and his momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The unconnected permutation series.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the wife by choice of so-and-so and his wife through property … his wife by choice and his momentary wife … his wife by choice and his bought wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The linked permutation series, the basis in brief.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the momentary wife of so-and-so and his bought wife … his momentary wife and his wife by choice … his momentary wife and his captured wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The section on one root item is finished.

Mediating between a man and one protected by her mother: combinations of three to nine motives

The sections on two root items, etc., are to be done in the same way.

Mediating between a man and one protected by her mother: ten motives

This is the section on ten root items:

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so and his wife by choice and his wife through property and his wife through clothes and his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual and his wife through removing the head pad and his slave wife and his servant wife and his captured wife and his momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The permutation series on the one guarded by her mother is finished.

Mediating between a man and one protected in various ways: any combination of motives

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her father … so-and-so protected by her parents … so-and-so protected by her brother … so-and-so protected by her sister … so-and-so protected by her relatives … so-and-so protected by her kinsmen … so-and-so protected by her religion … so-and-so otherwise protected … so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

Mediating between a man and one protected by the threat of punishment: a single motive

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the wife by choice of so-and-so … his wife through property … his wife through clothes … his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual … his wife through removing the head pad … his slave wife … his servant wife … his captured wife … his momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The setting out of the steps.

Mediating between a man and one protected by the threat of punishment: combinations of two motives

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so and his wife by choice.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so and his wife through property … his bought wife and his momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The unconnected permutation series.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the wife by choice of so-and-so and his wife through property … his wife by choice and his momentary wife … his wife by choice and his bought wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The linked permutation series, the basis in brief.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the momentary wife of so-and-so and his bought wife … his momentary wife and his wife by choice … his momentary wife and his captured wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The section on one root item is finished.

Mediating between a man and one protected by the threat of punishment: combinations of three to nine motives

The sections on two root items, three root items, up to nine root items, are to be done in the same way.

Mediating between a man and one protected by the threat of punishment: ten motives

This is the section on ten root items:

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so and his wife by choice and his wife through property and his wife through clothes and his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual and his wife through removing the head pad and his slave wife and his servant wife and his captured wife and his momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The permutation series for the one protected by the threat of punishment is finished.

Incremental increase in both wives and motives

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and say, ‘Please be the bought wife of so-and-so.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her father and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so and his wives by choice.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her parents and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so and his wives by choice and his wives through property.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

In this way the increase of both items is to be done.

A man sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so protected by her mother and so-and-so protected by her father and so-and-so protected by her parents and so-and-so protected by her brother and so-and-so protected by her sister and so-and-so protected by her relatives and so-and-so protected by her kinsmen and so-and-so protected by her religion and so-and-so otherwise protected and so-and-so protected by the threat of punishment and say, ‘Please be the bought wives of so-and-so and his wives by choice and his wives through property and his wives through clothes and his wives through the bowl-of-water ritual and his wives through removing the head pad and his slave wives and his servant wives and his captured wives and his momentary wives.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The increase of both items is finished.

Relationships arranged for a man

A man’s mother sends a monk … a man’s father sends a monk … a man’s parents send a monk … a man’s brother sends a monk … a man’s sister sends a monk … a man’s relatives send a monk … a man’s kinsmen send a monk … a man’s fellow believers send a monk …

To be expanded as the successive series on a man.

The increase of both items is to be expanded as before.

Relationships arranged by the mother: a single motive

The mother of one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your bought wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The mother of one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your wife by choice … your wife through property … your wife through clothes … your wife through the bowl-of-water ritual … your wife through removing the head pad … your slave wife … your servant wife … your captured wife … your momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The setting out of the steps.

Relationships arranged by the mother: combinations of two motives

The mother of one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your bought wife and your wife by choice … your bought wife and your wife through property … your bought wife and your momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The unconnected permutation series.

The mother of one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your wife by choice and your wife through property … your wife by choice and your momentary wife … your wife by choice and your bought wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The linked permutation series, the basis in brief.

The mother of one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your momentary wife and your bought wife … your momentary wife and your wife by choice … your momentary wife and your captured wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The section on one root item is finished.

Relationships arranged by the mother: combinations of three to nine motives

The sections on two root items, three root items, up to nine root items, are to be done in the same way.

Relationships arranged by the mother: ten motives

This is the section on ten root items:

The mother of one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your bought wife and your wife by choice and your wife through property and your wife through clothes and your wife through the bowl-of-water ritual and your wife through removing the head pad and your slave wife and your servant wife and your captured wife and your momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The permutation series on the mother is finished.

Relationships arranged by various people: any combination of motives

The father of one protected by her father sends a monk … the parents of one protected by her parents send a monk … the brother of one protected by her brother sends a monk … the sister of one protected by her sister sends a monk … the relatives of one protected by her relatives send a monk … the kinsmen of one protected by her kinsmen send a monk … the fellow believers of one protected by her religion send a monk … the master of one otherwise protected sends a monk … the one who punishes in relation to one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your bought wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

Relationships arranged by the one who punishes: a single motive

The one who punishes in relation to one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your wife by choice … your wife through property … your wife through clothes … your wife through the bowl-of-water ritual … your wife through removing the head pad … your slave wife … your servant wife … your captured wife … your momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The setting out of the steps.

Relationships arranged by the one who punishes: two motives

The one who punishes in relation to one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your bought wife and your wife by choice … your bought wife and your wife through property … your bought wife and your momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The unconnected permutation series.

The one who punishes in relation to one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your wife by choice and your wife through property … your wife by choice and your momentary wife … your wife by choice and your bought wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The linked permutation series, the basis in brief.

The one who punishes in relation to one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your momentary wife and your bought wife … who can be your momentary wife and your wife by choice … who can be your momentary wife and your captured wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The section on one root item is finished.

Relationships arranged by the one who punishes: three to nine motives

The sections on two root items, three root items, up to nine root items, are to be done in the same way.

Relationships arranged by the one who punishes: ten motives

This is the section on ten root items:

The one who punishes in relation to one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say, ‘I have a wife for you who can be your bought wife and your wife by choice and your wife through property and your wife through clothes and your wife through the bowl-of-water ritual and your wife through removing the head pad and your slave wife and your servant wife and your captured wife and your momentary wife.’” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The permutation series on the one who punishes is finished.

The one protected by her mother taking the initiative: a single motive

The one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his bought wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his wife by choice … his wife through property … his wife through clothes … his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual … his wife through removing the head pad … his slave wife … his servant wife … his captured wife … his momentary wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The setting out of the steps.

The one protected by her mother taking the initiative: two motives

The one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his bought wife and his wife by choice.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his bought wife and his wife through property … his bought wife and his wife through clothes … his bought wife and his momentary wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The unconnected permutation series.

The one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his wife by choice and his wife though property … his wife by choice and his momentary wife … his wife by choice and his bought wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The linked permutation series, the basis in brief.

The one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his momentary wife and his bought wife … his momentary wife and his wife by choice … his momentary wife and his captured wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The section on one root item is finished.

The one protected by her mother taking the initiative: three to nine motives

The sections on two root items, etc., are to be done in the same way.

The one protected by her mother taking the initiative: ten motives

This is the section on ten root items:

The one protected by her mother sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his bought wife and his wife by choice and his wife through property and his wife through clothes and his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual and his wife through removing the head pad and his slave wife and his servant wife and his captured wife and his momentary wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The further permutation series on the one guarded by her mother is finished.

The ones protected by various people taking the initiative: any combination of motives

The one protected by her father sends a monk … the one protected by her parents send a monk … the one protected by her brother sends a monk … the one protected by her sister sends a monk … the one protected by her relatives sends a monk … the one protected by her kinsmen sends a monk … the one protected by her religion sends a monk … the one otherwise protected sends a monk … the one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his bought wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The one protected by the threat of punishment taking the initiative: a single motive

The one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his wife by choice … his wife through property … his wife through clothes … his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual … his wife through removing the head pad … his slave wife … his servant wife … his captured wife … his momentary wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The setting out of the steps.

The one protected by the threat of punishment taking the initiative: two motives

The one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his bought wife and his wife by choice … his bought wife and his momentary wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The unconnected permutation series.

The one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his wife by choice and his wife though property … his wife by choice and his momentary wife … his wife by choice and his bought wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The linked permutation series, the basis in brief.

The one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his momentary wife and his bought wife … his momentary wife and his wife by choice … his momentary wife and his captured wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The section on one root item is finished.

The one protected by the threat of punishment taking the initiative: three to nine motives

The sections on two root items, etc., are to be done in the same way.

The one protected by the threat of punishment taking the initiative: ten motives

This is the section on ten root items:

The one protected by the threat of punishment sends a monk, saying, “Venerable, go to so-and-so and say that I’ll be his bought wife and his wife by choice and his wife through property and his wife through clothes and his wife through the bowl-of-water ritual and his wife through removing the head pad and his slave wife and his servant wife and his captured wife and his momentary wife.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

The further permutation series on the one protected by the threat of punishment is finished.
The whole successive permutation series is finished

Permutations part 2

If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension. If he accepts the mission, and finds out the response, but does not report back, he commits a serious offense. If he accepts the mission, but does not find out the response, yet reports back, he commits a serious offense. If he accepts the mission, but neither finds out the response, nor reports back, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he does not accept the mission, yet finds out the response and reports back, he commits a serious offense. If he does not accept the mission, yet finds out the response, but does not report back, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he neither accepts the mission, nor finds out the response, yet reports back, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If he does not accept the mission, nor finds out the response, nor reports back, there is no offense.

A man tells a number of monks, “Venerables, find out about such-and-such a woman.” If they all accept the mission, all find out the response, and all report back, they all commit an offense entailing suspension.

A man tells a number of monks, “Venerables, find out about such-and-such a woman.” If they all accept the mission, all find out the response, but only one reports back, they all commit an offense entailing suspension.

A man tells a number of monks, “Venerables, find out about such-and-such a woman.” If they all accept the mission, but only one finds out the response, yet all report back, they all commit an offense entailing suspension.

A man tells a number of monks, “Venerables, find out about such-and-such a woman.” If they all accept the mission, but only one finds out the response, and only one reports back, they all commit an offense entailing suspension.

A man tells a monk, “Venerable, find out about such-and-such a woman.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, and reports back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man tells a monk, “Venerable, find out about such-and-such a woman.” If he accepts the mission, finds out the response, but gets a pupil to report back, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man tells a monk, “Venerable, find out about such-and-such a woman.” If he accepts the mission, but gets a pupil to find out the response, and then reports back himself, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

A man tells a monk, “Venerable, find out about such-and-such a woman.” If he accepts the mission, but gets a pupil to find out the response, and the pupil then reports back on his own initiative, they both commit a serious offense.

Permutations part 3

If he fulfills the agreement when he goes, but not when he returns, he commits a serious offense.

If he does not fulfill the agreement when he goes, but he does when he returns, he commits a serious offense.

If he fulfills the agreement both when he goes and when he returns, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

If he neither fulfills the agreement when he goes nor when he returns, there is no offense.

Non-offenses

There is no offense: if he goes because of business for the monastic Order, for a shrine, or for one who is ill; if he is insane; if he is the first offender.

Case rulings

Mnemonic list

Asleep, and dead, gone out,
Not a woman, a sexually non-conformist female;
He reconciled them after quarreling,
And he was a mediator for sexual nonconformists.

Case details

At one time, a man told a monk, “Venerable, please find out about such-and-such a woman.” When the monk got there, he asked some people, “Where’s so-and-so?”

“She’s asleep, Venerable.”

He became remorseful, thinking, “The Master has laid down a training rule. Could it be that I’ve committed an offense entailing suspension?” He informed the Master, and the Master said, “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a man told a monk, “Venerable, please find out about such-and-such a woman.” When the monk got there, he asked some people, “Where’s so-and-so?”

“She’s dead, Venerable.” … “She’s gone out, Venerable.” … “That’s not a woman, Venerable.” … “That’s a sexually non-conformist female, Venerable.”

He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


At one time, a woman quarreled with her husband and went to her mother’s house. A monk who was supported by that family reconciled them. He became remorseful … “Were they divorced, monk?”

“They weren’t divorced, Master.”

“There’s no offense when they’re not divorced.”


At one time, a monk acted as a mediator for sexual nonconformists. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing suspension, but there’s a serious offense.”

The fifth rule, the training rule on mediation, is finished.