Theravāda Collection on Monastic Law

Monks’ rules and their analysis

Monks’ Suspension

6. The training rule on building huts

Origin story

At one time the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the squirrel sanctuary. At that time the monks of Āḷavī were building huts by means of begging. The huts were intended for themselves, did not have a sponsoring owner, and were inappropriate in size. Moreover, they were never finished, and so the monks kept on asking and begging, “Give a man, give a servant, give an ox, give a cart, give an adz, give a hatchet, give an ax, give a spade, give a chisel, give a creeper, give bamboo, give reed, give grass, give clay.” People felt oppressed by all the asking and begging, so much so that when they saw a monk they became alarmed and fearful, and they ran away, took a different path, turned away, and closed their doors. They even ran away when they saw cows, thinking they were monks.

Just then Venerable Mahākassapa, after spending the rainy season at Rājagaha, set out for Āḷavī. When he eventually arrived in Āḷavī, he stayed at the Aggāḷava Shrine. Then, after dressing one morning, Venerable Mahākassapa took his bowl and robe and entered Āḷavī for alms. When people saw him they became fearful and alarmed, and they ran away, took a different path, turned away, and closed their doors. After finishing his almsround and eating his meal, Venerable Mahākassapa returned and said to the monks:

“Āḷavī used to have plenty of food, and it wasn’t difficult to get by on almsfood. But now Āḷavī is short of almsfood, and it’s not easy to get by on alms. Why is that?” The monks told Venerable Mahākassapa what had happened.

Around the same time, after staying at Rājagaha for as long as he liked, the Master too set out for Āḷavī. When he eventually arrived at Āḷavī, he too stayed at the Aggāḷava shrine.

Venerable Mahākassapa approached the Master, bowed down to him, and sat down to one side. And he informed the Master of what had happened.

The Master then had the Order of monks assembled and questioned the monks of Āḷavī, “Is it true, monks, that you’re building huts through begging, huts intended for yourself, without a sponsoring owner, and inappropriate in size? And that because they were never completed, you kept on asking and begging for all sorts of things, and people felt oppressed to point where they now avoid monks?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha rebuked them: “… Foolish men, how can you act in this way? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it …” After rebuking them, he gave a teaching and addressed the monks:

Jataka

“Once upon a time, monks, two sages who were brothers lived near the river Ganges. On one occasion the dragon king Maṇikaṇṭha emerged from the Ganges and approached the younger sage. He encircled him with seven coils and spread his large hood over his head. Because of his fear of that dragon, the younger sage became thin, haggard, and pale, his veins protruding all over his limbs. The older sage saw him like this and asked him what was the matter. And the younger sage told him. The elder sage said, ‘Would you like that dragon not to return?’

‘I would.’

‘Well then, did you see anything belonging to that dragon?’

‘I saw a ornamental jewel on his neck.’

‘In that case ask the dragon for that jewel.’

Soon the dragon king again emerged from the Ganges, approached the younger sage, and stood to one side. The sage said to him, ‘Sir, give me the jewel; msgstr "I want the jewel.’ And the dragon thought, ‘The monk is asking for the jewel,’ and he quickly departed.

Once more the dragon king emerged from the Ganges and approached the younger sage. The sage saw him coming and said to him, ‘Sir, give me the jewel; I want the jewel.’ When the dragon heard him, he turned around right there.

Yet again the dragon king emerged from the Ganges. The younger sage saw him emerging and said to him, ‘Sir, give me the jewel; I want the jewel.’ The dragon king then spoke these verses to the sage:

‘My food and drink are abundant and sublime,
And they appear because of this jewel.
I won’t give it to you—you ask too much,
Nor will I return to your hermitage.

Like a boy holding a sharp sword,
You frighten me, asking for this stone.
I won’t give it to you—you ask too much,
Nor will I return to your hermitage.’

And the dragon king Maṇikaṇṭha thought, ‘The monk is asking for the jewel; he wants the jewel,’ and he departed and never returned.

Because he did not get to see that beautiful dragon, the young sage became even thinner, more haggard and pale, his veins protruding even more. The older sage saw him like this and asked what was the matter. He replied, ‘It’s because I no longer get to see that beautiful dragon.’ The older sage then spoke to him in verse:

‘One should not beg from those one wishes to be dear to;
One is detested for asking for too much.
When the brahmin asked the dragon for his jewel,
It departed and was never to be seen again.’

One will be disliked even by animals, monks, for asking and begging, let alone by human beings.”

Story

“Once upon a time, monks, a certain monk lived in a forest grove on the slopes of the Himalayas. Not far from that grove was an large, low-lying marsh. A great flock of birds fed in the marsh during the day and entered the grove to roost at night. The monk was disturbed by the noise of the flocking birds, and so he came to see me. He bowed down to me, sat down to one side, and I said to him, ‘I hope you’re keeping well, monk; I hope you’re comfortable. I hope you’re not tired from traveling. And where have you come from?’

‘I’m keeping well, Venerable Sir; I’m comfortable. And I’m not tired from traveling. On the slopes of the Himalayas there’s a great forest grove and close by a large low-lying marsh. A large flock of birds feeds in that low-lying marsh during the day and comes at night to roost in that forest grove. That’s where I’ve come from, Master, and I left because I was disturbed by the noise of that flock of birds.’

‘Would you like that flock of birds not to return?’

‘I would, Master.’

‘Well then, go back to that forest grove. In the first watch of the night, call out three times, “Listen to me, good birds. From whoever roosts in this forest grove, I want a feather. Each one of you must give me a feather.” And in the second and third watch of the night do the same thing.’

The monk returned to that forest grove and did as instructed. That flock of birds thought, ‘The monk is asking for a feather; he wants a feather,’ and they left that grove and never returned. One will be disliked even by animals, monks, for asking and begging, let alone by human beings.”


“The father of Raṭṭhapāla, monks, once spoke to his son with this verse:

‘All these people, Raṭṭhāpāla,
Who come to me and beg—
I don’t even know them.
So why don’t you beg from me?’

‘The beggar isn’t liked,
Nor is he who doesn’t give when asked.
That’s why I do not beg from you;
Please don’t hate me for this.’

If Raṭṭhapāla, who came from a good family, could speak in this way to his own father, how much more, then, can people do so to each other.

it’s hard, monks, for householders to acquire and protect their possessions. And still, foolish men, you kept on asking and begging for all sorts of things. This will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Final ruling

‘When a monk, by means of begging, builds a hut without a sponsoring owner and intended for himself, it is to be no more than 3 meters long and 1.75 meters wide inside. He must get monks to approve a site where no harm will be done and which has a space on all sides. If a monk, by means of begging, builds a hut on a site where harm will be done and which lacks a space on all sides, or he does not get monks to approve the site, or he exceeds the size limit, he commits an offense entailing suspension.’”

Definitions

By means of begging: having himself begged for a man, a servant, an ox, a cart, an adz, a hatchet, an ax, a spade, a chisel, a creeper, bamboo, reed, grass, clay.

A hut: a wattle and daub hut.

Builds: building it himself or getting someone else to build it.

Without a sponsoring owner: there is no other owner, either a woman or a man, either a householder or one gone forth.

Intended for himself: for his own use.

It is to be no more than 3 meters long: measured outside.

And 1.75 meters wide inside: measured inside.

He must get monks to approve a site:

The monk who wishes to build a hut should clear a site. He should then approach the Order, put his robe over one shoulder, pay respect at the feet of the senior monks, squat on his heels with his palms together, and say, “Venerables, I wish, by means of begging, to build a hut without a sponsoring owner and intended for myself. I request the Order to inspect the site for the hut.” He should make his request a second and a third time. If the whole Order is able to inspect the site, they should all go. If the whole Order is not able to inspect the site, then those monks there who are competent and capable—who know where harm will be done and where no harm will be done, and who know what is meant by a space on all sides and a lack of space on all sides—should be asked and then appointed.

“And, monks, they should be appointed in this way. A competent and capable monk should inform the Order:

‘Venerables, let the Order listen to me. Monk so-and-so, by means of begging, wishes to build a hut without a sponsoring owner and intended for himself. He is requesting the Order to inspect the site for the hut. If it seems appropriate to the Order, the Order should appoint monk so-and-so and monk so-and-so to inspect the site. This is the motion.

Venerables, let the Order listen to me. Monk so-and-so, by means of begging, wishes to build a hut without a sponsoring owner and intended for himself. He is requesting the Order to inspect the site for the hut. The Order appoints monk so-and-so and monk so-and-so to inspect the site. Any monk who approves of appointing monk so-and-so and monk so-and-so to inspect the site for the hut should remain silent. Any monk who does not approve should say so.

Monk so-and-so and monk so-and-so have been appointed by the Order to inspect the site for the hut of monk so-and-so. The Order approves and is therefore silent. I will remember it thus.’

The appointed monks should go and inspect the site for the hut to find out if any harm will be done and if it has a space on all sides. If harm will be done and it lacks a space on all sides, they should say, ‘Don’t build here.’ If no harm will be done and it has a space on all sides, they should inform the Order: ‘No harm will be done and it has a space on all sides.’ The monk who wishes to build the hut should then approach the Order, put his robe over one shoulder, pay respect at the feet of the senior monks, squat on his heels with his palms together, and say, ‘Venerables, I wish, by means of begging, to build a hut without a sponsoring owner and intended for myself. I request the Order to approve the site for the hut.’ He should make his request a second and a third time. A competent and capable monk should then inform the Order:

‘Venerables, let the Order listen to me. Monk so-and-so, by means of begging, wishes to build a hut without a sponsoring owner and intended for himself. He is requesting the Order to approve the site for the hut. If it seems appropriate to the Order, the Order should approve the site. This is the motion.

Venerables, let the Order listen to me. Monk so-and-so, by means of begging, wishes to build a hut without a sponsoring owner and intended for himself. He is requesting the Order to approve the site for the hut. The Order approves the site for the hut of monk so-and-so. Any monk who approves of approving the site for the hut should remain silent. Any monk who does not approve should say so.

The site for the hut of monk so-and-so has been approved by the Order. The Order approves and is therefore silent. I will remember it thus.’”

Where harm will be done: it is the abode of ants, termites, rats, snakes, scorpions, centipedes, elephants, horses, lions, tigers, leopards, bears, or hyenas, or any other animals; or it is bordering on a field of grain, a field of vegetables, a slaughtering-place, a place of execution, a charnel ground, a park, a king’s property, an elephant-stable, a horse-stable, a prison, a bar, a slaughterhouse, a vehicle road, a crossroads, an assembly hall, or a cul-de-sac— this is called “where harm will be done.”

Which lacks a space on all sides: it is not possible to go around it with a yoked cart, or to go all the way around it with a ladder— this is called “which lacks a space on all sides.”

Where no harm will be done: it is not the abode of ants, termites, rats, snakes, scorpions, centipedes … it is not bordering on … a cul-de-sac— this is called “where no harm will be done.”

Which has a space on all sides: it is possible to go around it with a yoked cart, or to go all the way around it with a ladder— this is called “which has a space on all sides.”

By means of begging: having himself begged for a man, a servant … clay.

A hut: a wattle and daub hut.

Builds: building it himself or getting someone else to build it.

Or he does not get monks to approve the site, or he exceeds the size limit: if the site for the hut has not been approved through a formal procedure consisting of one motion and three announcements, or he builds a hut or gets one built which exceeds the allowable length or breadth even by the width of a hair, he commits an offense of wrong conduct for the effort. When one piece is left to complete the hut, he commits a serious offense. When the last piece is finished, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

He commits an offense entailing suspension: … Therefore, too, it is called “an offense entailing suspension.”

Permutations

Permutations part 1

Building oneself

If a monk builds a hut whose site has not been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has not been approved, where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has not been approved, where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has not been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension.

If a monk builds a hut whose site has been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has been approved, where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


If a monk builds a hut which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut which exceeds the size limit, where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut which exceeds the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension.

If a monk builds a hut which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


If a monk builds a hut whose site has not been approved, which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has not been approved, which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits two offenses entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has not been approved, which exceeds the size limit, where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has not been approved, which exceeds the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits two offense entailing suspension.

If a monk builds a hut whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. If a monk builds a hut whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.

Appointing someone else to build

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut. If they build one whose site has not been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut. If they build one whose site has been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut. If they build one which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut. If they build one which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut. If they build one whose site has not been approved, which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits two offenses entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits two offense entailing suspension.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut. If they build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.

Departing without informing of proper building procedure

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs, but he does not tells them to build it on a site which has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build a hut whose site has not been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs, but he does not tell them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build a hut whose site has been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs, but he does not tells them to build one which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build a hut which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs, but he does not tells them to build one which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build a hut which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs, but he does not tells them to build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build a hut whose site has not been approved, which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits two offenses entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits two offense entailing suspension.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs, but he does not tells them to build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build a hut whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.

Departing and then hearing about wrong building procedure

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one whose site has not been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If he neither goes himself nor sends a message, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one whose site has not been approved, where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one whose site has been approved, and where no harm will be done. If he neither goes himself nor sends a message, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one whose site has not been approved, where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one whose site has been approved, and which has a space on all sides. If he neither goes himself nor sends a message, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one whose site has not been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one whose site has been approved. If he neither goes himself nor sends a message, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one whose site has been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If he neither goes himself nor sends a message, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one whose site has been approved, where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one where no harm will be done. If he neither goes himself nor sends a message, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one which has a space on all sides. If he neither goes himself nor sends a message, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, and they do build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. There is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. … which is within the size limit, and where no harm will be done. … which is within the size limit, and which has a space on all sides. … which is within the size limit. If he neither goes himself nor sends a message, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. … where no harm will be done. … which has a space on all sides. … There is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one whose site has not been approved, which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. … whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, and where no harm will be done. … whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, and which has a space on all sides. … whose site has been approved, and which is within the size limit. If he neither goes himself nor sends a message, he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, but they build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If he hears about it, he must either go there himself or send a message, and he must tell them to build one where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. … where no harm will be done. … which has a space on all sides. … There is no offense.

Offenses for appointed builders

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build one whose site has not been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit three offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, the builders commit two offenses of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit two offenses of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, the builders commit one offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build one whose site has been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, the builders commit one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build one which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit three offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, the builders commit two offenses of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit two offenses of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, the builders commit one offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build one which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, the builders commit one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build one whose site has not been approved, which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit four offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, the builders commit three offenses of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit three offenses of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, the builders commit two offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. He tells them to build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. If they build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, the builders commit one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, the builders commit one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.

Unfinished when he returns

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. They build one whose site has not been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If it is unfinished when he returns, that hut is to be given to someone else, or it is to be demolished and rebuilt. If he does not give it to someone else, or does not demolish and rebuild it, he commits one offense entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. They build one whose site has not been approved, where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides. If it is unfinished when he returns, that hut is to be given to someone else, or it is to be demolished and rebuilt. If he does not give it to someone else, or does not demolish and rebuild it, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides. … he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides. … he commits one offense entailing suspension.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. They build one whose site has been approved, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If it is unfinished when he returns, that hut is to be given to someone else, or it is to be demolished and rebuilt. If he does not give it to someone else, or does not demolish and rebuild it, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. They build one which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If it is unfinished when he returns, that hut is to be given to someone else, or it is to be demolished and rebuilt. If he does not give it to someone else, or does not demolish and rebuild it, he commits one offense entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense entailing suspension.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. They build one which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If it is unfinished when he returns, that hut is to be given to someone else, or it is to be demolished and rebuilt. If he does not give it to someone else, or does not demolish and rebuild it, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.


A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. They build one whose site has not been approved, which exceeds the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If it is unfinished when he returns, that hut is to be given to someone else, or it is to be demolished and rebuilt. If he does not give it to someone else, or does not demolish and rebuild it, he commits two offenses entailing suspension and two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits two offense entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits two offenses entailing suspension and one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, he commits two offenses entailing suspension.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. They build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where harm will be done, and which lacks a space on all sides. If it is unfinished when he returns, that hut is to be given to someone else, or it is to be demolished and rebuilt. If he does not give it to someone else, or does not demolish and rebuild it, he commits two offenses of wrong conduct. … where harm will be done, but which has a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct. … where no harm will be done, but which lacks a space on all sides, he commits one offense of wrong conduct.

A monk appoints someone to build him a hut and then departs. They build one whose site has been approved, which is within the size limit, where no harm will be done, and which has a space on all sides, there is no offense.

Permutations part 2

If he finishes what he began himself, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

If he gets others to finish what he began himself, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

If he finishes himself what was begun by others, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

If he gets others to finish what was begun by others, he commits an offense entailing suspension.

Non-offenses

There is no offense: if it is an overhang shelter; if it is a cave; if it is a grass hut; if it is built for someone else; if it is anything apart from a dwelling; if he is insane; if he is the first offender.

The sixth rule, the training rule on building huts, is finished.