Theravāda Collection on Monastic Law

Monks’ rules and their analysis

Monks’ Suspension

9. The second training rule on anger

Origin story

At one time the Buddha was staying at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the squirrel sanctuary. On one occasion the monks Mettiya and Bhūmajaka were descending from Mount Vulture Peak, when they saw two goats copulating. They said to each other, “Let’s give the he-goat the name Dabba the Mallian and the she-goat the name Mettiya the nun. We can then say, ‘Earlier we spoke because of what we had heard about Dabba, but now we’ve seen him ourselves copulating with the nun Mettiya.’” They gave them those names and then informed the monks, “Earlier we spoke about what we had heard, but now we’ve seen Dabba copulating with the nun Mettiya.”

The monks replied, “Don’t say such a thing. Venerable Dabba wouldn’t do that.”

The monks informed the Master. The Master had the Order of monks assembled and asked Dabba, “Dabba, do you remember doing as these monks say?”

“Venerable Sir, the Master knows about me.”

A second and a third time the Master asked the same question and got the same response. He then said, “Dabba, the Dabbas don’t give such evasive answers. If it was done by you, say so; if it wasn’t done by you, then say that.”

“Venerable Sir, since I was born I don’t recall having sexual intercourse even in a dream, much less when I was awake.”

“Well then, monks, call those monks to account,” and he rose from his seat and entered his dwelling.

The monks then questioned Mettiya and Bhūmajaka, who told them what had happened. The monks said, “Did you accuse Venerable Dabba of an offense entailing expulsion, using an unrelated legal issue as a pretext?”

“Yes.”

The monks of few desires … complained and criticized them, “How can Mettiya and Bhūmajaka accuse Venerable Dabba in this way?”

They rebuked those monks in many ways and then informed the Master. … He said, “Is it true, monks, that you accused Dabba the Mallian of an offense entailing expulsion, using an unrelated legal issue as a pretext?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha rebuked them: “… Foolish men, how can you accuse Dabba in this way? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Final ruling

‘If a monk who is angry and displeased, using an unrelated legal issue as a pretext, accuses another monk of an offense entailing expulsion, aiming to make him leave the monastic life, and then after some time, whether he is questioned or not, it is clear that the legal issue is unrelated and used as a pretext, and he admits to his ill-will, he commits an offense entailing suspension.’”

Definitions

A: whoever … Monk: … The monk who has been given the full ordination by a complete Order through a formal procedure consisting of one motion and three announcements that is unchallengeable and fit to stand— this sort of monk is meant in this case.

Another monk: a different monk.

Angry: upset, dissatisfied, discontent, having hatred, hostile.

Displeased: because of that upset, that ill-will, that dissatisfaction, and that discontent, he is displeased.

An unrelated legal issue:

It is either unrelated in regard to offenses or unrelated in regard to legal issues.

How is a legal issue unrelated to a legal issue? A legal issue due to a dispute is unrelated to a legal issue due to an accusation, a legal issue due to an offense, and a legal issue due to a proceeding. A legal issue due to an accusation is unrelated to a legal issue due to an offense, a legal issue due to a proceeding, and a legal issue due to a dispute. A legal issue due to an offense is unrelated to a legal issue due to a proceeding, a legal issue due to a dispute, and a legal issue due to an accusation. A legal issue due to a proceeding is unrelated to a legal issue due to a dispute, a legal issue due to an accusation, and a legal issue due to an offense. It is in this way that a legal issue is unrelated to a legal issue.

How is a legal issue related to a legal issue? A legal issue due to a dispute is related to a legal issue due to a dispute. A legal issue due to an accusation is related to a legal issue due to an accusation. A legal issue due to an offense may be either related or unrelated to a legal issue due to an offense.

How is a legal issue due to an offense unrelated to a legal issue due to an offense? An offense entailing expulsion in regard to sexual intercourse is unrelated to an offense entailing expulsion in regard to stealing, an offense entailing expulsion in regard to a human being, and an offense entailing expulsion in regard to a super-human quality. An offense entailing expulsion in regard to stealing is unrelated to an offense entailing expulsion in regard to a human being, an offense entailing expulsion in regard to a super-human quality, and an offense entailing expulsion in regard to sexual intercourse. An offense entailing expulsion in regard to a human being is unrelated to an offense entailing expulsion in regard to a super-human quality, an offense entailing expulsion in regard to sexual intercourse, and an offense entailing expulsion in regard to stealing. An offense entailing expulsion in regard to a super-human quality is unrelated to an offense entailing expulsion in regard to sexual intercourse, an offense entailing expulsion in regard to stealing, and an offense entailing expulsion in regard to a human being. It is in this way that a legal issue due to an offense is unrelated to a legal issue due to an offense.

How is a legal issue due to an offense related to a legal issue due to an offense? An offense entailing expulsion in regard to sexual intercourse is related to an offense entailing expulsion in regard to sexual intercourse. An offense entailing expulsion in regard to stealing is related to an offense entailing expulsion in regard to stealing. An offense entailing expulsion in regard to a human being is related to an offense entailing expulsion in regard to a human being. An offense entailing expulsion in regard to a super-human quality is related to an offense entailing expulsion in regard to a super-human quality. It is in this way that a legal issue due to an offense is related to a legal issue due to an offense.

A legal issue due to a proceeding is related to a legal issue due to a proceeding. It is in this way that a legal issue is related to a legal issue.


Using […] as a pretext:

A pretext: there are ten pretexts— the pretext of caste, the pretext of name, the pretext of family, the pretext of characteristic, the pretext of offense, the pretext of bowl, the pretext of robe, the pretext of preceptor, the pretext of teacher, the pretext of lodging.

The pretext of caste: a monk sees an aristocrat committing an offense entailing expulsion. If he then accuses another aristocrat, saying, “I’ve a seen an aristocrat. You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion. You’re no longer an ascetic, not a son of the Sakyan; you’re excluded from the observance-day ceremony, from the invitation ceremony, from formal procedures of the Order,” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

A monk sees a brahmin … A monk sees a merchant … A monk sees a worker … he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The pretext of name: a monk sees someone whose name is Buddharakkhita … Dhammarakkhita … Saṅgharakkhita committing an offense entailing expulsion. If he then accuses another person called Saṅgharakkhita, saying, “I’ve seen Saṅgharakkhita. You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion. …” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The pretext of family: a monk sees someone whose family name is Gotama … Moggallāna … Kaccāyana … Vāsiṭṭha committing an offense entailing expulsion. If he then accuses another person called Vāsiṭṭha, saying, “I’ve seen Vāsiṭṭha. You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion. …” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The pretext of characteristic: a monk sees someone tall … short … dark-skinned … fair-skinned committing an offense entailing expulsion. If he then accuses another fair-skinned person, saying, “I’ve seen a fair-skinned person. You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion. …” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The pretext of offense: a monk sees someone committing a light offense. If he then accuses him of an offense entailing expulsion, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic, not a son of the Sakyan …” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The pretext of bowl: a monk sees someone carrying a metal bowl … a black clay bowl … an ordinary clay bowl committing an offense entailing expulsion. If he then accuses another person carrying an ordinary clay bowl, saying, “I’ve seen someone carrying an ordinary clay bowl. You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion. …” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The pretext of robe: a monk sees someone wearing rag robes … wearing robes given by lay people committing an offense entailing expulsion. If he then accuses another person wearing robes given by lay people, saying, “I’ve seen someone wearing robes given by lay people. You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion. …” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The pretext of preceptor: a monk sees a student of so-and-so committing an offense entailing expulsion. If he then accuses another student of that person, saying, “I’ve seen a student of so-and-so. You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion. …” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The pretext of teacher: a monk sees a pupil of so-and-so committing an offense entailing expulsion. If he then accuses another pupil of that person, saying, “I’ve seen a pupil of so-and-so. You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion. …” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The pretext of lodging: a monk sees one who dwells in such-and-such a lodging committing an offense entailing expulsion. If he then accuses someone else who dwells in that lodging, saying, “I’ve seen one who dwells in such-and-such a lodging. You’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion. You’re no longer an ascetic, not a son of the Sakyan; you’re excluded from the observance-day ceremony, from the invitation ceremony, from formal procedures of the Order,” he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.


An offense entailing expulsion: one of the four.

Accuses: accuses or causes to be accused.

To make him leave the monastic life: to make him leave the monkhood, leave the state of an ascetic, leave his virtue, leave the benefits of asceticism.

And then after some time: the moment, the instant, the second after he has made the accusation.

He is questioned: he is questioned about the grounds of his accusation.

Not: he is not spoken to by anyone.

The legal issue: there are four kinds of legal issues: legal issues due to disputes, legal issues due to accusations, legal issues due to offenses, legal issues due to proceedings.

Used as a pretext: he has used a certain pretext among those listed above.

And he admits to his ill-will: “what I said was empty, what I said was false, what I said was unreal; I said it without knowing.”

He commits an offense entailing suspension: … Therefore, too, it is called “an offense entailing suspension.”

Permutations

Doing the accusing oneself

A monk sees a second monk committing an offense entailing suspension, and the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing suspension. If he then accuses him of an offense entailing expulsion, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic, not a son of the Sakyan; you’re excluded from the observance-day ceremony, from the invitation ceremony, from formal procedures of the Order,” thus using an unrelated offense as a pretext, he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

A monk sees a second monk committing an offense entailing suspension, but the first monk thinks it is a serious offense … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing confession … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing acknowledgment … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of wrong conduct … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of bad speech. If he then accuses him of an offense entailing expulsion, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic …” thus using an unrelated offense as a pretext, he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

A monk sees a second monk committing a serious offense, and the first monk thinks it is a serious offense … but the first monk thinks it is a offense entailing confession … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing acknowledgment … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of wrong conduct … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of bad speech … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing suspension. If he then accuses him of an offense entailing expulsion, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic …” thus using an unrelated offense as a pretext, he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

A monk sees a second monk committing an offense entailing confession … an offense entailing acknowledgment … an offense of wrong conduct … an offense of bad speech, and the first monk thinks it is an offense of bad speech … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing suspension … but the first monk thinks it is a serious offense … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing confession … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing acknowledgment … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of wrong conduct. If he then accuses him of an offense entailing expulsion, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic, not a son of the Sakyan; you’re excluded from the observance-day ceremony, from the invitation ceremony, from formal procedures of the Order,” thus using an unrelated offense as a pretext, he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

The permutation series is to be linked by doing the items one by one.

Getting someone else to do the accusing

A monk sees a second monk committing an offense entailing suspension and the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing suspension. If he then has him accused of an offense entailing expulsion, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic …” thus using an unrelated offense as a pretext, he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

A monk sees a second monk committing an offense entailing suspension, but the first monk thinks it is a serious offense … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing confession … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing acknowledgment … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of wrong conduct … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of bad speech. If he then has him accused of an offense entailing expulsion, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic …” thus using an unrelated offense as a pretext, he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

A monk sees a second monk committing a serious offense, and the first monk thinks it is a serious offense … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing confession … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing acknowledgment … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of wrong conduct … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of bad speech … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing suspension. If he then has him accused of an offense entailing expulsion, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic …” thus using an unrelated offense as a pretext, he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

A monk sees a second monk committing an offense entailing confession … an offense entailing acknowledgment … an offense of wrong conduct … an offense of bad speech, and the first monk thinks it is an offense of bad speech … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing suspension … but the first monk thinks it is a serious offense … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing confession … but the first monk thinks it is an offense entailing acknowledgment … but the first monk thinks it is an offense of wrong conduct. If he then has him accused of an offense entailing expulsion, saying, “You’re no longer an ascetic, not a son of the Sakyan; you’re excluded from the observance-day ceremony, from the invitation ceremony, from formal procedures of the Order,” thus using an unrelated offense as a pretext, he commits an offense entailing suspension for each statement.

Non-offenses

There is no offense: if he accuses or causes someone to be accused in accordance with his own perception; if he is insane; if he is the first offender.

The ninth rule, the training rule on a (unrelated) pretext, is finished.