Theravāda Vinayapiṭaka

Khandhaka (Cūḷavagga)

12. Probation (Parivāsa)

Duties on one on probation

At one time, the Awakened One, the Lord was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time monks under probation consented to regular monks greeting them, standing up before them, saluting with joined palms, doing the proper duties, bringing forward a seat, bringing forward a sleeping-place, water for (washing) the feet, a footstool, a foot-stand, receiving the bowl and robe, treating their backs by massaging. Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these monks who are under probation consent to regular monks greeting … treating their backs by massaging?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks, saying:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that monks who are under probation consent to regular monks greeting … treating their backs by massaging?”

“It is true, Lord.” The Awakened One, the Lord rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can these monks who are under probation consent to regular monks … treating their backs by massaging? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” And having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“A monk who is under probation, monks, should not consent to regular monks greeting him … treating his back by massaging. Whoever should consent to (any of these actions), there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, the mutual greeting, standing up before … treating of backs by massaging between monks who are under probation according to their seniority. I allow, monks, five things for monks under probation according to their seniority: Observance, Invitation, cloths for the rains, gifts (to the Order) rice.

“Well now, monks, I will lay down the conduct for monks under probation, so that monks under probation may conduct themselves according to it. A monk under probation, monks, should conduct himself properly. This is the proper conduct in this case: he should not ordain, he should not give guidance, a novice should not attend him, he should not consent to an agreement to exhort nuns, even if agreed upon he should not exhort nuns, he should not fall into that same offence for which he was granted probation, nor into another that is similar, nor into one that is worse, he should not find fault with the (formal) act, he should not find fault with those who carry out the (formal) act, he should not suspend a regular monk’s Observance, he should not suspend his Invitation, he should not issue commands, should not set up authority, he should not ask for leave, he should not reprove, he should not make remember, he should not quarrel with monks. Nor, monks, should a monk under probation walk in front of a regular monk, nor sit down in front of him. Whatever is the Order’s last seat, last sleeping-place, last dwelling-place—that should be given to him and he should consent to it. Monks, a monk under probation should not approach the families of a regular monk either as the novice who walks in front of him or as the novice who walks behind him. He should not undertake the forest-practice, he should not undertake the almsman’s practice, he should not have almsfood taken back for this reason: that he thinks, ‘Do not let them find out about me’. Monks, a monk under probation should announce it when he is in-coming, he should announce it to (another who is) in-coming, he should announce it at the Observance, he should announce it at the Invitation, if he is ill he should also announce it by means of a messenger.

“Monks, a monk under probation should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk under probation should not go from, a residence where there are monks to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk under probation should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk under probation should not go from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are no monks … to what is not a residence where there are no monks … to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk under probation should not go from a residence, or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are no monks … to what is not a residence where there are no monks … to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger.

“Monks, a monk under probation should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to a different communion, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk under probation should not go from residence where there are monks to what is not a residence where there are monks … should not go from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to a different communion, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger.

“Monks, a monk under probation may go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to the same communion and if he knows, ‘I am able to arrive this very day.’ Monks, a monk under probation may go from a residence where there are monks to what is not a residence where there are monks … may go from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to the same communion and if he knows, ‘I am able to arrive this very day.’

“Monks, a monk under probation should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a regular monk, he should not stay in what is not a residence under one roofing (with him), he should not stay in a residence or in what is not a residence under one roofing (with him). Having seen a regular monk, he should get up from his seat. He should offer his seat to the regular monk. A monk under probation should not sit down on the same seat with a regular monk, he should not sit down on a high seat if he is sitting down on a low seat, he should not sit down on a seat if he is sitting on the ground, he should not pace up and down in the same place for pacing up and down in, he should not pace up and down in a high place for pacing up and down in if he is pacing up and down in a low place for pacing up and down in, he should not pace up and down in a place for pacing up and down in if he is pacing up and down on the ground.

“Monks, a monk under probation should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a senior monk who is under probation … with a monk who deserves to be sent back to the beginning … with a monk who deserves mānatta (discipline) … with a monk who is undergoing mānatta (discipline) … with a monk who deserves rehabilitation, he should not stay in what is not a residence under one roofing (with him) … he should not pace up and down in a place for pacing up and down in if he is pacing up and down on the ground.

If, monks, one under probation as the fourth (member) should grant probation, should send back to the beginning, should inflict mānatta (discipline), if, as twentieth (member) he should rehabilitate, it is not a (formal) act and ought not to be carried out.”

Told are the Ninety-four Observances for one under Probation.

Then the venerable Upāli approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Upāli spoke thus to the Lord: “Now, Lord, how many (kinds of) interruptions are there for a monk under probation?”

“There are three (kinds of) interruptions, Upāli, for a monk under probation: dwelling with; dwelling away, separated from; not announcing. These, Upāli, are the three (kinds of) interruptions for a monk under probation.”


Now at that time a large Order of monks had gathered together at Sāvatthī; monks under probation were not able to carry through their probation. They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

I allow you, monks, to postpone probation. And thus, monks, should it be postponed: That monk who is under probation, having approached one monk, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, having saluted with joined palms, should speak thus to him: ‘I am postponing probation’—probation comes to be postponed; ‘I am postponing the observance’,—probation comes to be postponed.”


Now at that time monks went away from Sāvatthī to this place and that; monks under probation were not able to carry through their probation. They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

I allow you, monks, to take up probation. And thus, monks, should it be taken up: If that monk who is under probation, having approached one monk … having saluted with joined palms, should speak thus to him: ‘I am taking up probation’—probation comes to be taken up; ‘I am taking up the observance’—probation comes to be taken up.”

Told is the Observance for one under Probation.

Duties of one being sent back to the beginning

Now at that time monks who deserved to be sent back to the beginning consented to regular monks greeting them … = Kd.12.1.1, Kd.12.1.2. Instead of monks under probation read monks who deserve to be sent back to the beginning … ‘Do not let them find out about me’. Monks, a monk who deserves to be sent back to the beginning should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger … from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk who deserves to be sent back to the beginning may go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are monks … from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to the same communion and if he knows, ‘I am able to arrive this very day.’

Monks, a monk who deserves to be sent back to the beginning should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a regular monk … = Kd.12.1.4 … he should not pace up and down in a place for pacing up and down in if he is pacing up and down on the ground.

Monks, a monk who deserves to be sent back to the beginning should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a monk under probation … with a senior monk … with a monk who deserves mānatta (discipline) … with a monk undergoing mānatta (discipline) … with a monk who deserves rehabilitation … he should not pace up and down in a place to pace up and down in if he is pacing up and down on the ground.

If, monks, one who deserves to be sent back to the beginning as the fourth (member) should grant probation, should send back to the beginning, should inflict mānatta (discipline), if, as the twentieth (member), he should rehabilitate, it is not a (formal) act and ought not to be carried out.

Duties of one deserving mānatta

Now at that time monks deserving mānatta (discipline) consented to regular monks greeting them … = Kd.12.1.1, Kd.12.1.2 “… ‘Do not let them find out about me’. Monks, a monk deserving mānatta (discipline) should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger … = Kd.12.1.3, Kd.12.1.4 … he should not pace up and down in a place for pacing up and down in if he is pacing up and down on the ground. Monks, a monk who deserves mānatta (discipline) should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a monk who is under probation … with a monk who deserves to be sent back to the beginning … with a senior monk who deserves mānatta (discipline) … with a monk undergoing mānatta (discipline) … with a monk who deserves rehabilitation … and ought not to be carried out.”

Duties of one undergoing mānatta

Now at that time monks undergoing mānatta (discipline) consented to regular monks greeting them … = Kd.12.1.1, Kd.12.1.2 Instead of under probation read undergoing mānatta (discipline) “… ‘Do not let them find out about me’. Monks, a monk undergoing mānatta (discipline) should announce it when he is incoming, he should announce it to (another who is) incoming, he should announce it at the Observance, he should announce it at the Invitation, he should announce it daily, if he is ill he should announce it by means of a messenger.

Monks, a monk undergoing mānatta (discipline) should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are no monks, except with an Order, unless there is a danger … should not go from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with an Order, unless there is a danger … should not go from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to a different communion, except with an Order, unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk undergoing mānatta (discipline) may go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are monks … from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to the same communion and if he knows, ‘I am able to arrive this very day.’

Monks, a monk undergoing mānatta (discipline) should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a regular monk … = Kd.12.1.4 … he should not pace up and down in a place to pace up and down in if he is pacing up and down on the ground. Monks, a monk undergoing mānatta (discipline) should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a monk under probation … with a monk who deserves to be sent back to the beginning …with a monk who deserves mānatta (discipline) … with a senior monk who is undergoing mānatta (discipline) … with a monk who deserves rehabilitation … and ought not to be carried out.”

Then the venerable Upāli approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Upāli spoke thus to the Lord: “Now, Lord, how many (kinds of) interruptions are there for a monk who is undergoing mānatta (discipline)?”

“There are four (kinds of) interruptions, Upāli, for a monk who is undergoing mānatta (discipline): dwelling with; dwelling away, separated from; not announcing; going about with less than a group. These, Upāli, are the four (kinds of) interruptions for a monk who is undergoing mānatta (discipline).”


Now at that time a large Order of monks had gathered together at Sāvatthī; monks undergoing mānatta (discipline) were unable to carry through their mānatta (discipline) … see Kd.12.3.1, Kd.12.3.2mānatta (discipline) comes to be taken up.”

Duties of one deserving rehabilitation

Now at that time monks who deserved rehabilitation consented to regular monks greeting them … = Kd.12.1.1, Kd.12.1.2 “… ‘Do not let him find out about me.’ Monks, a monk who deserves rehabilitation should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are no monks … from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk who deserves rehabilitation may go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are monks … may go from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks, if the monks there should belong to the same communion, and if he knows, ‘I am able to arrive this very day.’ Monks, a monk who deserves rehabilitation should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a regular monk … he should I not pace up and down in a place for pacing up and down in if he is pacing up and down on the ground. Monks, a monk who deserves rehabilitation should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a monk under probation … with a monk who deserves to be sent back to the beginning … with a monk who deserves mānatta ( (discipline) … with a monk undergoing mānatta ( (discipline) … with a senior monk who deserves rehabilitation … and ought not to be carried out.”

Told is the Second Section: that on Being under Probation.

In this Section are five items. This is its key:

Those under probation consent to a regular monk’s greeting,
standing up before, joined palms, proper duties, seat, /
Bringing forward a sleeping-place, water for the feet, a footstool, a footstand,
the bowl, treating the back by massaging,
and well-behaved ones looked down upon. /
If one consents there is wrong-doing, mutual, five things according to seniority:
Observance, Invitation, (cloths for) the rains, gifts, food. /
And proper conduct, the carriage there, in regard to a regular monk,
and whatever is the last, neither as the novice in front of nor behind, /
Forest, bringing back food, when coming in, at the Observance,
and at the Invitation, and by a messenger, and he may go to where there are monks. /
Under one roofing and getting up and likewise in regard to offering, /
on a seat, in a high place for pacing up and down in,
on the ground and not in a place for pacing up and down in, /
With a senior—not a (formal) act, interruptions and carryings through,
postponing, taking up should be stated (by) one under probation. /
To the beginning, those deserving mānatta, likewise those undergoing mānatta,
and also he who deserves rehabilitation—again the composing by the method. /
Three for those under probation, four for one undergoing mānatta.
As with the three interruptions, so there is ‘daily’ for those undergoing mānatta.
Two (formal) acts are similar, the remaining three (formal) acts are exactly the same.