Theravāda Vinayapiṭaka

Khandhaka (Cūḷavagga)

17. Schism in an Order (Saṅghabheda)

First recitation section

On the going forth of the six Sakyans

At one time the Awakened One, the Lord, was staying at Anupiyā. Anupiyā is a little town of the Mallas. Now at that time many distinguished Sakyan young men had gone forth in imitation of the Lord who had gone forth. Now at that time Mahānāma the Sakyan and Anuruddha the Sakyan were two brothers. Anuruddha the Sakyan was delicately nurtured. He had three palaces, one for the cold weather, one for the hot, one for the rains. Being waited on for four months in the palace for the rains by female musicians, he did not come down from that palace. Then it occurred to Mahānāma the Sakyan: “At present many distinguished Sakyan young men have gone forth in imitation of the Lord who has gone forth, but no one from our family has gone forth from home into homelessness. Suppose I should go forth, or Anuruddha?” Then Mahānāma the Sakyan approached Anuruddha the Sakyan; having approached, he spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan: “At present, dear Anuruddha, many distinguished Sakyan young men … but no one from our family has gone forth from home into homelessness. Well now, either you go forth or I will go forth.”

“But I have been delicately nurtured, I am not able to go forth from home into homelessness. You go forth.”

“Come along, dear Anuruddha, I will instruct you in what belongs to the household life. First the fields have to be ploughed; having had them ploughed they must be sown; having had them sown water must be led in to them; having had water led in to them the water must be led away; having led the water away you must have the weeds dug up; having had the weeds dug up you must get the crop reaped; having had the crop reaped you must have it harvested; having had it harvested you must have it made into stooks; having had it made into stooks you must have it threshed; having had it threshed you must have the straw winnowed; having had the straw winnowed you must have the chaff winnowed; having had the chaff winnowed you must have it sifted; having had it sifted you must have it brought in; having had it brought in it is to be done just the same the next year, and it is to be done just the same the next year.”

“The operations do not stop, no end to the operations is to be seen. When will the operations stop? When will an end to the operations be seen? When will we, possessed of and provided with the fivefold strand of sense pleasures, amuse ourselves unconcernedly?”

“But, dear Anuruddha, the operations do not stop, no end to the operations is to be seen. Even when our fathers and grandfathers passed away the operations were not stopped.”

“Well now, you understand just what belongs to the household life. I will go forth from home into homelessness.”

Then Anuruddha the Sakyan approached his mother; having approached, he spoke thus to his mother: “I, mother, want to go forth from home into homelessness. Consent to my going forth from home into homelessness.” When he had spoken thus, the mother of Anuruddha the Sakyan spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan:

“You two boys, dear Anuruddha, are dear to me, beloved, agreeable. In the case of your death I would be unwillingly separated from you. So how can I, while you are still living, allow a going forth from home into homelessness?” And a second time … And a third time Anuruddha the Sakyan spoke thus to his mother: … the mother of Anuruddha the Sakyan spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan: “… how can I, while you are still living, allow a going forth from home into homelessness?”


Now at that time Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain was ruling over the Sakyans and was a friend of Anuruddha the Sakyan. Then the mother of Anuruddha the Sakyan thinking: “Now this Bhaddiya … is a friend of Anuruddha; he will not be able to go forth from home into homelessness,” spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan: “If, dear Anuruddha, Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain goes forth from home into homelessness you can go forth likewise.”

Then Anuruddha the Sakyan approached Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain; having approached, he spoke thus to Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain: “My going forth, friend, is dependent on yours.”

“If your going forth, friend, is dependent on mine, let it be independent. I, with you … Go forth according to your wish.”

“Come, friend, we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”

“I, friend, am not able to go forth from home into homelessness. Whatever else I am able to do for you, that will I do. You go forth.”

“My mother, friend, spoke thus to me: ‘If, dear Anuruddha, Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain goes forth from home into homelessness, you can go forth likewise.’ But, friend, these words were spoken by you: ‘If your going forth is dependent on mine, let it be independent. I, with you … Go forth according to your wish.’ Come, friend, we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”


Now at that time people were speakers of truth, pledged to the truth. Then Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan: “Wait, friend, for seven years. After seven years we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”

“Seven years are too long, friend, I am not able to wait for seven years.”

“Wait, friend, for six years … live … four … three … two years … for one year.”

“One year is too long, friend, I am not able to wait one year.”

“Wait, friend, for seven months. After seven months we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”

“Seven months are too long, friend, I am not able to wait seven months.”

“Wait, friend, for six … five … four … three … two months … one month … for half a month, after half a month we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”

“Half a month is too long, friend, I am not able to wait half a month.”

“Wait, friend, for seven days until I hand over the kingdom to my sons and brothers.”

“Seven days are not too long, friend, I will wait.”

Then Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain and Anuruddha and Ānanda and Bhagu and Kimbila and Devadatta with Upāli the barber as the seventh, as they had often previously gone out to a ground in a pleasure grove with a fourfold army, so did they (now) go out with a fourfold army. Having gone far, having sent back the army, having passed into other territory, having taken off their ornaments, having tied them up into a bundle with their upper robes, they spoke thus to Upāli the barber: “Come, good Upāli, return, this will be enough for your livelihood.” Then it occurred to Upāli the barber as he was going back: “The Sakyans are fierce. Thinking: ‘This one has made the young men come forth,’ they may even kill me. But if these young Sakyan men will go forth from home into homelessness, why should not I?”

Having loosened the bundle, having hung the goods up on a tree, and having said: “Whoever sees it, it is given (to him), let him take it,” he approached the young Sakyan men. These young Sakyan men saw Upāli the barber coming in the distance; having seen him, then spoke thus to Upāli the barber: “Why have you, good Upāli, returned?”

“Now, it occurred to me, young gentlemen, as I was going back, ‘The Sakyans are fierce … they may even kill me. But if these young Sakyan men will go forth from home into homelessness, why should not I?’ So I, young gentlemen, having loosened the bundle … ‘… let him take it,’ returned again from there.”

“You did well, good Upāli, in that you did not go back. The Sakyans are fierce … they might even have killed you.” Then these young Sakyan men, taking Upāli the barber, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, these young Sakyan men spoke thus to the Lord:

“We, Lord, are Sakyans, we are proud. Lord, this barber, Upāli, has been our attendant for a long time. May the Lord let him go forth first. We will greet him, rise up before him, salute him with joined palms, and do the proper duties. Thus will the Sakyan pride be humbled in us Sakyans.” Then the Lord let Upāli the barber go forth first, and afterwards these young Sakyan men. Then the venerable Bhaddiya within one year realised the threefold knowledge, the venerable Anuruddha obtained deva-sight, the venerable Ānanda realised the fruit of stream attainment, Devadatta acquired ordinary psychic power.


Now at that time the venerable Bhaddiya, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, constantly uttered this utterance: “Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!” Then several monks approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, these monks spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord, the venerable Bhaddiya, dwelling in a forest utters this utterance: ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’ Doubtless, Lord, the venerable Bhaddiya fares the Brahma-faring dissatisfied, and (although) dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, he utters this utterance, ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’ while he is recalling the former joys of kingship.”

Then the Lord addressed a certain monk, saying: “Come you, monk, in my name address the monk Bhaddiya saying: ‘The Teacher, reverend Bhaddiya, is summoning you’.”

“Very well, Lord,” and that monk, having answered the Lord in assent, approached the venerable Bhaddiya; having approached, he spoke thus to the venerable Bhaddiya: “The Teacher, reverend Bhaddiya, is summoning you.”

“Very well, your reverence,” and the venerable Bhaddiya, having answered that monk in assent, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. The Lord spoke thus to the venerable Bhaddiya as he was sitting down at a respectful distance: “Is it true, as is said, that you, Bhaddiya, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, are constantly uttering this utterance, ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’?”

“Yes, Lord.”

“What circumstances were you, Bhaddiya, taking into account when, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, you constantly uttered this utterance, ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’?”

“Formerly, Lord, when I was a ruler there was a fully appointed guard both within my private quarters and outside my private quarters, there was a fully appointed guard both within the town and outside the town, and there was a fully appointed guard within the country districts. But I, Lord, although being guarded and warded thus, dwelt afraid, anxious fearful, alarmed. But now I, Lord, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, am unafraid, not anxious, not fearful, not alarmed. I am unconcerned, unruffled, dependent on others, with a mind become as a wild creature’s. This, Lord, was the circumstance I was taking into account when, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, I constantly uttered this utterance, ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’”

Then the Lord, having understood this matter, at that time uttered this utterance:

“In whom there inly lurk no spites,
Who has overcome becoming and not becoming thus or thus,
Him, gone past fear, blissful, sorrowless,
The devas do not win to see.”


The story of Devadatta

Then the Lord, having stayed at Anupiyā for as long as he found suiting, set out on almstour for Kosambī. Gradually, walking on tour, he arrived at Kosambī. The Lord stayed there at Kosambī in Ghosita’s monastery. Then as Devadatta was meditating in private a reasoning arose in his mind thus: “Whom now could I please, so that because he is pleased with me, much gain and honour would accrue (to me)?” Then it occurred to Devadatta: “This Prince Ajātasattu is young and also has an auspicious future. What now if I were to make Prince Ajātasattu pleased, so that because he is pleased with me, much gain and honour would accrue (to me)?”

Then Devadatta, having packed away his lodging, taking his bowl and robe, set out for Rājagaha; in due course he arrived at Rājagaha. Then Devadatta, having thrown off his own form, having assumed the form of a young boy clad in a girdle of snakes, became manifest in Prince Ajātasattu’s lap. Then Prince Ajātasattu was afraid, anxious, fearful, alarmed. Then Devadatta spoke thus to Prince Ajātasattu: “Are you, prince, afraid of me?”

“Yes, I am afraid. Who are you?”

“I am Devadatta.”

“If you, honoured sir, are really master Devadatta, please become manifest in your own form.” Then Devadatta, having thrown off the young boy’s form, stood, wearing his outer cloak and (other) robes and carrying his bowl, before Prince Ajātasattu. Then Prince Ajātasattu, greatly pleased with this wonder of psychic power on Devadatta’s part, morning and evening went to wait on him with five hundred chariots, and five hundred offerings of rice cooked in milk were brought as a gift of food. Then there arose to Devadatta, overcome by gains, honours and fame, his mind obsessed by them, some such longing as this: “It is I who will lead the Order of monks.” But at the very occurrence of this thought Devadatta declined in his psychic power.


Now at that time Kakudha the Koliyan, the venerable Moggallāna the Great’s attendant, had just died and had arisen in a certain mind-made body, and such was the reinstatement of his individuality that it was like two or three Magadhan village fields, yet even with that reinstatement of individuality he injured neither himself nor another. Then Kakudha the young deva approached the venerable Moggallāna the Great; having approached, having greeted the venerable Moggallāna the Great, he stood at a respectful distance. As he was standing at a respectful distance, the young deva Kakudha spoke thus to the venerable Moggallāna the Great:

“To Devadatta, honoured sir, overcome by gains, honours and fame, his mind obsessed by them, some such longing as this arose: ‘It is I who will lead the Order of monks’. But, honoured sir, at the very occurrence of this thought Devadatta declined in his psychic power.” Thus spoke Kakudha the young deva. Having spoken thus, having greeted the venerable Moggallāna the Great, keeping his right side towards him he vanished then and there. Then the venerable Moggallāna the Great approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Moggallāna the Great spoke thus to the Lord:

“Kakudha the Koliyan, Lord, my attendant, has just died and has arisen in a certain mind-made body … Then Kakudha the young deva approached me … keeping his right side towards me, he vanished then and there.”

“But, Moggallāna, does Kakudha the young deva so compass your mind with his mind for you to know that whatever Kakudha the young deva says, all that is so and not otherwise?”

“Lord, Kakudha the young deva so compasses my mind with his mind for me to know that whatever Kakudha the young deva says, all that is so and not otherwise.”

“Mind what you say, Moggallāna, mind what you say, Moggallāna. This foolish man will now betray himself, by himself.

On the five teachers

“Moggallāna, these five teachers are found in the world. What five?

“This is a case, Moggallāna, when some teacher, not pure in moral habit, pretends ‘I am pure in moral habit,’ and he says, ‘My moral habit is pure, clean, untarnished.’ Disciples know this about him: ‘This worthy teacher, not pure in moral habit pretends … untarnished.’ But they think: ‘If we should tell this to householders, he would not like it, and how could we carry out what he would not like? Moreover he consents to (accept) the requisites of robes, almsfood, lodgings and medicines for the sick. Whatever anyone shall do, even by that shall he be known.’ Moggallāna, disciples protect such a teacher in regard to moral habit and such a teacher expects protection from disciples in regard to moral habit.

“And again, Moggallāna, this is a case when some teacher, not pure in mode of livelihood, pretends … … not pure in teaching of dhamma, pretends … not pure in exposition … not pure in knowledge and vision, pretends … Moggallāna, disciples protect such a teacher in regard to knowledge and vision, and such a teacher expects protection from disciples in regard to knowledge and vision. These, Moggallāna, are the five teachers found in the world.

“But I, Moggallāna, am pure in moral habit, I acknowledge that I am pure in moral habit, that my moral habit is pure, clean, untarnished. And disciples do not protect me in regard to moral habit and I do not expect protection from disciples in regard to moral habit. I am pure in mode of livelihood … I am pure in dhamma teaching … I am pure in exposition … I am pure in knowledge and vision. I acknowledge that I am pure in knowledge and vision, that my knowledge and vision are pure, clean, untarnished. And disciples do not protect me in regard to knowledge and vision, and I do not expect protection from disciples in regard to knowledge and vision.”


Then the Lord, having stayed at Kosambī for as long as he found suiting, set out on a tour for Rājagaha. Gradually, walking on tour, he arrived at Rājagaha. The Lord stayed there at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding place. Then several monks approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, these monks spoke thus to the Lord:

“Prince Ajātasattu, Lord, goes morning and evening to wait on Devadatta with five hundred chariots, and five hundred offerings of rice cooked in milk are brought as a gift of food.”

“Do not, monks, envy Devadatta’s gains and honours and fame. For as long, monks, as Prince Ajātasattu goes morning and evening to wait on Devadatta with five hundred chariots and (as long as) five hundred offerings of rice cooked in milk are brought as a gift of food, there may be expected for Devadatta decline in skilled mental states, not growth. It is as if, monks, they were to throw a bladder at a fierce dog’s nose—as that dog, monks, would become much fiercer, even so, monks, for as long as Prince Ajātasattu goes morning and evening … there may be expected for Devadatta decline in skilled mental states, not growth. Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame bring about his own hurt, Devadatta’s gains, honour and fame bring about his destruction. As, monks, a plantain bears fruit to its own hurt, bears fruit to its destruction, even so, monks, do Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame bring about his own hurt, do Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame bring about his destruction. As, monks, a bamboo … a reed bears fruit to its own hurt … even so, monks, do Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame bring about … his destruction. As, monks, a she-mule conceives to her own hurt, conceives to her destruction, even so, monks, do Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame bring about … his destruction.

“Truly its fruit the plantain does destroy,
Its fruit the bamboo, its fruit the reed;
So honour does destroy the fool,
Just as its embryo the mule.”

Told is the First Portion for Repeating

Second recitation section

Act of informing

Now at that time the Lord was sitting down teaching dhamma surrounded by a large company, by a company which included the king. Then Devadatta, rising from his seat, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having saluted the Lord with joined palms, spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, the Lord is now old, worn, stricken in years, he has lived his span and is at the close of his life; Lord, let the Lord now be content to live devoted to abiding in ease here and now, let him hand over the Order of monks to me. It is I who will lead the Order of monks.”

“Enough, Devadatta, please do not lead the Order of monks.” And a second time … And a third time Devadatta spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, the Lord is now old, worn, stricken in years … It is I who will lead the Order of monks.”

“I, Devadatta, would not hand over the Order of monks even to Sāriputta and Moggallāna. How then could I to you, a wretched one to be vomited like spittle?”

Then Devadatta, thinking: “The Lord in an assembly which included a king disparaged me by (using) the term, ‘one to be vomited like spittle,’ while he extolled Sāriputta and Moggallāna,” angry, displeased, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping his right side towards him.

And this was the first time that Devadatta felt malice towards the Lord.

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Well then, monks, let the Order carry out a (formal) act of Information against Devadatta in Rājagaha to the effect that whereas Devadatta’s nature was formerly of one kind, now it is of another kind; and that whatever Devadatta should do by gesture and by voice, in that neither the Awakened One nor dhamma nor the Order should be seen but in that only Devadatta should be seen. And thus, monks, should it be carried out: The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order, let the Order carry out an act of Information against Devadatta in Rājagaha, to the effect that whereas Devadatta’s nature was formerly of one kind, now it is of another kind, and that whatever Devadatta should do … in that only Devadatta should be seen. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The Order is carrying out the (formal) act of Information against Devadatta in Rājagaha, to the effect that … in that only Devadatta should be seen. If the carrying out of the (formal) act of Information against Devadatta in Rājagaha to the effect that … in that only Devadatta should be seen is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. The (formal) act of Information against Devadatta in Rājagaha to the effect that … in that only Devadatta should be seen is carried out by the Order. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this’.”

Then the Lord addressed the venerable Sāriputta, saying: “Well then, do you, Sāriputta, inform against Devadatta in Rājagaha.”

“Formerly, Lord, I spoke praise of Devadatta in Rājagaha saying: ‘Godhi’s son is of great psychic power, Godhi’s son is of great majesty.’ How can I, Lord, inform against Devadatta in Rājagaha?”

“Was not the truth spoken by you, Sāriputta, when you spoke praise of Devadatta in Rājagaha saying: ‘Godhi’s son is of … great majesty’?”

“Yes, Lord.”

“Even so, Sāriputta, when you inform against Devadatta in Rājagaha it will be just as true.”

“Very well, Lord,” the venerable Sāriputta answered the Lord in assent.

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Well then, monks, let the Order agree for Sāriputta to inform against Devadatta in Rājagaha saying: ‘Formerly Devadatta’s nature was of such a kind, now it is of another kind, and that whatever Devadatta should do by gesture and by voice, in that neither the Awakened One nor dhamma nor the Order should be seen, but in that only Devadatta should be seen.’ And thus, monks, should Sāriputta be agreed upon: First, Sāriputta should be asked; having been asked, the Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may agree for the venerable Sāriputta to inform against Devadatta in Rājagaha saying: ‘Formerly Devadatta’s nature was of one kind … in that only Devadatta should be seen.’ This is the motion. If the agreement upon Sāriputta to inform against Devadatta in Rājagaha, saying: ‘Formerly Devadatta’s nature was of one kind … in that only Devadatta should be seen’ is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. The venerable Sāriputta is agreed upon by the Order to inform against Devadatta in Rājagaha, saying: ‘Formerly Devadatta’s nature was of one kind … in that only Devadatta should be seen.’ … It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this’.”

The venerable Sāriputta, (thus) agreed upon, having entered Rājagaha together with several monks, informed against Devadatta in Rājagaha to the effect that: “Formerly Devadatta’s nature was of one kind, now it is of another kind, and that whatever Devadatta should do by gesture and by voice, in that neither the Awakened One nor dhamma nor the Order should be seen, but in that only Devadatta should be seen.” Those people who were of little faith, not believing, who were of poor intelligence, spoke thus: “These recluses, sons of the Sakyans are jealous, they are jealous of Devadatta’s gains and honours.” But those people who had faith and were believing, who were wise, intelligent, spoke thus: “This can be no ordinary matter in that the Lord has Devadatta informed against in Rājagaha.”

The story of Prince Ajātasattu

Then Devadatta approached Prince Ajātasattu; having approached, he spoke thus to Prince Ajātasattu: “Formerly, prince, people were long-lived, nowadays they are short-lived, and it is possible that you, while still a prince, might pass away. Well now, do you prince, having slain your father, become king. I, having slain the Lord, will become the Awakened One.” And Prince Ajātasattu, thinking: “Now, master Devadatta is of great psychic power, of great majesty; master Devadatta must know (what is right),” having fastened a dagger against his thigh, at an early hour (although) afraid, anxious, fearful, alarmed, entered the (king’s) private quarters forcibly. But the chief ministers in attendance in the private quarters saw Prince Ajātasattu at an early hour (although) afraid, anxious, fearful, alarmed, entering the (king’s) private quarters forcibly. Seeing him, they laid hold of him. These examining him, and having seen the dagger bound against his thigh, spoke thus to Prince Ajātasattu: “What is it that you, prince, want to do?”

“I want to slay my father.”

“By whom are you being incited?”

“By master Devadatta.” Some chief ministers gave this opinion: “The Prince should be slain and Devadatta and all the monks should be slain.” Some chief ministers gave this opinion: “The monks should not be slain for the monks are not giving offence, but the Prince should be slain and Devadatta.” Some chief ministers gave this opinion: “The Prince should not be slain, nor Devadatta, the monks should not be slain. The king should be told and we will do whatever the king says.”

“Then these chief ministers, taking Prince Ajātasattu, approached King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha; having approached, they told this matter to King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha. He said: “What opinion, my good men, have the chief ministers formed?”

“Some chief ministers, Sire, gave this opinion … Some chief ministers gave this opinion … Some chief ministers gave this opinion: ‘The Prince should not be slain, nor Devadatta, the monks should not be slain. The king should be told and we will do whatever the king says’.”

“What, my good men, can the Awakened One or dhamma or the Order have to do (with this)? Has not the Lord already had Devadatta informed against in Rājagaha to the effect that formerly Devadatta’s nature was of one kind, now it is of another kind, and that whatever Devadatta may do by gesture or by speech, in that neither the Awakened One nor dhamma nor the Order is to be seen, but in that only Devadatta should be seen?”

Those chief ministers who had given their opinion thus: “The Prince should be slain and Devadatta and all the monks should be slain,” these he discharged. Those chief ministers who had given their opinion thus: “The monks should not be slain, for the monks do not give any offence, but the prince should be slain and Devadatta,” these he set in lowly positions. Those chief ministers who had given their opinion thus: ‘The prince should not be slain, nor Devadatta, nor should the monks be slain. The king should be told and we will do whatever the king says,” these he set in high positions. Then King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha spoke thus to Prince Ajātasattu:

“Why do you, prince, want to slay me?”

“Sire, I have need of a kingdom.”

“If it be that you, prince, have need of a kingdom, this kingdom is yours,” and he handed over the kingdom to Prince Ajātasattu.

Sending assassins

Then Devadatta approached Prince Ajātasattu; having approached, he spoke thus to Prince Ajātasattu:

“Your Majesty, command your men so that they deprive the recluse Gotama of life.” Then Prince Ajātasattu commanded his men, saying: “My good men, do whatever master Devadatta says.” Then Devadatta enjoined the men, saying: “Go along, friends, the recluse Gotama is staying at a certain place. Having deprived him of life, come back by a certain road,” and he set two men on that road, saying: “Whatever man comes alone along this road, having deprived him of life, come back by this road,” and having set four men on that road, saying: “Whatever couple of men come along by this road, having deprived them of life, come back by this road,” and having set eight men on that road, saying: “Whatever four men come along by this road, … come back by this road,” and having set sixteen men on that road, he said: “Whatever eight men come along by this road, having deprived them of life, come back.”

Then that man who was alone, having grasped a sword and shield, having bound on a bow and quiver, approached the Lord; having approached, when he was quite near the Lord he stood still, his body quite rigid afraid, anxious, fearful, alarmed. The Lord saw that man standing still, his body quite rigid, afraid … alarmed and seeing him, he spoke thus to that man: “Come, friend, do not be afraid.” Then that man, having put his sword and shield to one side, having laid down his bow and quiver, approached the Lord; having approached, having inclined his head to the Lord’s feet, he spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord, a transgression has overcome me, foolish, misguided, wrong that I was, in that I was coming here with my mind malignant, my mind on murder. Lord, may the Lord acknowledge for me the transgression as a transgression for the sake of restraint in the future.”

“Truly, friend, a transgression overcame you, foolish, misguided, wrong that you were, in that you were coming here, with your mind malignant, your mind on murder. But if you, friend, having seen the transgression as a transgression, confess according to the rule, we acknowledge it for you; for friend in the discipline of the noble, this is growth: whoever having seen a transgression as a transgression, confesses according to the rule, he attains restraint in the future.”

Then the Lord talked a progressive talk to this man, that is to say talk on giving, talk on moral habit, talk on heaven … sorrow, its uprising, stopping, the Way. Just as a clean cloth without black specks will take a dye easily, even so (as he was sitting) on that very seat did dhamma-vision, dustless, stainless, arise to that man, that “whatever is of a nature to arise, all that is of a nature to stop.” Then that man as one who has seen dhamma, attained dhamma, known dhamma, plunged into dhamma, having crossed over doubt, having put away uncertainty, having attained without another’s help to full confidence in the Teacher’s instruction, spoke thus to the Lord:

“Excellent, Lord: Lord, it is excellent. It is as if one were to set upright what has been upset … thus is dhamma explained in many a figure by the Lord. So I, Lord, am going to the Lord for refuge and to dhamma and to the Order of monks. May the Lord accept me as a lay-follower going for refuge from this day forth for as long as life lasts.”

Then the Lord spoke thus to that man: “Do not you, friend, go by that road. Go by this road,” and he sent him off by another road.

Then those two men, thinking: ‘Why is that man who is alone so slow in coming?’ going along to meet him saw the Lord sitting at the root of a tree. Seeing him, they approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. The Lord talked a progressive talk to these … to full confidence in the Teacher’s instruction, spoke thus to the Lord: “Excellent, Lord … May the Lord accept us as lay-followers going for refuge from this day forth for as long as life lasts.”

Then the Lord spoke thus to these men: “Do not you, friends, go by that road. Go by this road,” and he sent them off by another road. Then those four men, thinking: ‘Why are these two men so slow in coming?’ … and he sent them off by another road. Then those eight men, thinking: ‘Why are these four men so slow in coming?’ … and he sent them off by another road. Then those sixteen men, thinking: ‘Why are these eight men so slow in coming?’… “May the Lord receive us as lay-followers going for refuge from this day forth for as long as life lasts.”

Then that one man approached Devadatta; having approached, he spoke thus to Devadatta: “Honoured sir, I am not able to deprive that Lord of life, that Lord is of great psychic power, of great might.”

“All right, friend, do not you deprive the recluse Gotama of life. I myself will deprive the recluse Gotama of life.”

Shedding blood

Now at that time the Lord was pacing up and down in the shade of Mount Vulture Peak. Then Devadatta, having climbed Mount Vulture Peak, hurled down a great stone, thinking: “With this I will deprive the recluse Gotama of life.” But two mountain peaks, having met, crushed that stone, and (only) a fragment of it, having fallen down, drew blood on the Lord’s foot. Then the Lord, having looked upwards, spoke thus to Devadatta: “You have produced great demerit, foolish man, in that you, with your mind malignant, your mind on murder, drew the Truth-finder’s blood.” Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “This, monks, is the first deed whose fruit comes with no delay accumulated by Devadatta since he, with his mind malignant, his mind on murder, drew the Truth-finder’s blood.”

Monks heard: “It is said that Devadatta schemed to murder the Lord,” and so these monks paced up and down on every side of the Lord’s dwelling-place doing their studies together with a loud noise, with a great noise for the protection, defence and warding of the Lord. The Lord heard the loud noise, the great noise, the noise of studying, and hearing it, he addressed the venerable Ānanda, saying:

“What on earth, Ānanda, is this loud noise, this great noise, this noise of studying?”

“Lord, the monks heard that Devadatta schemed to murder the Lord, and so, Lord, these monks are pacing up and down … for the protection, defence and warding of the Lord. This, Lord, is the loud noise, the great noise, the noise of studying.”

“Well now, Ānanda, address these monks in my name, saying: ‘The Teacher is summoning the venerable ones.’”

“Very well, Lord,” and the venerable Ānanda, having answered the Lord in assent, approached those monks; having approached, he spoke thus to those monks: “The Teacher is summoning the venerable ones.”

“Very well, your reverence,” and these monks, having answered the venerable Ānanda in assent, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. The Lord spoke thus to these monks as they were sitting down at a respectful distance:

“This is impossible, monks, it cannot come to pass that anyone could deprive a Truth-finder of life by aggression; monks, Truth-finders attain nibbāna not because of an attack. Monks, there are these five teachers found in the world. What five? … and I do not expect protection from disciples in respect of knowledge and vision. This is impossible, monks, it cannot come to pass that anyone could deprive a Truth-finder of life by aggression; monks, Truth-finders attain nibbāna not because of an attack. Go, monks, to your own dwelling-places; Truth-finders, monks, do not need to be protected.”

Sending out Nālāgiri

Now at that time there was a fierce elephant in Rājagaha, a man-slayer, called Nālāgiri. Then Devadatta, having entered Rājagaha, having gone to the elephant stable, spoke thus to the mahouts: “We, my good fellows, are relations of the king. We are competent to put in a high position one occupying a lowly position and to bring about an increase in food and wages. Well now, good fellows, when the recluse Gotama is coming along this carriage road, then, having let loose this elephant, Nālāgiri, bring him down this carriage road.”

“Very well, honoured sir,” these mahouts answered Devadatta in assent.

Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, entered Rājagaha for almsfood together with several monks. Then the Lord went along that carriage road. Then those mahouts saw the Lord coming along that carriage-road; seeing him, having let loose the elephant Nālāgiri, they brought him down that carriage-road. The elephant Nālāgiri saw the Lord coming from afar; seeing him, having lifted up his trunk, he rushed towards the Lord, his ears and tail erect. Those monks saw the elephant Nālāgiri coming in the distance; seeing him, they spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord, this elephant Nālāgiri, coming along this carriage-road, is a fierce man-slayer; Lord, let the Lord turn back, let the well-farer turn back.”

“Wait, monks, do not be afraid; this is impossible, monks, it cannot come to pass that anyone should deprive a Truth-finder of life by aggression; monks, Truth-finders attain nibbāna not because of an attack.” And a second time … And a third time these monks spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, this elephant Nālāgiri, … let the well-farer turn back.”

“Wait, monks, … Truth-finders attain nibbāna not because of an attack.”


Now at that time people, having mounted up on to the long houses and the curved houses and the roofs, waited there. Those people who were of little faith, not believing, who were of poor intelligence, these spoke thus: “This great recluse is indeed lovely; he will be hurt by the bull elephant.” But those people who had faith and were believing, who were wise and intelligent, these spoke thus: “Soon, good sirs, the bull-elephant will come into conflict with the elephant (among men).”

Then the Lord suffused the elephant Nālāgiri with loving-kindness of mind. Then the elephant Nālāgiri, suffused by the Lord with loving-kindness of mind, having put down his trunk, approached the Lord; having approached, he stood in front of the Lord. Then the Lord, stroking the elephant Nālāgiri’s forehead with his right hand, addressed the elephant Nālāgiri with verses:

“Do not, elephant, strike the elephant (among men),
for painful, elephant, is the striking of the elephant (among men),
For there is no good bourn, elephant,
for a slayer of the elephant (among men) when he is hence beyond.

“Be not proud, be not wanton,
for the wanton reach not a good bourn;
Only that should you do by which
you will go to a good bourn.”

Then the elephant Nālāgiri, having taken the dust of the Lord’s feet with his trunk, having scattered it over his head, moved back bowing while he gazed upon the Lord. Then the elephant Nālāgiri, having returned to the elephant stable, stood in his own place; and it was in this way that the elephant Nālāgiri became tamed. Now at that time people sang this verse:

“Some are tamed by stick, by goads and whips.
The elephant was tamed by the great seer
without a stick, without a weapon.”

People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How evil is this Devadatta, how inauspicious, in that he tried to murder the recluse Gotama who is of such great psychic power, of such great might,” and Devadatta’s gains and honours declined; the Lord’s gains and honours increased.

On the request for the five points

Now at that time Devadatta, gains and honours lost, ate with his friends, having asked and asked among households. People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying:

“How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans eat, having asked and asked among households? Who is not fond of well-cooked things? Who does not like sweet things?”

Monks heard these people who … spread it about. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can Devadatta eat with his friends, having asked and asked among households?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, that you, Devadatta, ate with your friends, having asked and asked among households?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Well now, monks, I will lay down for monks the eating by a triad (of monks) among households—founded on three reasons: for the restraint of evil-minded individuals; for the living in comfort of well behaved monks lest those of evil desires should split the Order by means of a faction; out of compassion for families. In eating a group meal, one should be dealt with according to the rule.”


Then Devadatta approached Kokālika, Kaṭamorakatissaka, the son of the lady Khaṇḍā, and Samuddadatta, having approached, he spoke thus to Kokālika, Kaṭamorakatissaka, the son of the lady Khaṇḍā, and Samuddadatta: “Come, we, your reverences, will make a schism in the recluse Gotama’s Order, a breaking of the concord.” When he had spoken thus, Kokālika spoke thus to Devadatta:

“But, your reverence, the recluse Gotama is of great psychic power, of great might. How can we make a schism in the recluse Gotama’s Order, a breaking of the concord?”

“Come, we, your reverence, having approached the recluse Gotama, will ask for five items, saying: ‘Lord, the Lord in many a figure speaks in praise of desiring little, of being contented, of expunging (evil), of being punctilious, of what is gracious, of decrease (in the obstructions), of putting forth energy. Lord, these five items are in many a way conducive to desiring little, to contentment, to expunging (evil), to being punctilious, to what is gracious, to decrease (in the obstructions), to putting forth energy.

  1. It were good, Lord, if the monks, for as long as life lasted, might be forest-dwellers; whoever should betake himself to the neighbourhood of a village, sin would besmirch him.
  2. For as long as life lasts, let them be beggars for alms; whoever should accept an invitation, sin would besmirch him.
  3. For as long as life lasts, let them be rag-robe wearers; whoever should accept a robe given by a householder, sin would besmirch him.
  4. For as long as life lasts, let them live at the root of a tree; whoever should go under cover, sin would besmirch him.
  5. For as long as life lasts, let them not eat fish and flesh; whoever should eat fish and flesh, sin would besmirch him.’

The recluse Gotama will not allow these. Then we will win over the people by means of these five items.”

“It is possible, your reverence, with these five items, to make a schism in the recluse Gotama’s Order, a breaking of the concord. For, your reverence, people esteem austerity.”

Then Devadatta together with his friends approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, Devadatta spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord, the Lord in many a figure speaks in praise of desiring little … whoever should eat fish and flesh, sin would besmirch him.”

“Enough, Devadatta,” he said. “Whoever wishes, let him be a forest-dweller; whoever wishes, let him stay in the neighbourhood of a village; whoever wishes, let him be a beggar for alms; whoever wishes, let him accept an invitation; whoever wishes, let him be a rag-robe wearer; whoever wishes, let him accept a householder’s robes. For eight months, Devadatta, lodging at the root of a tree is permitted by me. Fish and flesh are pure in respect of three points: if they are not seen, heard or suspected (to have been killed on purpose for him).”

Then Devadatta, thinking: ‘The Lord does not permit these five items,’ joyful, elated, rising from his seat with his friends, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping his right side towards him. Then Devadatta, having entered Rājagaha with his friends, taught the people by means of the five items, saying: “We, friends, having approached the recluse Gotama, asked for five items, saying: ‘Lord, the Lord in many a figure speaks in praise of desiring little … whoever should eat fish and flesh, sin would besmirch him’. The recluse Gotama does not allow these five items, but we live undertaking these five items.”

Those people who were there of little faith, not believing, who were of poor intelligence, these spoke thus: “These recluses, sons of the Sakyans are punctilious, are expungers (of evil), but the recluse Gotama is for abundance and strives after abundance.” But those people who had faith and were believing, who were wise and intelligent, these looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can this Devadatta go forward with a schism in the Lord’s Order, with a breaking of the concord?” Monks heard these people who … spread it about. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying:

“How can this Devadatta go forward with a schism in the Order, a breaking of the concord?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said that you, Devadatta, went forward with a schism in the Order, a breaking of the concord?”

“It is true, Lord.”

“Enough, Devadatta, do not let there be a schism in the Order, for a schism in the Order is a serious matter, Devadatta. Whoever, Devadatta, splits an Order that is united, he sets up demerit that endures for an aeon; he is boiled in hell for an aeon; but whoever, Devadatta, unites an Order that is split, he sets up sublime merit, he rejoices in heaven for an aeon. Enough, Devadatta, do not let there be a schism in the Order, for a schism in the Order is a serious matter, Devadatta.”

Then the venerable Ānanda, having dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, entered Rājagaha for almsfood. Devadatta saw the venerable Ānanda walking in Rājagaha for almsfood; seeing him, he approached the venerable Ānanda; having approached, he spoke thus to the venerable Ānanda: “Now from this day forth will I, reverend Ānanda, carry out Observance both in contradistinction to the Lord and in contradistinction to the Order of monks and will (so) carry out (formal) acts of the Order.” Then the venerable Ānanda, having walked in Rājagaha for almsfood, on returning from the almsround, after his meal, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Ānanda spoke thus to the Lord:

“Just now, Lord, I, having dressed in the morning, taking my bowl and robe, entered Rājagaha for almsfood. Devadatta, Lord, saw me walking in Rājagaha for almsfood; seeing me, he came up; having come up, he spoke thus to me: ‘Now from this day forth will I … (so) carry out (formal) acts of the Order.’ Today, Lord, Devadatta will split the Order.”

Then the Lord, having understood this matter, at that time uttered this utterance:

“Easy is good for the good, good for the evil is hard,
Evil for the evil is easy, evil for the noble ones is hard.”

Told is the Second Portion for Repeating.

Third recitation section

On schism in the Order

Then Devadatta on that Observance day rising from his seat gave out voting tickets, saying: “We, your reverences, having approached the recluse Gotama, asked for five items. … The recluse Gotama does not allow these, but we live undertaking these five items. If these five items are pleasing to the venerable ones, let each one take a voting ticket.”


Now at that time as many as five hundred monks, Vajjis of Vesālī, were newly ordained and were not properly versed; and these, thinking: “This is the rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction,” took voting tickets. Then Devadatta, having split the Order, set out for Gayā Head taking as many as the five hundred monks. Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Sāriputta spoke thus to the Lord: “Devadatta, Lord, having split the Order, is setting out for Gayā Head with as many as five hundred monks.”

“Can there not be for you, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, compassion for these newly ordained monks? Go you along, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, before these monks fall into trouble and distress.”

“Very well, Lord,” and Sāriputta and Moggallāna having answered the Lord in assent, rising from their seats, having greeted the Lord, keeping their right sides towards him, approached Gayā Head. Now at that time a certain monk was standing weeping not far from the Lord. Then the Lord spoke thus to that monk: “Why are you, monk, weeping?”

“Even those, Lord, who are the Lord’s chief disciples—Sāriputta and Moggallāna—even these are going to Devadatta approving of Devadatta’s dhamma.”

“This is not possible, monk, it cannot come to pass that Sāriputta and Moggallāna should approve Devadatta’s dhamma. They have merely gone so as to convince the monks.”


Now at that time Devadatta, surrounded by the large company, was teaching dhamma sitting down. Then Devadatta saw Sāriputta and Moggallāna coming in the distance; seeing them, he addressed the monks, saying: “You see, monks, how well taught is dhamma by me that even these who are the recluse Gotama’s chief disciples—Sāriputta and Moggallāna—that even these are coming to me approving of my dhamma.” When he had spoken thus Kokālika spoke thus to Devadatta: “Reverend Devadatta, do not put your trust in Sāriputta and Moggallāna, Sāriputta and Moggallāna have evil desires and are under the influence of evil desires.”

“Enough, your reverence, let us give a welcome to these since they approve of my dhamma.” The Devadatta invited the venerable Sāriputta to half his seat, saying: “Come, reverend Sāriputta, sit here.”

“No, your reverence,” and the venerable Sāriputta, having taken another seat, sat down at a respectful distance; and the venerable Moggallāna too, having taken another seat, sat down at a respectful distance. Then Devadatta, having gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted the monks far into the night with talk on dhamma, asked the venerable Sāriputta, saying:

“The Order of monks, reverend Sāriputta, is without sloth or drowsiness; may a talk on dhamma occur to you, reverend Sāriputta, for the monks. My back aches and I will stretch it.”

“Very well, your reverence,” the venerable Sāriputta answered Devadatta in assent. Then Devadatta, having laid down his outer cloak folded in four, lay down to sleep on his right side, and as he was tired, forgetful and inattentive, he fell asleep that very moment.

Then the venerable Sāriputta exhorted, instructed the monks with dhamma-talk by means of an instruction on the wonders of thought-reading; the venerable Moggallāna exhorted, instructed the monks with dhamma-talk by means of an instruction on the wonders of psychic power. Then as the monks were being exhorted, instructed by the venerable Sāriputta with dhamma-talk by means of an instruction on the wonders of thought-reading; were being exhorted, instructed by the venerable Moggallāna with dhamma-talk by means of an instruction on the wonders of psychic power, dhamma-vision, dustless, stainless, arose to them, that ‘whatever is of the nature to uprise all that is of the nature to stop.’ Then the venerable Sāriputta addressed the monks, saying: “We are going, your reverences, to the Lord. Whoever approves of this Lord’s dhamma, let him come along.” Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna, taking those five hundred monks, approached the Bamboo Grove. Then Kokālika wakened Devadatta, saying: “Wake up, reverend Devadatta, those monks have been led away by Sāriputta and Moggallāna. Now, did I not say to you, reverend Devadatta, ‘Reverend Devadatta, do not put your trust in Sāriputta and Moggallāna, Sāriputta and Moggallāna have evil desires and are under the influence of evil desires’?” Then at that very place hot blood issued from Devadatta’s mouth.

Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Sāriputta spoke thus to the Lord: “It were well, Lord, if the monks who were partisans of the schismatics could be ordained again.”

“Be careful, Sāriputta, about any reordination of monks who were partisans of the schismatics. But do you, Sāriputta, make the monks who were partisans of the schismatics confess a grave offence. But what line of conduct, Sāriputta, did Devadatta follow in regard to you?”

“Even, Lord, as the Lord, having gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted monks with dhamma-talk far into the night, he asked me: ‘The Order of monks, Sāriputta, is without sloth or drowsiness, may a talk on dhamma occur to you, Sāriputta, for the monks. My back aches and I will stretch it.’ Just this, Lord, was the line of conduct which Devadatta followed.”

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Formerly, monks, there was a great pond in a stretch of forest; bull elephants lived near it and these, having plunged into that pond, having tugged out the lotus fibres and stalks with their trunks, having washed them well, and having chewed them free of mud, swallowed them. Thus there came to be for them both beauty and strength, and not for this reason did they incur death or suffering like unto death. But, monks, among these great bull elephants were young elephant calves and these, imitating them, having plunged into that pond, having tugged out the lotus fibres and stalks with their trunks, but not having washed them well, having chewed them with the mud, swallowed them. Thus there came to be for them neither beauty nor strength, and for this reason they incurred death or suffering like unto death. Likewise, monks, Devadatta will die, a wretched creature, copying me.

“While the great beast is shaking the earth,
grazing on lotus stalks, keeping alert among the waters—
Copying me, the wretched creature will die,
like a calf having eaten mire.

“Monks, a monk who is possessed of eight qualities is fit to go a message. What are the eight? Herein, monks, a monk is a hearer and one who makes others hear and a learner and an instructor and a knower and an expounder and one skilled in (recognising) conformity and non-conformity and not a maker of quarrels. Monks, if a monk is possessed of these eight qualities he is fit to go a message. Monks, because he is possessed of these eight qualities, Sāriputta is fit to go a message. What are the eight? Herein, monks, Sāriputta is a learner … and not a maker of quarrels. Monks, because Sāriputta is possessed of these eight qualities he is fit to go a message.

“Who, to some high assembled council come,
Wavers not, nor in discourse fails, nor hides
The teaching, nor speaks in doubtfulness,
And who, being questioned, is not agitated—
A monk like this is fit to go a message.

“Monks, Devadatta, overcome and his mind controlled by eight wrong conditions, is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, staying there for an aeon, incurable. What eight?

  1. Devadatta, monks, overcome and his mind controlled by gain is doomed to the Downfall … incurable.
  2. Devadatta, monks, overcome and his mind controlled by lack of gain …
  3. … by fame …
  4. … by lack of fame …
  5. … by honours …
  6. … by lack-of honours …
  7. … by evil desire …
  8. … by evil friendship is doomed to the Downfall … incurable.

Monks, Devadatta, overcome and his mind controlled by these eight wrong conditions is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, staying there for an aeon, incurable.

“Monks, it is well that a monk should live constantly overcoming gain that has arisen, lack of gain that has arisen, fame that has arisen, lack of fame that has arisen, honours that have arisen, lack of honours that has arisen, evil desire that has arisen, evil friendship that has arisen. And why, monks, for what good purpose should a monk live constantly overcoming gain … evil friendship that has arisen? Monks, if a monk live not constantly overcoming gain that has arisen, the cankers, that are destructive and consuming, may arise, but if he lives constantly overcoming gain that has arisen, then it follows that the cankers, that are destructive and consuming, will not be in him … if he lives constantly overcoming evil friendship that has arisen, then it follows that the cankers, destructive and consuming, will not be in him.

“It is for this good purpose, monks, that a monk should live constantly overcoming gain that has arisen … evil friendship that has arisen. Wherefore, monks, saying, ‘We will live constantly overcoming gain that has arisen … evil friendship that has arisen’—thus it is that you, monks, should train.

“Monks, Devadatta, overcome and his mind controlled by three wrong conditions, is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, staying there for an aeon, incurable. What three? Evil desire, evil friendship, the coming to a halt midway in his career because his special attainments are of trifling value. Monks, a monk who is overcome … by these three wrong conditions is … incurable.

“Never let anyone of evil desires arise in the world;
And know it by this: as the bourn of those of evil desires.
Known as ‘sage,’ held as ‘one who made the self become,’
Devadatta stood shining as with fame—I heard tell.

“He, falling into recklessness, assailing the Truth-finder,
Attained Avīci Hell, four-doored, frightful.
For he who would injure one without hatred, not doing an evil deed—
That evil touches only him of mind of hate, contemptuous.

“Who should think to pollute the sea with pot of poison—
He would not pollute it with that, for sublime is the great ocean.
So he who with abuse afflicts the Truth-finder
Who has rightly gone, his mind tranquil—on him the abuse has no effect.

“A wise man should make a friend of such a one and follow him,
A monk following the way of him should achieve destruction of ill.”

Questions of Upāli

Then the venerable Upāli approached the Lord, having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Upāli spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, as to the words: Dissension in an Order, dissension in an Order—to what extent, Lord, is there dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order? And then to what extent is there dissension in an Order as well as schism in an Order?”

“If, Upāli, there is one on one side and two on another and if a fourth speaks out and offers a voting ticket, saying: ‘This is the rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction, take this (voting ticket), approve of this’—this, Upāli, is dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order.

“If, Upāli, there are two on one side and two on another and if a fifth speaks out … two on one side and three on another and if a sixth speaks out … three on one side and three on another and if a seventh speaks out … three on one side and four on another and if an eighth speaks out and offers a voting ticket, saying: ‘This is the rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction, take this (voting ticket), approve of this’—this, Upāli, is dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order.

“If, Upāli, there are four on one side and four on another and a ninth speaks out … this, Upāli, is dissension in an Order as well as schism in an Order. Dissension in an Order, Upāli, as well as schism in an Order is (due to there being) nine or more than nine. Upāli, a nun does not split an Order even if she goes forward with a schism… a probationer … a novice … a woman novice … a lay-follower … a woman lay-follower does not split an Order even if she goes forward with a schism. Only a regular monk, Upāli, belonging to the same communion, staying within the same boundary, splits an Order.”

“Lord, as to the words: Schism in an Order, schism in an Order—to what extent, Lord, can an Order become split?”

“As to this, Upāli, monks explain non- dhamma as dhamma, they explain dhamma as non-dhamma, they explain non-discipline as discipline, they explain discipline as non-discipline, they explain what was not spoken, not uttered by the Truth-finder as spoken, uttered by the Truth-finder, they explain what was spoken, uttered by the Truth-finder as not spoken, not uttered by the Truth-finder, they explain what was not practised by the Truth-finder as practised by the Truth-finder, they explain what was practised by the Truth-finder as not practised by the Truth-finder, they explain what was not laid down by the Truth-finder as laid down by the Truth-finder, they explain what was laid down by the Truth-finder as not laid down by the Truth-finder, they explain what is no offence as an offence, they explain an offence as no offence, they explain a slight offence as a serious offence, they explain a serious offence as a slight offence, they explain an offence that can be done away with as an offence that cannot be done away with, they explain an offence that cannot be done away with as an offence that can be done away with, they explain a bad offence as not a bad offence, they explain not a bad offence as a bad offence. These, in regard to these eighteen points draw away and separate (a company), they carry out a separate Observance, they carry out a separate Invitation, they carry out a separate (formal) act of the Order. To this extent, Upāli, does an Order become split.”

“Lord, as to the words: Harmony in an Order, harmony in an Order—to what extent, Lord, does an Order come to be harmonious?”

“As to this, Upāli, monks explain non-dhamma as non-dhamma, they explain dhamma as dhamma … they explain not a bad offence as not a bad offence. These, in regard to these eighteen points, do not draw away, do not separate (a company), they do not carry out a separate Observance, they do not carry out a separate Invitation, they do not carry out a separate (formal) act of the Order. To this extent, Upāli, an Order comes to be harmonious.”

“But, Lord, having split an Order that was harmonious, what does he set up?”

“Now, Upāli, having split an Order that was harmonious, he sets up demerit that endures for an aeon and he is boiled in hell for an aeon.

“A schismatic in the Order,
doomed to the Downfall,
to Niraya Hell for an aeon,
To disharmony prone,
standing on non-dhamma,
falls away from peace from bondage.
Having split an harmonious Order,
he boils for an aeon in hell.”

“But, Lord, having united an Order that was split, what does he set up?”

“Now, Upāli, having united an Order that was split,
he sets up sublime merit
and he rejoices in heaven for an aeon.
Blessed is harmony for an Order,
and the friend of those who are harmonious,

“To harmony prone,
standing on dhamma,
falls not away from peace from bondage.
Making an Order harmonious,
he rejoices for an aeon in heaven.”

“Now, could it not be, Lord, that a schismatic in the Order is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, remaining there for an aeon, incurable?”

“It could be, Upāli, that a schismatic in the Order is doomed to the Downfall … incurable.”

“But could it be, Lord, that a schismatic in the Order is not doomed to the Downfall, not to Niraya Hell, not remaining there for an aeon, not incurable?”

“It could be, Upāli, that a schismatic in the Order is not doomed to the Downfall … not incurable.”

“But which (kind of) schismatic in an Order, Lord is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, remaining there for an aeon, incurable?”

“This is a case, Upāli, where a monk explains non- dhamma as dhamma; if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is non-dhamma, if he has the view that in schism there is non-dhamma, misrepresenting opinion, misrepresenting approval, misrepresenting pleasure, misrepresenting intention, and if he speaks out and offers a voting ticket, saying: ‘This is rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction; take this (voting ticket), approve of this’—this schismatic in the Order, Upāli, is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, remaining there for an aeon, incurable.

“And again, Upāli, if a monk explains non-dhamma as dhamma, if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is non-dhamma, if he has the view that in schism there is dhamma, misrepresenting opinion … incurable.

“And again, Upāli, if he explains non-dhamma as dhamma, if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is non-dhamma, if he is doubtful as to a schism … if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is dhamma, if he has the view that in schism there is non-dhamma … if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is dhamma, if he is doubtful as to a schism … if he is doubtful as to this (explanation), if he has the view that in schism there is non-dhamma … if he is doubtful as to this (explanation), if he has the view that in schism there is dhamma … if he is doubtful as to this (explanation), if he is doubtful as to a schism, misrepresenting opinion … incurable.”

“But which (kind of) schismatic in the Order, Lord, is not doomed to the Downfall, nor to Niraya Hell, not remaining there for an aeon, not incurable?”

“This is a case, Upāli, where a monk explains non-dhamma as dhamma; if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is dhamma, if he has the view that in schism there is dhamma, yet not misrepresenting opinion, not misrepresenting approval, not misrepresenting pleasure, not misrepresenting intention, he speaks out and offers a voting ticket, saying, ‘This is rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction; take this (voting ticket), approve of this’—even this schismatic in the Order, Upāli, is not doomed to the Downfall, not doomed to Niraya Hell, not remaining there for an aeon, not incurable.

“And again, Upāli, a monk explains dhamma as non-dhamma … explains a not bad offence as a bad offence, but (although) he has the view that in this (explanation) there is dhamma the view that in schism there is dhamma, yet not misrepresenting opinion … not incurable.”

Told is the Third Portion for Repeating.

Told is the Seventh Section: that on Schism in an Order.

This is its key:

In Anupiyā, distinguished, the delicately nurtured one did not want to,
ploughing, sowing, leading in, led away, digging up and reaping,
Harvesting, making into stooks, threshing and winnowing, sifting, bringing in,
the next and they do not stop, fathers and grandfathers.
Bhaddiya, Anuruddha and Ānanda, Bhagu, Kimbila,
and the Sakyan pride, at Kosambī, he declined, and about Kakudha.
He informed against, and a father’s, by a man, Nālāgiri,
a triad, five, a serious matter, he splits, and about a grave offence,
three, eight, three again, dissension, schism, “Could it not be?”