Theravāda Vinayapiṭaka

Khandhaka (Cūḷavagga)

18. Duties (Vatta)

On the duties of visitors

At one time the Awakened One, the Lord, was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time incoming monks entered the monastery with their sandals on, and they entered the monastery with sunshades up, and they entered the monastery with their heads muffled up, and they entered the monastery having put their robes on their heads, and they washed their feet in the drinking water, and they did not greet the resident monks who were senior nor ask about lodgings. And a certain incoming monk, having unfastened the bolt of an unoccupied dwelling-place, having opened the door, entered hastily. A snake fell on to his shoulder from a lintel above; terrified, he uttered a cry of distress. Monks, having run up, spoke thus to that monk: “Why did you, your reverence, utter a cry of distress?” Then this monk told this matter to the monks. Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these incoming monks enter a monastery with their sandals on … nor ask about lodgings?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that incoming monks entered a monastery with their sandals on … and did not ask about lodgings?”

“It is true, Lord.” The Awakened One, the Lord, rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can incoming monks enter a monastery with their sandals on … nor ask about lodgings? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Well then, monks, I will lay down an observance for incoming monks which should be observed by incoming monks.

“Monks, an incoming monk, thinking, ‘I will now enter a monastery,’ having taken off his sandals, having put them down, having beaten them, having taken them up (again), having lowered his sunshade, having uncovered his head, having put his robe over his shoulder, should enter the monastery carefully and unhurriedly. While he is entering the monastery, he should notice where the resident monks have withdrawn to. Wherever resident monks have withdrawn to—whether to an assembly hall or to a hut or to the root of a tree—having gone there, he should put down his bowl at one side, he should put down his robe at one side, and having taken a suitable seat he should sit down. He should ask about the drinking water, he should ask about the washing water—which the drinking water is, which the washing water. If he wants drinking water, having taken drinking water he should drink; if he wants washing water, having taken washing water he should wash his feet. When he is washing his feet he should sprinkle water (over them) with one hand and wash his feet with the other; but he should not sprinkle water and wash his feet with one and the same hand. Having asked for a piece of cloth to wipe his sandals, he should wipe the sandals. While he is wiping his sandals he should first wipe them with a dry piece of cloth, afterwards with a damp one; having washed the pieces of cloth for wiping the sandals he should spread them on one side. If a resident monk is senior he should greet him; if he is newly ordained he should make him greet (him). He should ask about lodgings, saying: ‘Which lodging pertains to me?’ He should ask whether it is occupied or unoccupied. He should ask about resorts for alms, he should ask about non-resorts for alms, he should ask about the families which are agreed upon as learners, he should ask about the privies, he should ask about the drinking water, he should ask about the water for washing, he should ask about a staff, he should ask about (the form of) the Order’s agreement, saying: ‘What time should it be entered upon, what time should it be departed from?

“If the dwelling-place is unoccupied, having knocked at the door, having waited a moment, having unfastened the bolt, having opened the door, he should watch out while standing outside. If the dwelling-place is soiled or if couch is piled on couch or if chair is piled on chair and lodgings heaped on top of them, he should clear (the dwelling-place) if he is able to do so. While clearing the dwelling place, having first taken out the ground covering he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the supports for the beds … having taken out the mattress and the squatting-mat … the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet, he should lay them to one side. Having lowered the couch, having taken it out carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts he should lay it to one side. Having lowered the chair, having taken it out carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the spittoon, he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the reclining board, he should lay it to one side. If there are cobwebs in the dwelling-place, he should first remove them from the (floor-) covering. He should wipe the corners of the window-holes. If a wall that was coloured red becomes stained, he should wipe it having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If ground that was blacked becomes stained, he should wipe it having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If the ground has not been treated, he should sweep it having sprinkled it all over with water, thinking: ‘Take care lest the dwelling-place is sullied with dust.’ Having looked for (any) rubbish, he should remove it to one side.

“Having dried the ground-covering in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having brought it back, he should lay it down as it was before. Having dried the supports for the couch in the sun, having wiped them, having brought them back, he should place them as they were before. Having dried the couch in the sun … the chair in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having lowered it, having brought it back carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, it should be laid down as it was before. Having dried the mattress and the squatting mat in the sun, having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought them back, they should be laid down as they were before. Having dried the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet in the sun, having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought them back, they should be laid down as they were before. Having dried the spittoon in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, it should be placed where it was before. Having dried the reclining-board in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, it should be placed where it was before.

“He should lay aside the bowl and robes. When laying aside the bowl, having taken the bowl in one hand, having felt with the other under the couch or under the chair, the bowl should be laid aside, but the bowl should not be laid aside on the bare ground. When laying aside the robe, having taken the robe in one hand, having stroked the other hand along the bamboo for robes or along the cord for robes, having got the edges away from him and the fold towards him, the robe should be laid aside.

“If dusty winds blow from the east, he should close the eastern windows. If dusty winds blow from the west, he should close the western windows. If dusty winds blow from the north, he should close the northern windows. If dusty winds blow from the south, he should close the southern windows. If the weather is cool, he should open the windows by day, he should close them by night. If the weather is warm, he should close the windows by day, he should open them by night.

“If a cell is soiled, the cell should be swept. If a porch is soiled, the porch should be swept. If an attendance-hall … if a fire-hall … if a privy is soiled, the privy should be swept. If there is no drinking water, drinking water should be provided. If there is no water for washing, water for washing should be provided. If there is no water in the pitcher of water for rinsing, water should be tipped into the pitcher of water for rinsing. This, monks, is the observance for incoming monks that is to be observed by incoming monks.”

On the duties of residents

Now at that time resident monks, having seen incoming monks, neither appointed a seat nor brought forward water for the feet, a footstool, a footstand, nor, having gone to meet them, did they receive their bowls and robes, they did not offer drinking water, they did not greet the senior incoming monks, nor appoint lodgings. Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these resident monks, having seen incoming monks, neither appoint a seat … nor appoint lodgings?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, monks …?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Well now, monks, I will lay down an observance for resident monks that should be observed by resident monks.

“Monks, when a resident monk has seen an incoming monk who is senior, he should appoint a seat, he should bring forward water for the feet, a footstool, a footstand, having gone to meet him he should receive his bowl and robe, he should offer him drinking water, and if he is able he should wipe his sandals. When he is wiping his sandals, he should first wipe them with a dry piece of cloth, afterwards with a damp one; having washed the pieces of cloth for wiping the sandals he should spread them on one side. An incoming monk should be greeted and a lodging appointed with the words, ‘This lodging pertains to you.’ He should explain whether it is occupied or unoccupied, the alms resorts should be explained, the non-alms resorts … the families agreed upon as learners … the privies … the drinking water … the washing water … the staff … the form of the Order’s agreement should be explained with the words, ‘This is the time to enter upon it, this is the time to depart from it.’

“If it is a newly ordained monk (who is incoming) then (the resident one) sitting down should explain: ‘Put aside your bowl in this place, put aside your robe in this place, sit on this seat.’ The drinking water should be explained (to him), the water for washing should be explained, the pieces of cloth for wiping the sandals should be explained. And incoming monks should be made to greet (him). The lodgings should be explained to him with the words, ‘This lodging pertains to you.’ He should explain whether it is occupied or unoccupied, alms resorts should be explained … (the form of) the Order’s agreement should be explained with the words, ‘This is the time to enter upon it, this is the time to depart from it.’ This, monks, is the observance for resident monks that should be observed by resident monks.”

On the duties of travellers

Now at that time monks who were going away set out without having packed away their wooden goods and clay goods, having opened the doors and windows, and without having asked (for permission) as to their lodgings. The wooden goods and the clay goods were lost and the lodgings came to be unguarded. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can these monks who are going away set out … lodgings came to be unguarded?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Well then, monks, I will lay down an observance for monks who are going away and which should be observed by monks who are going away.

“Monks, when a monk is going away, having packed away his wooden goods, his clay goods, having closed the doors and windows, he may set out having asked (for permission) as to his lodgings. If there is no monk, he should ask a novice (for permission). If there is no novice, he should ask a monastery attendant (for permission). If there is no monk or novice or monastery attendant, having laid a couch down on four stones, having piled couch on couch, having piled chair on chair, having made the lodgings into a heap on top (of them), he may set out having packed away the wooden goods the clay goods, having closed the doors and windows.

“If the dwelling-place is leaking he should roof it if he is able to do so, or he should make an effort, thinking, ‘How then can this dwelling-place be roofed?’ If he thus succeeds in this, that is good, but if he does not succeed, having laid down a couch on four stones in a place where it is not leaking, having piled couch on couch, having piled chair on chair, having made the lodgings into a heap on top (of them), he may set out, having packed away his wooden goods, his clay goods, having closed the doors and windows. If the whole dwelling-place is leaking, if he is able he should convey the lodgings to a village, or he should make an effort, thinking, ‘How then can this lodging be conveyed to a village?’ If he thus succeeds in this, that is good. If he does not succeed, having laid a couch down on four stones in the open air, having piled couch on couch, having piled chair on chair, having made the lodgings into a heap on top (of them), having packed away his wooden goods, his clay goods, having covered them with grass or leaves, he may set out, thinking, ‘So can the different things surely remain.’ This, monks, is the observance for monks who are going away and which should be observed by monks who are going away.”

On the duties of expressing appreciation

Now at that time monks did not give thanks in a refectory. People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, not give thanks in a refectory?” Monks heard these people who … spread it about. Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord, on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “I allow you, monks, to give thanks in a refectory.” Then it occurred to the monks: “Now, by whom should thanks be given in a refectory?” They told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “I allow you, monks, to give thanks in a refectory through a monk who is an elder.


Now at that time a certain guild had food for an Order; the venerable Sāriputta was the elder in the Order. Monks, thinking, ‘The Lord has allowed thanks to be given in a refectory through a monk who is an elder,’ departed, leaving the venerable Sāriputta alone. Then the venerable Sāriputta, having returned thanks to these people, later went away alone. The Lord saw the venerable Sāriputta coming in the distance; seeing him, he spoke thus to the venerable Sāriputta: “I hope, Sāriputta, that the meal was successful?”

“The meal, Lord, was successful, even though the monks departed leaving me alone.” Then the Lord on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying:

I allow, monks, four or five monks who are elders or next (in age) to the elders to wait in a refectory.


Now at that time a certain elder waited in a refectory although he wanted to relieve himself, and through restraining himself he fell down fainting. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, if there is a reason, to go away, having asked (permission from) the monk immediately next (to you).

On duties in the refectory

Now at that time the group of six monks, wrongly dressed, wrongly clothed, improperly attired, went into a refectory and turning aside went in close in front of monks who were elders, and sat down encroaching on (the space intended for) the elders and kept newly ordained monks from a seat and sat down amid the houses having spread out their outer cloaks. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can the group of six monks, wrongly dressed, wrongly clothed, improperly attired, go into a refectory … sit down encroaching on … and sit down amid the houses haying spread out their outer cloaks?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks, wrongly dressed … having spread out their outer cloaks?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Well then, monks, I will lay down a refectory observance for monks and which should be observed by monks in a refectory.

“If the time is announced in a monastery, (a monk), having dressed with the inner robe all round him for covering the three circles, having tied on his waistband, having made one bundle, having clothed himself in his upper robes, having fastened the block, having washed, having taken a bowl, he may enter a village carefully and unhurriedly. He should not, turning aside, go in close in front of monks who are elders, he should go (sit down) amid the houses properly clad, well controlled should he go (sit down) amid the houses, with eyes cast down should he go (sit down) amid the houses, not lifting up the robes … not with loud laughter … with little noise … not swaying the body … not swaying the arms … not swaying the head … not with the arms akimbo … not muffled up should he go (sit down) amid the houses, he should not go amid the houses crouching down on his heels, he should not go amid the houses lolling, he should not sit down amid the houses encroaching (on the space intended) for monks who are elders, newly ordained monks should not be kept from a seat, he should not sit down amid the houses having spread out his outer cloak.

“When water is being given out, having grasped the bowl with both hands, the water should be received I having put it down carefully the bowl should be washed without rubbing it. If there is a receiver of (used) water, having put the bowl down, the water should be sprinkled into a waste-tub thinking, ‘Be careful not to splash the receiver of (used) water with the water, not to splash the neighbouring monks with the water, not to splash the outer cloak with water.’ If there is no receiver of (used) water, having put down the bowl, the water should be sprinkled on to the ground, thinking, ‘Be careful not to splash the neighbouring monks with water nor to splash the outer cloak with water.’ If cooked rice is being given, having grasped the bowl with both hands, the cooked rice should be received. Room should be left for the curry. If there is ghee or oil or tit-bits an elder should say: ‘Obtain the same for all.’ Almsfood should be received attentively … thinking of the bowl … with equal curry, almsfood should be received at an equal level. The elder should not eat until the cooked rice has been served to all.

“Almsfood should be eaten attentively … thinking of the bowl … on continuous almsround … with equal curry … not having chosen from the top; neither the curry nor the condiment should be covered up with cooked rice, (the monk) desiring something more; neither the curry nor the cooked rice should be eaten by one who is not ill having asked for it for himself; others’ bowls should not be looked at captious-mindedly; too large a mouthful should not be made up; pieces (of food) should be made up into a round; the door of the face should not be opened if the mouthful is not brought close; while eating, the whole hand should not be put into the mouth; one should not talk with a mouthful in the mouth; one should not eat tossing up balls (of food); one should not eat breaking up the mouthfuls … stuffing the cheeks … shaking the hands about … scattering lumps of boiled rice … putting out the tongue … smacking the lips … making a hissing sound … licking the fingers … licking the bowl … licking the lips, one should not accept a drinking cup with a hand (soiled) with food.

“An elder should not accept water until everyone has eaten. When the water is being given, having grasped the bowl in both hands … ‘… nor to splash the outer cloak with water.’ One should not throw out amidst the houses rinsings of the bowl with lumps of boiled rice. When they are returning, newly ordained monks should return first, afterwards the elders. One should go properly clad amid the houses, well controlled should one go amid the houses … … one should not go amid the houses crouching down on the heels. This, monks, is the refectory observance for monks and which monks should observe in a refectory.”

The First Portion for Repeating.

On duties for those going on almsround

Now at that time monks who walked for almsfood walked for almsfood wrongly dressed, wrongly clothed, improperly attired, and they entered a dwelling without deliberation and they left without deliberation, and they entered very hastily and they left very hastily, and they stood too far away and they stood too close, and they stood too long and they turned away too soon. And a certain monk who was walking for almsfood entered a dwelling without deliberation; taking (a doorway) for the house-door, he entered an inner chamber. In that inner chamber a woman was lying naked on her back. That monk saw that woman lying naked on her back; seeing her, he thought: “This is not the house-door, this is an inner chamber,” and he went away from that inner chamber. That woman’s husband saw that woman lying naked on her back: seeing her, he thought: “My wife has been seduced by that monk,” and having seized that monk, he thrashed him. Then that woman, waking up at the noise, spoke thus to that man: “Why are you, master, thrashing this monk?”

“You were seduced by this monk.”

“I was not, master, seduced by this monk. This monk is innocent,” and she made him let go of that monk. Then that monk, having gone back to the monastery, told this matter to the monks. Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these monks who walk for almsfood walk for almsfood wrongly dressed … enter … depart … stand … and turn away too soon?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks …?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Well then, monks, I will lay down an observance for monks when they are walking for almsfood and which should be observed by monks when they are walking for almsfood.

“Monks, if a monk when he is walking for almsfood thinks: ‘I will enter this village,’ having dressed himself with his inner robe all round him so as to cover the three circles, having fastened his waistband, having made one bundle, having clothed himself in his upper robes, having fastened the block, having washed, having taken a bowl, he may enter the village carefully and unhurriedly. He should go amid the houses properly clad … he should not go amid the houses crouching down on his heels. When he is going amid the houses he should consider: ‘I will enter in this (fashion), I will leave in this.’ He should not enter too hastily, he should not leave too hastily, he should not stand too far away, he should not stand too close, he should not stand too long, he should not turn away too soon. While he is standing, he should consider: ‘Are they willing to give alms or are they not willing?’ If she puts aside her work or rises from her seat or wipes a spoon or wipes a dish or sets it out, he should stand still, thinking: ‘It is as though she is willing to give.’ When alms are being given, having raised the outer cloak with the left hand, having uncovered the bowl with the right hand, having grasped the bowl with both hands, the alms should be received, but one should not look at the face of the donor of the alms. He should consider: ‘Are they willing to give curry or are they not willing?’ If she wipes a spoon or wipes a dish or sets it out, he should stand still, thinking: ‘It is as though she is willing to give’. When the alms have been given, having covered the bowl with the outer cloak, one should turn away carefully and unhurriedly. One should go amid the houses properly clad … one should not go amid the houses crouching down on one’s heels.

“Whoever returns first from the village for almsfood should make ready a seat, he should bring forward water for (washing) the feet, a footstool, a footstand, he should set out a refuse bowl, having washed it, he should set out drinking water and water for washing. Whoever should return last from the village for almsfood, if there should be the remains of a meal and if he should so desire, he may eat them; but if he should not so desire, he may throw them away where there is but little green grass or he may drop them into water where there are no living creatures. He should put up the seat, he should put away the water for (washing) the feet, the footstool, the footstand, he should put away the refuse-bowl, having washed it, he should put away the drinking water and the water for washing, he should sweep the refectory. Whoever should see a vessel for drinking water or a vessel for washing water or a vessel (for water) for rinsing after evacuation, void and empty, should set out (water). If it is impossible for him (to do this) he should set out (water) by signalling with his hand, having invited a companion (to help him) by a movement of his hand; but he should not for such a reason break into speech. This, monks, is the observance for monks when they are walking for almsfood and which should be observed by monks when they are walking for almsfood.”

On duties for forest dwellers

Now at that time several monks were living in a forest. They neither set out drinking water, nor did they set out water for washing, nor did they set out a fire, nor did they set out kindling wood, they did not know the positions of the lunar mansions, they did not know the divisions of the quarters. Thieves, having gone there, spoke thus to these monks: “Is there drinking water, honoured sirs?”

“There is not, friends.”

“Is there water for washing … Is there a fire … Is there kindling wood, honoured sirs?”

“There is not, friends.”

“What is there a conjunction with today, honoured sirs?”

“Indeed, we do not know, friends.”

“Which quarter is this, honoured sirs?”

“Indeed, we do not know, friends.” Then these thieves thought: ‘These have no drinking water nor water for washing, there is no fire, there is no kindling wood, they do not know the positions of the lunar mansions, they do not know the divisions of the quarters. These are thieves, these are not monks,’ and having thrashed them, they departed. Then these monks told this matter to the monks. The monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying:

“Well then, monks, I will lay down an observance for monks who are forest-dwellers and which should be observed by monks who are forest-dwellers.

“Monks, a monk who is a forest-dweller, getting up early, having placed his bowl in a bag, having hung it on his shoulder, having arranged his robe over his shoulder, having put on his sandals, having packed away the wooden goods, the clay goods, having closed the doors and windows, may leave his lodgings. If he thinks: ‘Now I will enter a village,’ having taken off his sandals, having put them down, having beaten them, having placed them in a bag, having hung it on his shoulder, having dressed himself all round covering the three circles, having fastened his waistband … as in Kd.18.5.2 … he should turn away carefully and unhurriedly. He should go amid the houses properly clad … he should not go amid the houses crouching down on his heels.

“Having set out from the village, having placed his bowl in the bag, having hung it on his shoulder, having rolled up his robe, having placed it on his head, having put on his sandals, he should go along. Monks, a monk who is a forest-dweller should set out drinking water, he should set out water for washing, he should set out a fire, he should set out kindling wood, he should set out a walking staff, he should learn the positions of the lunar mansions, either the whole or one part, he should become skilled in the quarters. This, monks, is the observance for monks who are forest-dwellers and which should be observed by monks who are forest-dwellers.”

On duties regarding lodgings

Now at that time several monks were making robes in the open air. The group of six monks beat their lodgings to windward (of them) and in the open space; the monks were covered with dust. Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can this group of six monks beat their lodgings … so that monks are covered with dust?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks beat their lodgings … covered with dust?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Well then, monks, I will lay down an observance for monks in respect of lodgings that should be observed by monks in respect of lodgings.

“In whatever dwelling-place he is staying, if that dwelling-place is soiled, he should, if he is able, clean it. When he is cleaning the dwelling-place, having first taken out the bowl and robes, he should lay them to one side. Having taken out the piece of cloth for to sit upon and the sheet … the mattress and squatting mat, he should lay them to one side. Having lowered the couch, having taken it out carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it to one side. Having lowered the chair, having taken it out carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the supports for the couch, he should lay them to one side. Having taken out the spittoon, he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the reclining board, he should lay it to one side. Having observed how the ground covering was laid down, having taken it out, he should lay it to one side. If there are cobwebs in the dwelling-place, he should first remove them from the (floor-) covering. He should wipe the corners of the window-holes. If a wall that was coloured red becomes stained, he should wipe it having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If ground that was blacked becomes stained, he should wipe it having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If the ground was not treated, he should sweep it; having sprinkled it all over with water, thinking: ‘Take care lest the dwelling-place is sullied with dust.’ Having looked for (any) rubbish, he should remove it to one side. He should not beat the lodgings near monks … near dwelling-places … near drinking-water … near water for washing, he should not beat the lodgings to windward in the open space, he should beat the lodgings to leeward.

“Having dried the ground-covering to one side in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having brought it back, he should lay it down as it was laid down (before). Having dried the supports for the couch to one side in the sun, having wiped them, having brought them back, he should place them where they were (before). Having dried the couch to one side in the sun, having cleaned it, having beaten it, having lowered it, having brought it back carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it down as it was laid down (before). Having dried the chair to one side in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having lowered it, having brought it back carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it down as it was laid down (before). Having dried the mattress and the squatting mat to one side in the sun, having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought them back, he should lay them down as they were laid down (before). Having dried the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet to one side in the sun, having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought them back, he should lay them down as they were laid down (before). Having dried the spittoon to one side in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, he should place it where it was (before). Having dried the reclining board to one side in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, he should place it where it was (before). The bowl and robe should be laid aside. When he is laying aside the bowl, having taken the bowl in one hand, having felt with the other hand under the couch or under the chair, the bowl should be laid aside; but the bowl should not be laid aside on the bare ground. When he is laying aside the robe, having taken the robe in one hand, having stroked the other along the bamboo for robes or the cord for robes, having got the edges away from him and the fold towards him, the robe should be laid aside.

“If dusty winds blow from the east, the eastern windows should be closed. If dusty winds blow from the west … from the north … from the south, the south windows should be closed. If the weather is cool, the windows should be opened during the day, closed at night. If the weather is warm, the windows should be closed during the day, opened at night. If a cell is soiled, the cell should be swept. If a porch is soiled, the porch should be swept. If an attendance-hall … a fire-hall … a privy is soiled, the privy should be swept. If there is no drinking water, drinking water should be provided. If there is no water for washing, water for washing should be provided. If there is no water in the pitcher of water for rinsing, water should be poured into the pitcher of water for rinsing. If he is staying in a dwelling-place together with a senior, he should not give a recitation without asking the senior (for permission), he should not give the interrogation, he should not study, he should not speak dhamma, he should not light a lamp, he should not extinguish a lamp, he should not open windows, he should not close windows. If he is pacing up and down in the same place for pacing up and down in with a senior, he should turn when the senior turns, but he should not touch the senior (even) with a corner of his outer cloak. This, monks, is the observance for monks in respect of lodgings that should be observed by monks in respect of lodgings.”

On duties in the sauna

Now at that time the group of six monks, being hindered in (their use of a) bathroom by monks who were elders, having brought, out of disrespect, a quantity of sticks, having made a fire, having closed the doorway, sat down in the doorway. The monks, overcome by the heat, not being able to get through the doorway, fell down fainting. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can this group of six monks, being hindered (in their use of a) bathroom by monks who are elders … sit down in the doorway, so that monks … fell down fainting?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks, being hindered in (their use of a) bathroom by monks who are elders … sat down in the doorway so that monks … fell down fainting?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, on being hindered in (your use of) a bathroom by monks who are elders, having out of disrespect brought a quantity of sticks, a fire should not be made. Whoever should make one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. And nor, monks, having closed a doorway, should you sit down in the doorway. Whoever should (so) sit down, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

“On account of this, monks, I will lay down an observance for monks as to a bathroom and which should be observed by monks in a bathroom. Whoever goes first to a bathroom, if ashes have accumulated, should throw out the ashes. If the bathroom is soiled, the bathroom should be swept. If the flooring … cell … the porch … the hall in the bathroom is soiled, the hall in the bathroom should be swept. Chunam should be kneaded, clay should be moistened, water should be poured into the water-jar. On entering the bathroom, having smeared the face with clay, having covered oneself front and back, one may enter the bathroom. One should not sit down so as to encroach on (the space intended for) monks who are elders, nor should newly ordained monks be turned away from a seat. If one is able, a treatment should be done in the bathroom for monks who are elders. On leaving the bathroom, having taken the chair for the bathroom and having covered oneself front and back, one may leave the bathroom. If one is able, a treatment should also be done in the water for the monks who are elders. One should not bathe before the monks who are elders, nor should one bathe above them. Way should be made by one who has bathed and is getting out (of the water) for those who are getting into it. Whoever leaves the bathroom last, if the bathroom is swampy, he should wash it. Having washed the tub for the clay, having put away the chair for the bathroom, having extinguished the fire, having closed the door, he may depart. This, monks, is the observance for monks as to a bathroom and which should be observed by monks in a bathroom.”

On duties in the toilet

Now at that time a certain monk who had been born a brahmin, having relieved himself, did not want to rinse, thinking: “Who would touch this foul evil smell?” A worm remained in his rectum. Then this monk told this matter to the monks. They said: “But did you, your reverence, not rinse after relieving yourself?” “No, your reverences.” Those who were modest monks … spread it about … Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, that you, monk, did not rinse after relieving yourself?” “It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, if there is water you should not not rinse after relieving yourselves. Whoever should not rinse, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks relieved themselves in the privy according to seniority. Newly ordained monks, having arrived first, waited and through restraining themselves, they fell down fainting. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks?” “It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, you should not relieve yourselves in a privy according to seniority. Whoever does (this), there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, you monks, to relieve yourselves according to the order of arrival.


Now at that time the group of six monks entered a privy very hastily and they entered forcibly and they relieved themselves while groaning and while chewing toothwood and outside the proper vessels and they spat into a vessel and they scraped themselves with a rough piece of wood and they dropped a piece of wood for scraping into a cesspool; and they left very hastily and they left forcibly and they rinsed smacking their lips and they left water in the saucer for rinsing (-water). Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can this group of six monks enter a privy very hastily … and leave water in the saucer for rinsing (-water)?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks?” “It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Well then, monks, I will lay down an observance in respect of privies and which is to be observed by monks in privies.

“Whoever goes to a privy, standing outside should cough, and the one sitting inside should cough too. Having laid aside the robe on a bamboo for robes or on a cord for robes, one should enter the privy carefully and unhurriedly. One should not enter too hastily, one should not enter forcibly, one should stand firmly on the privy shoes. One should not relieve oneself while groaning … you should not drop a piece of wood for scraping into a cesspool. You should get rid of it while standing on the privy shoes. You should not depart too quickly, nor forcibly. You should stand firmly on the rinsing shoes. You should not rinse smacking your lips, you should not leave water in the saucer for rinsing (-water). You should get rid of it while standing on the rinsing shoes. If the privy is dirty it should be washed. If the receptacle for (wood for) scraping is full, the pieces of wood for scraping should be thrown away. If the privy is soiled, it should be swept. If the plaster flooring … if the cell … if the porch is soiled the porch should be swept. If there is no water in the vessel for rinsing-water, water should be tipped into it. This, monks, is the observance for monks in respect of privies and which should be observed by monks in respect of privies.”

On duties to the preceptor

Now at that time those who shared cells did not conduct themselves properly towards their preceptors. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can these who share cells not conduct themselves properly towards their preceptors?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks, that those who share cells do not conduct themselves properly towards their preceptors?” “It is true, Lord.” The Awakened One, the Lord rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can those who share cells not conduct themselves properly towards their preceptors? It is not, monks …” And having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Well then, monks, I will lay down an observance for those who share cells towards their preceptors and which should be observed by those who share cells towards their preceptors:

“The one who shares a cell, monks, should conduct himself properly towards the preceptor. This is the proper conduct in this respect: having got up early, having taken off his sandals, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, he should give toothwood, he should give water for rinsing the mouth, he should make ready a seat. If there is conjey, having washed a bowl, the conjey should be placed near (the preceptor). When he has drunk the conjey, having given him water, having received the bowl, having lowered it, having washed it properly without rubbing it, it should be put away. When the preceptor has got up, the seat should be removed. If that place is soiled, that place should be swept.

“If the preceptor wishes to enter a village, his inner clothing should be given (to him), the inner clothing (that he is wearing) should be received (from him) in return, the waistband should be given (to him); having folded them (into two or four folds), the outer robes are to be given (to him); having washed it, a bowl with water is to be given (to him). If the preceptor desires an attendant, (the latter) having put on his inner robe all round so as to cover the three circles, having bound on the waistband, having folded them, and having dressed in the outer robes, having fastened the ties, having washed, having taken a bowl, should be the preceptor’s attendant. He should not walk too far away (from him), he should not walk too close. He should receive the bowl and its contents.

“He should not interrupt the preceptor when he is speaking. (But) if the preceptor is bordering on an offence, then, speaking himself, he should warn him. When he is returning, he should make ready a seat, having come back first; he should set out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, a foot-stand; having gone to meet him, he should receive his bowl and robe, he should give back the inner clothing (given) in return, he should receive his inner clothing. If a robe is damp with perspiration, he should dry it for a short time in the sun’s warmth, but a robe should not be laid aside in the warmth. He should fold up the robe. When folding up the robe, having made the corners turn back four finger-breadths, he should fold up the robe, thinking ‘Mind there is no crease in the middle.’ The waistband should be placed in a fold (of the robe). If there is almsfood and the preceptor wishes to eat, having given him water, almsfood should be placed near (him).

“He should offer the preceptor drinking-water. When he has eaten, having given him water, having received the bowl, having lowered it, having washed it properly without rubbing it, having emptied out the water, he should dry it for a short time in the sun’s warmth, but a bowl should not be laid aside in the warmth. He should lay aside the bowl and robes. When laying aside the bowl, having taken the bowl in one hand, having felt with the other hand under the couch or under the chair, the bowl should be laid aside, but the bowl should not be laid aside on the bare ground. When laying aside a robe, having taken the robe in one hand, having stroked the other hand along the bamboo for robes or along the cord for robes, having got the edges away from him and the fold towards him, the robe should be laid aside. When the preceptor has got up, the seat should be removed, the water for washing the feet, the foot-stool, the foot-stand should be put away. If that place comes to be soiled that place should be swept.

“If the preceptor wishes to bathe, he should prepare a bath. If he wants a cold (bath), he should prepare a cold one; if he wants a hot (bath), he should prepare a hot one. If the preceptor wishes to enter a bathroom, he should knead chunam, should moisten clay; taking a chair for the bathroom, having gone close behind the preceptor, having given him the chair for the bathroom, having received his robe he should lay it to one side. He should give him the chunam, he should give him the clay. If he is able to do so, he should enter the bathroom. When he is entering the bathroom, having smeared his face with clay, having covered himself front and back, he should enter the bathroom.

“He should not sit down so as to encroach upon (the space intended for) monks who are elders. He should not keep newly ordained monks from a seat. He should make preparation for the preceptor in a bathroom. When he is leaving the bathroom, taking the chair for the bathroom, having covered himself front and back, he should leave the bathroom. He should also make preparation for the preceptor in the water. When he is bathing, having come out of the water (first), having dried his own body, having put on his inner robe, he should wipe off the water from the preceptor’s limbs, he should give him his inner clothing, he should give him his outer cloak; taking the chair for the bathroom, having come back first, he should make ready a seat, he should put out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, a foot-stand. He should offer the preceptor drinking-water.

“If he wishes to make him recite, he should make him recite. If he wishes to interrogate, he should be interrogated. In whatever dwelling-place the preceptor is staying, if that dwelling-place is soiled, it should be cleaned if he is able (to do so). When he is cleaning the dwelling-place, having first taken out the bowl and robes, he should lay them to one side. Having taken out the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet, he should lay them to one side. Having taken out the mattress and the squatting-mat, he should lay them to one side.

“Having lowered the couch, having taken it out carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it to one side. Having lowered the chair, having taken it out carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the supports for the couch, he should lay them to one side. Having taken out the spittoon, he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the reclining-board, he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the ground-covering, having observed how it was laid down, he should lay it to one side. If there come to be cobwebs in the dwelling-place, he should first remove them from the (floor-) covering; he should wipe the corners of the window-holes. If a wall that was coloured red comes to be stained, he should wipe it, having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If ground that was blacked becomes stained, he should wipe it, having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If the ground did not come to be treated, he should sweep it, having sprinkled it all over with water, thinking: ‘Take care lest the dwelling-place is sullied with dust’. Having looked for (any) rubbish, he should remove it to one side.

“Having dried the ground-covering in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having brought it back, he should lay it down as it was laid down before. Having dried the supports for the couch in the sun, having wiped them, having brought them back, he should place them where they were before. Having dried the couch in the sun, … the chair in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having lowered it, having brought it back carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it down as it was laid down before. Having dried the mattress and the squatting mat in the sun … having dried the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet in the sun, having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought them back, he should lay them down as they were laid down before. Having dried the spittoon in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, he should place it where it was before. Having dried the reclining-board in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, he should place it where it was before.

“He should lay aside the bowl and robes. When laying aside the bowl … as in Kd.18.11.5 … When laying aside a robe … the fold towards him, the robe should be laid aside.

“If dusty winds blow from the east, he should close the eastern windows. If dusty winds blow from the west … the north … … from the south, he should close the southern windows. If the weather is cool, he should open the windows by day, he should close them at night. If the weather is warm, he should close the windows by day, he should open them at night.

“If a cell is soiled, the cell should be swept. If a porch … an attendance-hall … a fire-hall … a privy is soiled, the privy should be swept. If there is no drinking-water, drinking-water should be provided. If there is no water for washing, water for washing should be provided. If there is no water in the pitcher of water for rinsing, water should be tipped into the pitcher of water for rinsing.

“If dissatisfaction has arisen in the preceptor, the one who shares his cell should allay it or get another to allay it, or he should give him a talk on dhamma. If remorse has arisen in the preceptor, the one who shares the cell should dispel it or get another to dispel it, or he should give him a talk on dhamma, If wrong views have arisen in the preceptor, the one who shares his cell should dissuade him (from them) or get another to dissuade him (from them), or he should give him a talk on dhamma.

“If the preceptor has committed an offence against an important rule and deserves probation, the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order grant the preceptor probation?’ If the preceptor deserves to be sent back to the beginning, the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order send the preceptor back to the beginning?’ If the preceptor deserves mānatta (discipline), the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order inflict mānatta (discipline) on the preceptor?’ If the preceptor deserves rehabilitation, the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order rehabilitate the preceptor?’

“If the Order desires to carry out a (formal) act against the preceptor—one of censure or one of guidance or one of banishment or one of reconciliation or one of suspension—the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order not carry out a (formal) act against the preceptor, or change it to a lighter one?’ Yet if a (formal) act—one of censure … one of suspension—is carried out by the Order against him, the one who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the preceptor conduct himself properly, be subdued, mend his ways, (so that) the Order could revoke that (formal) act?’

“If the preceptor’s robe should be washed, the one who shares his cell should wash it or he should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the preceptor’s robe be washed?’ If the preceptor’s robe-material should be made up, the one who shares his cell should make it up or he should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the preceptor’s robe-material be made up?’ If dye should be boiled for the preceptor, the one who shares the cell should boil it or he should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then can the dye be boiled?’ If the preceptor’s robe should be dyed, the one who shares his cell should dye it or should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then can the preceptor’s robe be dyed?’ When he is dyeing the robe, he should dye it properly, turning it again and again, nor should he go away if the drips have not ceased.

“Without asking the preceptor (for permission), he should not give an almsbowl to anyone nor should he receive an alms bowl from anyone; he should not give a robe to anyone nor should he receive a robe from anyone; he should not give a requisite to anyone nor should he receive a requisite from anyone; he should not cut off anyone’s hair, nor should he have his hair cut off by anyone; he should not render a service to anyone nor should he cause a service to be rendered by anyone; he should not execute a commission for anyone nor should he cause a commission to be executed by anyone; he should not become an attendant on anyone nor should he take anyone as an attendant; he should not bring back almsfood for anyone nor should he have almsfood brought back by anyone. Without asking the preceptor (for permission), he should not enter a village, he should not go to a cemetery, he should not leave the district. If the preceptor becomes ill, he should tend him for as long as life lasts; he should wait (with him) until he recovers. This, monks, is the observance for those who share cells towards preceptors and which should be observed by those who share cells towards preceptors.”

On duties to one who shares his cell

Now at that time preceptors did not conduct themselves properly towards those who shared their cells. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can these preceptors not conduct themselves properly towards those who share their cells?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks, that preceptors do not conduct themselves properly towards those who share their cells?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying: “Well then, monks, I will lay down an observance for preceptors towards those who share their cells and which should be observed by preceptors towards those who share their cells.

“The preceptor, monks, should conduct himself properly towards the one who shares his cell. This is the proper conduct in this respect: the one who shares the cell should be furthered, he should be helped by the preceptor in regard to recitation, interrogation, exhortation, instruction. If there is a bowl for the preceptor but no bowl for the one who shares his cell, a bowl should be given by the preceptor to the one who shares his cell, or he should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could a bowl be procured for the one who shares my cell?’ If there is a robe for the preceptor … if there is (another) requisite for the preceptor … ‘How then could (another) requisite be procured for the one who shares my cell?’

“If the one who shares a cell becomes ill, having got up early he should give tooth-wood, he should give water for rinsing the mouth, he should make ready a seat. If there is conjey, having washed a vessel, conjey should be placed near him. When he has drunk the conjey, having given him water, having received the vessel, having lowered it, having washed it properly without rubbing it, it should be put away. When the one who shares a cell has got up, the seat should be removed. If that place is soiled that place should be swept.

“If the one who shares a cell wishes to enter a village, his inner clothing should be given (to him), the inner clothing (that he is wearing) should be received from him, in return, the outer robes should be given (to him), having folded them (into two or four folds); having washed it, a bowl with water is to be given to him. Thinking: ‘He will be returning about now,’ he should make ready a seat, he should set out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, a foot-stand; having gone to meet him, he should receive his bowl and robe, he should give back the inner clothing (given) in return, he should receive his inner clothing. If a robe is damp with perspiration, he should dry it for a short time in the sun’s warmth, but a robe should not be laid aside in the warmth. He should fold up the robe. When folding up the robe, having made the corners turn back four finger-breadths, he should fold up the robe, thinking: ‘Mind there is no crease in the middle’. The waistband should be placed in a fold (of the robe). If there is almsfood and the one who shares a cell wishes to eat, having given him water, almsfood should be placed near (him).

“He should offer the one who shares his cell drinking water. When he has eaten, having given him water, having received the bowl, having lowered it, having washed it properly without rubbing it, having emptied out the water he should dry it for a short time in the sun’s warmth, but a bowl should not be laid aside in the warmth. He should lay aside the bowl and robes. When laying aside the bowl, having taken the bowl in one hand, having felt with the other under the couch or under the chair, the bowl should be laid aside, but the bowl should not be laid aside on the bare ground. When laying aside a robe, having taken the robe in one hand, having stroked the other hand along the bamboo for robes or the cord for robes, having got the edges away from him and the fold towards him, the robe should be laid aside. When the one who shares a cell has got up, the seat should be removed, the water for washing the feet, the foot-stool, the foot-stand should be put away. If that place comes to be soiled, that place should be swept.

“If the one who shares a cell wishes to bathe, he should prepare a bath. If he wants a cold (bath), he should prepare a cold one; if he wants a hot (bath), he should prepare a hot one. If the one who shares a cell wishes to enter a bathroom, he should knead chunam, he should moisten clay; taking a chair for the bathroom, having gone (close behind the one who shares a cell), having given him the chair for the bathroom, having received his robe, he should lay it to one side. He should give him the chunam, he should give him the clay. If he is able to do so he should enter the bathroom. When he is entering the bathroom, having smeared his face with clay, having covered himself front and back he should enter the bathroom.

“He should not sit down so as to encroach upon (the space intended for) monks who are elders. He should not keep newly ordained monks from a seat. He should make preparation for the one who shares a cell in the bathroom. When he is leaving the bathroom, taking the chair for the bathroom, having covered himself front and back, he should leave the bathroom. And he should make preparation in the water for the one who shares his cell. When he is bathing, having come out of the water first, having dried his own body, having put on his inner robe, he should wipe off the water from the limbs of the one who shares the cell, he should give him his inner clothing, he should give him his outer cloak; taking the chair for the bathroom, having come back first, he should make ready a seat, he should put out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, a foot-stand. He should offer the one who shares a cell drinking-water.

“If the dwelling-place in which the one who shares a cell is staying is dirty, if he is able (to do so) he should clean it. When he is cleaning it, having first taken out the bowl and robes, he should lay them to one side … If there is no water in the pitcher of water for rinsing, water should be tipped into the pitcher of water for rinsing. If dissatisfaction has arisen in the one who shares a cell, the preceptor should allay it or get another to allay it, or he should give him a talk on dhamma. If remorse … the preceptor should dispel it or get another to dispel it, or he should give him a talk on dhamma. If wrong views have arisen in the one who shares a cell, the preceptor should dissuade him (from them) or get another to dissuade him (from them) or he should give him a talk on dhamma.

“If the one who shares a cell has committed an offence against an important rule … the preceptor should make an effort, thinking: ‘How then could the Order rehabilitate the one who shares the cell?’

“If the Order desires to carry out a (formal) act against one who shares a cell … thinking: ‘How then could the one who shares a cell conduct himself properly, be subdued, mend his ways, (so that) the Order could revoke that (formal) act?’

“If the robe of one who shares a cell should be washed … When he is dyeing the robe, he should dye it properly, turning it again and again, nor should he go away if the drips have not ceased. If the one who shares a cell becomes ill, he should tend him for as long as life lasts; he should wait (with him) until he recovers. This, monks, is the observance for preceptors towards those who share their cells and which should be observed by preceptors towards those who share their cells.”

The Second Portion for Repeating.

On duties to the teacher

Now at that time pupils did not conduct themselves properly towards their teachers … as in Kd.18.11.1. Instead of preceptor read teacher; instead of one who shares a cell read pupil

On duties to the student

Now at that time teachers did not conduct themselves properly towards their pupils … as in Kd.18.12.1 Instead of preceptor, one who shares his cell read teacher, pupil

Told is the Eighth Section: that on Observances.

In this Section are fifty-five items, fourteen observances. This is its key:

With sandals and sunshades, heads muffled up, drinking water,
did not greet, they did not ask, snake, the well behaved looked down upon, /
He took off, sunshade, and over his shoulder, and unhurriedly, withdrawal,
laying aside bowl and robe, and suitable, asked, /
Should sprinkle, and about washing, sandals with a dry and a damp (cloth),
a senior, a newly ordained one should ask, and whether occupied, resorts, /
Learners, privies, drinking water, washing, staff, agreement, thereupon
the time, a moment, soiled, the ground-covering should be taken out, /
Supports, mattress and squatting mat, and couch and chair, spittoon,
reclining board, cobwebs, corners, coloured red, black, not treated, /
And rubbish, ground covering, supports, couch and chair,
mattress, piece of cloth to sit upon, spittoon, and reclining board, /
Bowl and robe, and the ground, the edges away, the folds towards,
from East, and from West, from the North, then from the South, /
And cool, warm, by day, at night, and a cell, a porch,
attendance- and fire-hall, and the custom in privies, /
Water for drinking, for washing, and into pitchers of water for rinsing—
For the rhythm: an observance laid down for those incoming. /
Neither a seat, nor water, nor meeting, nor drinking water either,
they did not greet, they did not appoint, and the well behaved spread it about. /
And a seat for a senior, water, and having gone to meet, drinking water,
sandals, on one side, and he should be greeted, should be appointed, /
Occupied, resorts and a learner, privy, drinking- and washing-water,
staff, agreement, the time, if he is sitting down before one newly ordained, /
He should greet, he should explain, the method is as below.
The observance for these resident ones was pointed out by the Leader of the Caravan. /
Those going away and wood, clay, having opened, not asking (for permission),
and they were lost, and unguarded, and the well behaved ones looked down upon. /
Having packed away, having closed, having asked (for permission), so may he set out,
monk or novice or park-attendant or lay follower, /
On stones, a heap, he should pack away, and he should close,
if he is able, or an effort, and just where it does not leak, /
If the whole leaks—to a village, and just there in the open air,
“So the different things surely remain”: the observance for monks who are going away. /
They did not give thanks, through an elder, leaving alone, about four or five,
wanting to relieve himself, he was fainting: these are the observances for those giving thanks. /
The group of six monks wrongly dressed and further wrongly clothed,
and improperly, turning aside, encroaching on (the space intended for) elders, /
And newly ordained monks, outer cloaks, and the well behaved looked down upon,
having dressed with the inner robe all round one for covering the three circles, waistband, one bundle, block, /
Not turning aside, properly clad, well-controlled, eyes cast down,
lifting up the robes, with loud laughter, noise, and so the three swayings, /
Arms akimbo, muffled up, crouching, properly clad, well controlled,
lifting up the robes, loud laughter, little noise, the three swayings, /
Arms akimbo, muffled up, and lolling, encroaching, not on a seat,
having spared (he should) not, when water, having lowered, he should not splash, /
Receiver, neighbouring, outer cloak, and if cooked rice it should be received,
curry, tit-bits, for all, and an equal level, /
Attentively, and thinking of the bowl, and on continuous almsround, equal curry,
not from the top, coverings up, asking, captious-mindedly, /
Large, a round, door, whole hand, one should not talk, ball, breaking up, cheeks, shaking, scattering lumps of boiled rice, /
And then putting out the tongue, smacking the lips, making a hissing sound,
licking the fingers, the bowl, the lips, accepting with what is soiled, /
Until everyone, when water, having lowered, he should not splash,
receiver, neighbouring, outer cloak, and having lowered on the ground, /
With lumps of boiled rice, when returning, properly clad, crouching;
this refectory-observance was laid down by the dhamma-king. /
Wrongly dressed, improperly, and without deliberation, hastily,
far, close, long, soon, here just those who walk for alms. /
He may go properly clad, well controlled, his eyes cast down,
lifting up the robes, with loud laughter, noise, and so the three swayings, /
Arms akimbo, muffled up, crouching, and having considered, hastily,
far, close, long, soon, a little seat, a spoon, /
Or a dish and if she sets it out, having raised (and) having uncovered,
(the alms) may be received, he should not look at, and that is about curries as before, /
A monk should cover with the outer cloak, he should go properly clad,
well controlled, and the eyes cast down, lifting up the robes, and with loud laughter, /
Little noise, the three swayings, arms akimbo, muffled up, crouching,
the first the seat, the refuse (tub), drinking water, washing water,
the last if he so desires may eat, it may be thrown into, he should remove, /
He should put away, he should sweep, if empty (and) depleted he should attend (to them)
by a sign with the hand, he should not break into: and the observance for those who walk for alms. /
Drinking water, washing water, fire, kindling wood and lunar mansions (and) quarters (and) thieves,
thinking, “there is nothing” having thrashed (them), a bowl, on the shoulder, then the robe, /
“Now,” having hung on the shoulder, the three circles, all round,
as is the observance for those who walk for alms so are the meanings in that for forest-dwellers. /
A bowl, on the shoulder, robe, on the head, and having put on, drinking water,
washing water, fire, and also kindling wood, a staff, /
Lunar mansions, or their positions, he should become skilled in the quarters:
the observance was laid down for these forest-dwellers by the Best of Teachers. /
In the open air, they were covered, and the well behaved looked down upon.
If a dwelling-place is soiled, first the bowl and robe, /
Mattress and squatting-mat, couch, and chair, spittoon,
reclining board (and) window corners, red colouring, black, not treated, /
Rubbish, near monks, lodgings, dwelling-place, drinking water,
near washing water, and to windward in the open space, /
To leeward, covering, supports and couch,
chair, mattress, piece of cloth to sit upon, spittoon, and reclining board, /
And bowl and robe on the ground, the edges away from, the fold towards,
and the East, the West, the North, then the South, /
And cool and warm, by day (and) at night, and a cell, a porch,
attendance- and fire-hall, a privy, drinking water, /
Pitcher of rinsing water, seniors, recitation (and) interrogation, study,
dhamma, and a light, he should (not) extinguish, he should not open, nor should he close, /
When the senior turns, he should not touch him even with a corner;
the Great Sage laid down this observance for lodgings. /
If they are being hindered, doorway, fainting, the well behaved look down upon,
he should throw out the ashes, bathroom, and flooring as before, /
Cell (and) porch, hall, chunam (and) clay (and) jar,
face, in front, not (encroaching on) elders, nor newly ordained, if he is able, /
In front, above, a way, swampy, clay, a little chair,
and having extinguished, he may depart: the observance for those in bathrooms. /
He did not rinse, according to seniority and in order, and he fell down, hastily,
forcibly, groaning, toothwood, they relieved themselves, spitting, /
Rough, cesspool, hastily, forcibly, smacking, they left,
outside and inside one should cough, a cord, and unhurriedly, /
Hastily, forcibly, groaning, toothwood, and relieving oneself,
spitting, rough, and cesspool, privy shoes, /
Not too hastily, forcibly, shoes, smacking the lips,
one should not leave, one should not get rid of, dirty, and about the receptacle, /
Privy, plaster flooring, and cell, porch,
and water in the pitcher for rinsing water: the observance in the privies are these. /
Sandals, toothwood, and water for rinsing the mouth, a seat,
conjey, water, having washed, he should remove, soiled, and village, /
Inner clothing, waistband, fold, a bowl with water,
attendant, and precisely the three circles, all round, waistband, /
Fold, having washed, attendant, not too far away, he should receive,
while he is speaking, offence, going first, a seat, /
Water, (foot-) stool and stand, having gone to meet, inner clothing,
in the sun, he laid aside, crease, in a fold, let him eat, he may place,
Drinking water, water, lowered, for a moment, but he should not lay aside,
bowl on the ground and robes, edges away, fold towards, /
He should remove, he should put away, and soiled, to bathe,
cold, hot, bathroom, chunam, clay, behind, /
And chair, robe, chunam, clay, if he is able, face,
front, elders, neither, and preparation, when leaving, /
Front, in the water, when bathing, having dressed, the preceptor,
and the inner clothing, outer cloak, chair, and about a seat, /
Footstool and stand, drinking water, recitation, interrogation,
if soiled he should clean it, first the bowl and robes /
Piece of cloth to sit upon and sheet, and the mattress and squatting mat,
couch, chair, supports, spittoon, and the reclining board, /
Ground- (covering), cobwebs, windows, red, black, not treated,
ground-covering, supports, couch, chair, mattress, /
Piece of cloth to sit upon and sheet, spittoon and reclining board, bowl and robe,
from the East, and from the West, from the North, and then from the South, /
And cool and warm, by day and night, and a cell, porch,
attendance- and fire-hall, privy, drinking water, water for washing, /
Pitcher of water for rinsing, dissatisfaction remorse, and wrong view, important (rule),
the beginning, mānatta, rehabilitation, censure, guidance, /
Banishment, reconciliation, and suspension, if it is carried out,
he should wash, and he should make up, the dye, he should dye, turning it, /
And bowl, and also robe, and a requisite, cutting off,
service, commission, attendant, almsfood, entering, /
Nor to a cemetery, and also from a district, he should attend him for as long as life lasts;
this is the observance for one who shares a cell. These are for a preceptor: /
Exhortation, instruction, recitation, interrogation, and bowl, robe,
and requisite, ill, he should not be an attendant. /
These observances for preceptors are also so for teachers;
as are the observances for those who share a cell, so they are for pupils. /
Those observances for incoming ones, and again for resident ones,
those going away, those giving thanks, in a refectory, those walking for almsfood, /
That observance for forest-dwellers, and also that for lodgings,
In a bathroom, a privy, and those for preceptors and those who share their cells, /
(As is) that observance for teachers, so is it for pupils.
Nineteen matters are spoken of in sixteen sections. /
Being imperfect in observance one does not perfect morality,
Impure in morality, of poor wisdom, one knows not one-pointedness of mind, /
The mind wavering, not one-pointed, sees not dhamma rightly,
not seeing true dhamma, one is not freed from ill. /
Being perfect in observance, one perfects morality too,
pure in morality, with wisdom, one knows too one-pointedness of mind, /
The mind unwavering, one-pointed, rightly sees dhamma too,
beholding true dhamma, one is freed from ill. /
Wherefore the watchful son of the Conqueror should fulfil the observance,
the exhortation of the best of Buddhas—hence he will come to nibbāna. /