Theravāda Vinayapiṭaka

Khandhaka (Cūḷavagga)

19. Suspending the Observance (Uposathaṭṭhāpana)

Requesting the recitation of the Pātimokkha

At one time the Awakened One, the Lord was staying at Sāvatthī in the Eastern Monastery in the long house of Migāra’s mother. Now at that time the Lord was sitting down surrounded by an Order of monks on an Observance day. Then, when the night was far spent, as the first watch was waning, the venerable Ānanda, rising from his seat, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having saluted the Lord with joined palms, spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord, the night is far spent, the first watch is waning; the Order of monks has been sitting down for a long time; Lord, let the Lord recite the Pātimokkha to the monks.” When he had spoken thus the Lord became silent. And when the night was far spent, as the middle watch was waning, the venerable Ānanda a second time rising from his seat, having arranged … spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord, the night is far spent, the middle watch is waning; … recite the Pātimokkha to the monks.” And a second time the Lord became silent. And when the night was far spent, as the last watch was waning, when the sun had risen and the night had a face of gladness, a third time did the venerable Ānanda, rising from his seat, having arranged … speak thus to the Lord:

“Lord, the night is far spent, the last watch is waning; the sun has risen, the night has a face of gladness; the Order of monks has been sitting down for a long time; Lord, let the Lord recite the Pātimokkha to the monks.”

“Ānanda, the assembly is not entirely pure.”

Then it occurred to the venerable Moggallāna the Great:

“Now, on account of which individual did the Lord speak thus: ‘Ānanda, the assembly is not entirely pure’?” Then the venerable Moggallāna the Great with his mind compassed the minds of the entire Order of monks. Then the venerable Moggallāna the Great saw that individual sitting in the midst of the Order of monks—of bad moral habit, depraved in character, of impure and suspicious behaviour, of concealed actions, not a (true) recluse (although) pretending to be a (true) recluse, not a farer of the Brahma-faring (although) pretending to be a farer of the Brahma-faring, rotten within, filled with desire, filthy by nature; seeing him, he approached that individual, having approached, he spoke thus to that individual:

“Get up, your reverence, the Lord has seen you; for you there is no communion together with the monks.” When he had spoken thus that individual became silent. And a second time … And a third time the venerable Moggallāna the Great spoke thus to that individual: “Get up, your reverence … for you there is no communion together with the monks.” And a third time that individual became silent. Then the venerable Moggallāna the Great, having taken that individual by the arm, having thrust him out through the porch of the gateway, having shot the bolt, approached the Lord; having approached, he spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord I have thrust that individual out; the company is entirely pure; Lord, let the Lord recite the Pātimokkha to the monks.”

“How strange, Moggallāna, how wonderful, Moggallāna, that that foolish man should have waited even until he was taken hold of by the arm.”

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

Eight wonderful things about the great ocean

“Monks, there are these eight strange and wonderful things about the great ocean, from constantly having seen which asuras delight in the great ocean. What are the eight? The great ocean, monks, deepens gradually, slopes gradually, shelves gradually, with no abruptness like a precipice. And monks, that the great ocean deepens gradually, slopes gradually, shelves gradually with no abruptness like a precipice—this, monks, is the first strange and wonderful thing about the great ocean from constantly having seen which asuras delight in the great ocean.

“And again, monks, the great ocean is stable, it does not overflow its margins. And, monks, that the great ocean is stable, that it does not overflow its margins—this, monks, is the second strange and wonderful thing …

“And again, monks, the great ocean does not associate with a dead body, a corpse. Whatever dead body, corpse there may be in the great ocean, that it just quickly forces ashore and pushes on to the dry land. That the great ocean, monks, does not associate with a dead body, a corpse … this, monks, is the third strange and wonderful thing …

“And again, monks, all the great rivers, that is to say the Ganges, the Jumna, the Aciravatī, the Sarabhū, the Mahī—these, on reaching the great ocean lose their former names and identities and are reckoned simply as the great ocean. That all the great rivers … this, monks, is the fourth strange and wonderful thing …

“And again, monks, those streams which in the world flow into the great ocean, and those showers from the sky which fall into it, yet is neither the emptiness nor the fullness of the great ocean affected by that. That those streams which in the world … this, monks, is the fifth strange and wonderful thing …

“And again, monks, the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt. That the great ocean, monks, has one taste … this, monks, is the sixth strange and wonderful thing …

“And again, monks, the great ocean has many treasures, divers treasures; these treasures are there, that is to say: pearl, crystal, lapis lazuli, shell, quartz, coral, silver, gold, ruby, cat’s-eye. That the great ocean, monks, has many treasures … this, monks, is the seventh strange and wonderful thing …

“And again, monks, the great ocean is the abode of great beings; these beings are there: the timis, the timiṅgalas, the timitimiṅgalas, asuras, nāgas, gandhabbas. There are in the great ocean individualities a hundred yojanas (long), individualities two hundred … three hundred … four hundred … five hundred yojanas (long). That the great ocean, monks, is the abode of great beings; that these beings are there: the timis … individualities five hundred yojanas (long)—this, monks, is the eighth strange and wonderful thing about the great ocean from constantly having seen which asuras delight in the great ocean. These, monks, are the eight strange and wonderful things about the great ocean from constantly having seen which asuras delight in the great ocean.

Eight wonderful things about this Dhamma and Vinaya

“In exactly the same way, monks, in this dhamma and discipline there are eight strange and wonderful things from constantly having seen which monks delight in this dhamma and discipline. What are the eight?

“Even, monks, as the great ocean deepens gradually, slopes gradually, shelves gradually with no abruptness like a precipice, even so, monks, in this dhamma and discipline there is a gradual training, a gradual doing, a gradual course, with no abruptness such as penetration of profound knowledge. And, monks, that in this dhamma and discipline there is a … gradual course with no abruptness such as penetration of profound knowledge, this, monks, is the first strange and wonderful thing from constantly having seen which monks delight in this dhamma and discipline.

“And even, monks, as the great ocean is stable and does not overflow its margins, even so, monks, whatever rule of training has been laid down by me for disciples, my disciples will not transgress it even for life’s sake. And that, monks, my disciples will not transgress even for life’s sake a rule of training laid down by me for disciples, this, monks, is the second strange and wonderful thing …

“And even, monks, as the great ocean does not associate with a dead body, a corpse, but whatever dead body, corpse there may be in the great ocean, that it just quickly forces ashore and pushes on to the dry land, even so, monks, whatever individual is of bad moral habit, of depraved character, of impure and suspicious behaviour, of concealed actions, not a (true) recluse (although) pretending to be a (true) recluse, not a farer of the Brahma-faring (although) pretending to be a farer of the Brahma-faring, rotten within, filled with desire, filthy by nature—the Order does not live in communion with him, but having assembled quickly, suspends him; and although he is sitting in the midst of an Order of monks, yet he is far from the Order and the Order is far from him … this, monks, is the third strange and wonderful thing …

“And even, monks, as those great rivers, that is to say the Ganges, the Jumna, the Aciravatī, the Sarabhū, the Mahī which, on reaching the great ocean, lose their former names and identities and are reckoned simply as the great ocean, even so, monks, (members of) these four castes: noble, brahmin, merchant and low, having gone forth from home into homelessness in this dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Truth-finder, lose their former names and clans and are reckoned simply as recluses, sons of the Sakyans … this, monks, is the fourth strange and wonderful thing …

“And even, monks, as those streams which in the world flow into the great ocean and those showers which fall into it from the sky, yet not by that is either the emptiness or the fullness of the great ocean affected—even so, monks, even if many monks attain nibbāna in the nibbāna-condition in which no more groups are remaining, not by that is either the emptiness or the fullness of the nibbāna-condition affected … this, monks, is the fifth strange and wonderful thing …

“And even, monks, as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt, even so, monks, does this dhamma and discipline have one taste, the taste of freedom … this, monks, is the sixth strange and wonderful thing …

“And even, monks, as the great ocean has many treasures, divers treasures—these treasures are there, that is to say: pearl, crystal, lapis lazuli, shell, quartz, coral, silver, gold, ruby, cat’s-eye—even so, monks, does this dhamma and discipline have many treasures, divers treasures—these treasures are there, that is to say: the four arousings of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of pyschic power, the five faculties, the seven links in awakening, the noble eightfold Way … this, monks, is the seventh strange and wonderful thing …

“And even, monks, as the great ocean is the abode of great beings—these beings are there: timis, timingalas, timitimingalas, asuras, nāgas, gandhabbas, individualities a hundred yojanas (long) … two hundred … three hundred … four hundred … five hundred yojanas (long)—even so, monks, this dhamma and discipline is the abode of great beings—these beings are there: the stream-attainer, the one going along to the realisation of the fruit of stream-attainment, the once-returner, the one going along to the realisation of the fruit of once-returning, the non-returner, the one going along to the realisation of the fruit of non-returning, the perfected one, the one going along to perfection. And that, monks, this dhamma and discipline is the abode of great beings—these beings are there: the stream-attainer … the one going along to perfection, this, monks, is the eighth strange and wonderful thing in this dhamma and discipline from constantly having seen which monks delight in this dhamma and discipline. These, monks, are the eight strange and wonderful things in this dhamma and discipline from constantly having seen which monks delight in this dhamma and discipline.”

Then the Lord, having known this matter, at that time uttered this utterance:

“It rains hard on a covered thing,
It rains not hard on an open thing;
So open up the covered thing,
Thus will it not rain hard on that.”

Those deserving to hear the Pātimokkha

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Now, I, monks, henceforth will not carry out the Observance, I will not recite the Pātimokkha; now you yourselves, monks, must henceforth carry out the Observance, must recite the Pātimokkha. It is not possible, monks, it cannot come to pass that the Truth-finder should carry out the Observance, should recite the Pātimokkha with an assembly that is not entirely pure. Nor, monks, should the Pātimokkha be heard by one who has an offence. Whoever (such) should hear it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to suspend the Pātimokkha for him who, having an offence, hears the Pātimokkha. And thus, monks, should it be suspended: On an Observance day, whether it be the fourteenth or the fifteenth, when that individual is present this should be uttered in the midst of the Order: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The individual So-and-so has an offence; I am suspending the Pātimokkha for him, the Pātimokkha should not be recited when he is present’—(thus) does the Pātimokkha become suspended.”


Now at that time the group of six monks, thinking: “No one knows about us,” listened to the Pātimokkha although they had offences. Monks who were elders, knowing the minds of others, told the monks: “So-and-so and So-and-so, your reverences, (belonging to) the group of six monks, thinking, ‘No one knows about us,’ listened to the Pātimokkha although they had offences.” The group of six monks heard it said that the monks who were elders, knowing the minds of others, had told the monks: “So-and-so and So-and-so … listened to the Pātimokkha although they had offences.” These, thinking: “In case the well behaved monks suspend the Pātimokkha for us,” suspended first, without ground, without reason, the Pātimokkha for the pure monks who had no offences. These who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can this group of six monks suspend, without ground, without reason, the Pātimokkha for pure monks who have no offences?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks suspended, without ground, without reason, the Pātimokkha for pure monks who have no offences?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, you should not, without ground, without reason, suspend the Pātimokkha for pure monks who have no offences. Whoever should (so) suspend it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Setting aside the Pātimokkha by rule and not by rule

“Monks, one suspension of the Pātimokkha is not legally valid, one is legally valid; two suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid, two are legally valid; three… four … five … six … seven … eight … nine … ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid, ten are legally valid.

“What is the one suspension of the Pātimokkha that is not legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from moral habit, this one suspension of the Pātimokkha is not legally valid.

“What is the one suspension of the Pātimokkha that is legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from moral habit, this one suspension of the Pātimokkha is legally valid.

“What are the two suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are not legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from moral habit, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from good habits, these two suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.

“What are the two suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from moral habit, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from good habits, these two suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.

“What are the three suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are not legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from moral habit, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from good habits, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from right views, these three suspensions … are not legally valid.

“What are the three suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from moral habit … from good habits … from right views, these three suspensions … are legally valid.

“What are the four suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are not legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from moral habit … from good habits … from right views, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from a right mode of livelihood, these four suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.

“What are the four suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from moral habit, … from good habits … from right views, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from a right mode of livelihood, these four suspensions … are legally valid.

“What are the five suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are not legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) an offence involving defeat … on an unfounded (charge of) an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order … on an unfounded (charge of) an offence of expiation … on an unfounded (charge of) an offence which ought to be confessed … on an unfounded (charge of) an offence of wrong-doing, these five suspensions … are not legally valid.

“What are the five suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) an offence involving defeat … on a founded (charge of) an offence of wrong-doing, these five suspensions … are legally valid.

“What are the six suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are not legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from moral habit which has not been done, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from moral habit which has been done … on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from good habits which has not been done … which has been done, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from right views which has not been done … which has been done, these six suspensions … are not legally valid.

“What are the six suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from moral habit which has not been done … which has been done … on a founded (charge of) falling away from good habits which has not been done … which has been done, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from right views which has not been done … which has been done, these six suspensions … are legally valid.

“What are the seven suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are not legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) an offence involving defeat … of an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order … of a grave offence … of an offence of expiation … of an offence which ought to be confessed … of an offence of wrong-doing, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) an offence of wrong speech, these seven suspensions … are not legally valid.

“What are the seven suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) an offence involving defeat … on a founded (charge of) an offence of wrong speech, these seven suspensions … are legally valid.

“What are the eight suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are not legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from moral habit which has not been done … which has been done … of falling away from good habits which has not been done … which has been done … of falling away from right views which has not been done … which has been done, if one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from a right mode of livelihood which has not been done … which has been done, these eight suspensions … are not legally valid.

“What are the eight suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from moral habit which has not been done … which has been done … of falling away from a right mode of livelihood which has not been done … which has been done, these eight suspensions … are legally valid.

“What are the nine suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are not legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from moral habit which has not been done … which has been done … which has been done and not done … on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from good habits which has not been done … which has been done … which has been done and not done … on an unfounded (charge of) falling away from right views which has not been done … which has been done … which has been done and not done, these nine suspensions … not legally valid.

“What are the nine suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are legally valid? If one suspends the Pātimokkha on a founded (charge of) falling away from moral habit which has not been done … which has been done … which has been done and not done … on a founded (charge of) falling from good habits … on a founded (charge of) falling away from right views which has not been done … which has been done … which has been done and not done, these nine suspensions … are legally valid.

“What are the ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are not legally valid? If one who is defeated is not sitting in that assembly, if talk on an offence involving defeat is still going forward, if one who has disavowed the training is not sitting in that assembly, if talk on disavowing the training is still going forward, if he submits himself to a legally valid complete assembly, if he does not withdraw his acceptance (of a formal act settled) in a legally valid complete assembly, if talk on withdrawing acceptance (of a formal act settled) in a legally valid complete assembly is still going forward, if he is not seen, heard or suspected of falling away from moral habit, if he is not seen, heard or suspected of falling away from good habits, if he is not seen, heard or suspected of falling away from right views, these ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.

“What are the ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha that are legally valid? If one who is defeated is sitting in that assembly, if talk on an offence involving defeat is not still going forward … as in above paragraph, but the opposite in each case … if he is seen, heard or suspected of falling away from right views, these ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.

Setting aside the Pātimokkha by rule

“How (can it be said that) one who is defeated is sitting in that assembly? This is a case, monks, where by reason of those properties, by reason of those features, by reason of those signs by which there comes to be commission of an offence involving defeat a monk sees (another) monk committing an offence involving defeat; or it may be that that monk does not himself see a monk committing an offence involving defeat, but that another monk tells that monk: ‘The monk So-and-so, your reverence, is committing an offence involving defeat’; or it may be that that monk does not himself see a monk committing an offence involving defeat and that no other monk tells that monk: ‘The monk So-and-so, your reverence, is committing an offence involving defeat,’ but that he himself tells the monk: ‘I, your reverence, have committed an offence involving defeat.’ Monks, that monk if he so desires, on account of what he has seen, or has heard, or has suspected may, on an Observance day, whether it is the fourteenth or the fifteenth, utter in the midst of the Order when that individual is present: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This individual So-and-so is committing an offence involving defeat. I am suspending the Pātimokkha for him. The Pātimokkha should not be recited in his presence.’ This suspension of the Pātimokkha is legally valid. When the Pātimokkha has been suspended for that monk, if the assembly removes itself on account of any one of the ten dangers—the danger from kings or … thieves or … fire or … water or … human beings or … non-human beings or … beasts of prey or … creeping things or because of danger to life or because of danger to the Brahma-faring—monks, that monk, if he so desires, may either in that residence or in another residence, utter in the midst of the Order in the presence of that individual: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The talk on the individual So-and-so’s offence involving defeat was still going forward; that matter is not decided. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may decide this matter.’ If he succeeds thus, that is good. If he does not succeed, he should, on an Observance day, whether the fourteenth or the fifteenth, utter in the midst of the Order and in the presence of that individual: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The talk on the individual So-and-so’s offence involving defeat was still going forward; that matter is not decided. I am suspending the Pātimokkha for him, the Pātimokkha should not be recited in his presence.’ This suspension of the Pātimokkha is legally valid.

“How (can it be said that) one who has disavowed the training is sitting in that assembly? This is a case, monks … the same as Kd.19.3.4, reading disavowed the training instead of offence involving defeat … This suspension of the Pātimokkha is legally valid.

“How (can it be said that) he does not submit himself to a legally valid complete assembly? This is a case, monks … the same as Kd.19.3.4, reading does not submit himself to a legally valid complete assembly instead of offence involving defeat … This suspension of the Pātimokkha is legally valid.

“How (can it be said that) he withdraws his acceptance (of a formal act settled) in a legally valid complete assembly? This is a case, monks, … the same as Kd.19.3.4 reading withdraws his acceptance of a formal act settled in a legally valid complete assembly instead of offence involving defeat … This suspension of the Pātimokkha is legally valid.

“How (can it be said that) he is seen, heard or suspected of falling away from moral habit? This is a case, monks, … the same as Kd.19.3.4 reading seen, heard or suspected of falling away from moral habit instead of offence involving defeat … This suspension of the Pātimokkha is legally valid.

“How (can it be said that) he is seen, heard or suspected of falling away from good habits? This is a case, monks, … see Kd.19.3.8

“How (can it be said that) be is seen, heard or suspected of falling away from right views? This is a case, monks, … see Kd.19.3.8 … This suspension of the Pātimokkha is legally valid. These ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.”

The First Portion for Recital.

Factors for undertaking on one’s own behalf

Kd.19.4 Then the venerable Upāli approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Upāli spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord, if a monk wishes to undertake an undertaking on his own behalf, endowed with how many qualities is the undertaking that he may undertake on his own behalf?”

“Upāli, if a monk wishes to undertake an undertaking on his own behalf, the undertaking that he may undertake on his own behalf is endowed with five qualities. Upāli, if a monk wishes to undertake an undertaking on his own behalf, he should consider this: ‘That undertaking which I wish to undertake on my own behalf, is it the right time to undertake this undertaking on my own behalf, or not?’ If, Upāli, while that monk is considering, he knows thus: ‘It is a wrong time to undertake this undertaking on my own behalf, not a right time,’ Upāli, that undertaking on his own behalf should not be undertaken. But if, Upāli, while that monk is considering, he knows thus: ‘It is a right time to undertake this undertaking on my own behalf, not a wrong time,’ Upāli, it should be further considered by that monk: ‘That undertaking which I wish to undertake on my own behalf, is this undertaking on my own behalf about a true thing, or not?’ If, Upāli, while that monk is considering, he knows thus: ‘That under-taking on my own behalf is about an untrue thing, not a true thing,’ Upāli, that undertaking on his own behalf should not be undertaken. But if, Upāli, while that monk is considering he knows thus: ‘That undertaking on my own behalf is about a true thing, not an untrue thing,’ Upāli, it should be further considered by that monk: ‘That undertaking which I wish to undertake on my own behalf, is that undertaking connected with the goal, or not?’ If, Upāli, while that monk is considering, he knows thus: ‘This undertaking on my own behalf is unconnected with the goal, not connected with it,’ Upāli, that undertaking on his own behalf should not be undertaken. But if, Upāli, while that monk is considering, he knows thus: ‘This undertaking on my own behalf is connected with the goal, not unconnected with it.’ Upāli, it should be further considered by that monk: ‘Will I, undertaking this undertaking on my own behalf, attract monks who are comrades and associates to my side in accordance with dhamma, in accordance with discipline, or not?’ If, Upāli, while that monk is considering, he knows thus: ‘I, undertaking this undertaking on my own behalf, will not attract monks who are comrades and associates to my side in accordance with dhamma, in accordance with discipline,’ Upāli, that undertaking on his own behalf should not be undertaken. But, if, Upāli, while that monk is considering, he knows thus: ‘I, undertaking this undertaking on my own behalf, will attract monks who are comrades and associates to my side in accordance with dhamma, in accordance with discipline,’ Upāli, it should be further considered by that monk: ‘From my having undertaken this undertaking on my own behalf, will there be for the Order from that source strife, quarrel, dispute, contention, schism in the Order, dissension in the Order, altercation in the Order, differences in the Order, or not?’ If, Upāli, while this monk is considering, he knows thus: ‘From my having undertaken this undertaking on my own behalf, there will be for the Order from that source strife … differences in the Order,’ Upāli, that undertaking should not be undertaken on his own behalf. But if, Upāli, while that monk is considering, he knows thus: ‘From my having undertaken this undertaking on my own behalf, there will not be for the Order from that source strife … differences in the Order,’ Upāli, that undertaking on his own behalf may be undertaken. Thus, Upāli, if an undertaking on one’s own behalf is undertaken when it is endowed with these five qualities, later it will be no cause for remorse.”

Things to be reviewed by a reprover

“Lord, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, when he has considered how many states within himself may he reprove the other?”

“Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, when he has considered five states within himself may he reprove the other. Upāli, when a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, he should consider thus: ‘Now, am I quite pure in bodily conduct, am I possessed of pure bodily conduct, flawless, faultless? Is this state found in me, or not? ‘If, Upāli, this monk is not quite pure in bodily conduct, is not possessed of bodily conduct that is quite pure, flawless, faultless, there will be those who will say to him: ‘Please do you, venerable one, train yourself as to body’—thus will those say to him.

“And again, Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, he should consider thus: ‘Now, am I quite pure in the conduct of speech, am I possessed of conduct in speech that is quite pure, flawless, faultless? Is this state found in me, or not?’ If, Upāli, that monk is not quite pure in the conduct of speech … ‘Please do you, venerable one, train yourself as to speech’—thus will those say to him.

“And again, Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, he should consider thus: ‘Now is a mind of loving-kindness, without malice towards my fellow Brahma-farers, established in me? Is this state found in me, or not?’ If, Upāli, a mind of loving-kindness, without malice towards his fellow Brahma-farers, is not established in the monk, there will be those who will say to him: ‘Please do you, venerable one, establish a mind of loving-kindness towards your fellow Brahma-farers’—thus those will say to him.

“And again, Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, he should consider thus: ‘Now, am I one who has heard much, an expert in the heard, a storehouse of the heard? Those things which are lovely at the beginning, lovely in the middle, lovely at the ending, and which, with the spirit, with the letter, declare the Brahma-faring utterly fulfilled, wholly purified—are such things much heard by me, learnt by heart, repeated out loud, pondered upon, carefully attended to, well penetrated by vision? Now, is this state found in me, or not?’ If, Upāli, the monk has not heard much … if such things have not been … well penetrated by vision, there will be those who will say to him: ‘Please do you, venerable one, master the tradition’—there will be those who speak thus to him.

“And again, Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, he should consider thus: ‘Now, are both the Pātimokkhas properly handed down to me in detail, properly sectioned, properly regulated, properly investigated clause by clause, as to the linguistic form? Is this state found in me, or not?’ If, Upāli, the two Pātimokkhas are not properly handed down to the monk in detail … as to the linguistic form, and if they say: ‘Now where, your reverence, was this spoken by the Lord?’ and if questioned thus he is not able to explain, there will be those who will say to him: ‘Please do you, venerable one, master discipline’—there will be those who speak thus to him. Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, when he has considered these five states within himself, he may reprove the other.

Things to be established by a reprover

“Lord, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, having caused how many states to be set up within himself, may he reprove the other?”

“Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, having caused five states to be set up within himself, may he reprove the other. If he thinks, ‘I will speak at a right time, not at a wrong time; I will speak about fact not about what is not fact; I will speak with gentleness, not with harshness; I will speak about what is connected with the goal, not about what is unconnected with the goal I will speak with a mind of loving-kindness, not with inner hatred.’ Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, having made these five states to be set up within himself, he may reprove the other.”

On connected with the reprover and the reproved

“Lord, in how many ways may remorse be caused in a monk who reproves according to what is not the rule?”

“Upāli, in five ways may remorse be caused in a monk who reproves according to what is not the rule. One says: ‘The venerable one reproved at a wrong time, not at a right time—you have need for remorse. The venerable one reproved about what is not fact, not about what is fact—you have need for remorse. The venerable one reproved with harshness, not with gentleness … with what is unconnected with the goal, not with what is connected with the goal … with inner hatred, not with a mind of loving-kindness—you have need for remorse.’ Upāli, in these five ways may remorse be caused in a monk who reproves according to what is not the rule. What is the reason for this? To the end that no other monk might think that one might be reproved about what is not fact.”

“But, Lord, in how many ways may no remorse be caused in a monk who has been reproved according to what is not the rule?”

“Upāli, in five ways may no remorse be caused in a monk who has been reproved according to what is not the rule. One says: ‘The venerable one reproved at a wrong time, not at a right time—you have no need for remorse. The venerable one reproved … with inner hatred, not with a mind of loving-kindness—you have no need for remorse.’ Upāli, in these five ways may no remorse be caused in a monk who has been reproved according to what is not the rule.”

“Lord, in how many ways may no remorse be caused in a monk who reproves according to rule?”

“In five ways, Upāli, may no remorse be caused in a monk who reproves according to rule. One says: ‘The venerable one reproved at a right time, not at a wrong time—you have no need for remorse. The venerable one reproved … not with inner hatred, but with a mind of loving-kindness—you have no need for remorse’. In these five ways, Upāli, may no remorse be caused in a monk who reproves according to rule. What is the reason? To the end that another monk should think that one should be reproved about what is fact.”

“But, Lord, in how many ways may remorse be caused in a monk who has been reproved according to rule?”

“In five ways, Upāli, may remorse be caused in a monk who has been reproved according to rule. One says: ‘The venerable one reproved at a right time, not at a wrong time—you have need for remorse. The venerable one reproved … not with inner hatred, but with a mind of loving-kindness—you have need for remorse’. Upāli, in these five ways may remorse be caused in a monk who has been reproved according to the rule.”

“Lord, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, having attended to how many states within himself may he reprove the other?”

“Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, having attended to five states within himself, he may reprove the other: compassion, seeking welfare, sympathy, removal of offences, aiming at discipline. Upāli, if a monk is reproving, willing to reprove another, having attended to these five states within himself, he may reprove the other.”

“But, Lord, in how many mental objects should there be support for a monk who has been reproved?”

“Upāli, there should be support in two mental objects for a monk who has been reproved: in truth and in being imperturbable.”

Told is the Ninth Section: that on suspending the Pātimokkha.

In this section there are thirty items. This is its key:

On an Observance so long as a depraved monk does not depart,
Urged off by Moggallāna, a wonder, in the conqueror’s instruction, /
Deepens and gradual training, fixed (and) do not transgress,
(with) a corpse (and) the Order suspends, streams (and) they lose, /
Streams (and) they attain nibbāna, and the one taste is freedom,
many (and) dhamma and discipline too, (great) beings and the eight ariyan men: /
Having made it like the ocean, he tells of excellence in the teaching.
Pātimokkha on an Observance day, “no one knows about us,” /
“In case,” they looked down upon.
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, and nine and ten. /
(One of) moral habit, good habits, right views and mode of livelihood—the four disciples,
defeat and entailing a Formal Meeting, of expiation, that ought to be confessed, /
Wrong-doing among the fivefold divisions as they are,
and falling away from moral habit and good habits,
and with what has not been done and has been done in the six divisions as they are, /
And about defeat and entailing a Formal Meeting, a grave offence and one of expiation
and likewise one that ought to be confessed and one of wrong-doing and one of wrong speech, /
Falling away from moral habit and good habits
and falling away from right views and mode of livelihood,
and those eight dones and not dones with one as to moral habit, good habits, right views, /
Also not dones and dones and likewise the done and not done
are likewise spoken of as ninefold by the system in accordance with fact, /
Defeated, still going forward and likewise one who has disavowed,
he submits, he withdraws acceptance, talk on withdrawing acceptance and whoever /
falls away from moral habit and good habits, and likewise as to falling away from right views,
seen, heard, suspected, the tenfold, this he should know. /
A monk sees a monk, and another tells what he has seen,
a pure one tells him of it himself: he suspends the Pātimokkha. /
If it removes itself on account of a danger—kings, thieves, fire, water and
human beings and non-human beings and beasts of prey and creeping things,
to life, to the Brahma (faring)—/
Because of a certain one of the ten, or as to one among the others,
and he should know just what is legally valid, what is not legally valid as it accords with the way. /
The right time (and) according to fact (and) connected with the goal, “I will attract,” “There will be,”
Conduct of body and speech, loving-kindness, great learning, both. /
He should reprove at the right time, about fact, with gentleness, about the goal, with loving-kindness.
As a speech should dispel remorse caused by what is not the rule /
It dispels the remorse of one who reproves or who is reproved according to rule.
Compassion, seeking welfare, sympathy, removal, aiming at—/
The conduct for one reproving is explained by the Self-awakened One.
And the proper course for the reproved one is in the truth as well as in being imperturbable.