Theravāda Vinayapiṭaka

Parivāra

7. As To Graduation

1. Units

  1. Things making for offences should be known.
  2. Things not making for offences should be known.
  3. An offence should be known.
  4. What is not an offence should be known.
  5. A slight offence should be known.
  6. A serious offence should be known.
  7. An offence that can be done away with should be known.
  8. An offence that cannot be done away with should be known.
  9. A very bad offence should be known.
  10. An offence that is not very bad should be known.
  11. An offence for which amends are made should be known.
  12. An offence for which amends are not made should be known.
  13. An offence leading on to confession should be known.
  14. An offence not leading on to confession should be known.
  15. An offence that is a stumbling-block should be known.
  16. An offence the description (of which) is “blamable” should be known.
  17. An offence the description (of which) is “non-blamable” should be known.
  18. An offence originated by action should be known.
  19. An offence originated by non-action should be known.
  20. An offence originated by action-and-non-action should be known.
  21. The original offence should be known.
  22. The subsequent offence should be known.
  23. The secondary offences of original offences should be known.
  24. The secondary offences of subsequent offences should be known.
  25. An offence confessed that comes to a reckoning should be known.
  26. An offence confessed that does not come to a reckoning should be known.
  27. A laying down should be known.
  28. A supplementary laying (down should be known.
  29. A laying down that has not yet occurred should be known.
  30. A laying down (that holds good) everywhere should be known.
  31. A laying down (that holds good only) for certain districts should be known.
  32. A laying down that is shared should be known.
  33. A laying down that is not shared should be known.
  34. A laying down for one (Order only) should be known.
  35. A laying down for both (Orders) should be known.
  36. An offence that is a grave fault should be known.
  37. An offence that is not a grave fault should be known.
  38. An offence connected with the laity should be known.
  39. An offence not connected with the laity should be known.
  40. An offence that is fixed (as to results) should be known.
  41. An offence that is not (so) fixed should be known.
  42. The individual who was the first-doer (of an offence) should be known.
  43. The individual who was not the first-doer should be known.
  44. The individual who is an occasional offender should be known.
  45. The individual who is a constant offender should be known.
  46. The individual (at all these places) who reproves (for an offence) should be known.
  47. The individual who is reproved should be known.
  48. The individual who reproves according to what is not the rule should be known.
  49. The individual who is reproved according to what is not the rule should be known.
  50. The individual who reproves according to the rule should be known.
  51. The individual who is reproved according to the rule should be known.
  52. The individual who is certain should be known.
  53. The individual who is not certain should be known.
  54. The individual incapable of offending should be known.
  55. The individual capable of offending should be known.
  56. The individual who has been suspended should be known.
  57. The individual who has not been suspended should be known.
  58. The individual who has been expelled should be known.
  59. The individual who has not been expelled should be known.
  60. An individual belonging to the same communion should be known.
  61. An individual not belonging to the same communion should be known.
  62. Suspension (of the Pātimokkha) should be known.
  63. Concluded are the Units

    Its Summary

    Things making for, offence, slight, that can be done away with, very bad,
    For which amends are made, and confession, stumbling-block, blamable, originating by action, /
    By action-and-non-action, original, secondary, coming to a reckoning, Laying down, not yet occurred, everywhere, and shared, for one, /
    Grave fault, laity, and fixed, first, occasional, reprover,
    Not the rule, the rule, fixed, incapable, suspended, expelled,
    The same, and suspension too: this is the summary for the Units. /

2. Dyads

  1. There is the offence in which (contemporary) awareness counts (as a factor) for acquittal; there is the offence in which (contemporary) awareness does not count (as a factor) for acquittal.
  2. There is an offence for the attainer of the acquired; there is the offence for the attainer of what is not acquired.
  3. There is the offence that is connected with true Dhamma; there is the offence that is not connected with true Dhamma.
  4. There is an offence connected with one’s own requisites; … with another’s requisites.
  5. There is an offence connected with one’s own individual; … with another’s individual.
  6. There is (the occasion when one) falls into a serious offence when speaking the truth, a slight one when speaking a lie.
  7. There is (the occasion when one) falls into a serious offence when speaking a lie, a slight one when speaking the truth.
  8. There is the offence one who is on the ground falls into, not one who is in the air; there is the offence one who is in the air falls into, not one who is on the ground.
  9. One falls into an offence while one is setting out not while entering; one falls into an offence while one is entering, not while setting out.
  10. There is the offence one falls into while taking; … while not taking.
  11. There is the offence one falls into while undertaking; … while not undertaking.
  12. There is the offence one falls into when one is doing; … is not doing.
  13. There is the offence one falls into while giving; … while not giving.
  14. There is the offence one falls into while accepting; … while not accepting.
  15. There is the offence one falls into through using; … through not using.
  16. There is the offence one falls into during the night, not by day; … by day, not during the night.
  17. There is the offence one falls into at sunrise; … not at sunrise.
  18. There is the offence one falls into while cutting off; … while not cutting off.
  19. There is the offence one falls into by concealing; while not concealing.
  20. There is the offence one falls into by wearing (using); … not using (wearing).
  21. There are two Observances: that on the fourteenth day and that on the fifteenth.
  22. Two Invitations: that on the fourteenth day and that on the fifteenth.
  23. Two (formal) acts: the (formal) act for which leave should be asked, and the (formal) act at which a motion is put.
  24. And there are two further (formal) acts: the (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, and the (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.
  25. Two matters for a (formal) act: the matter of a (formal) act for which leave should be asked, and the matter of a (formal) act at which a motion is put.
  26. And two further matters for a (formal) act: the matter for a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, and the matter for a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.
  27. Two defects in a (formal) act: the defect in a (formal) act for which leave should be asked, the defect in the motion for a (formal) act.
  28. And two further defects in a (formal) act: the defect in a (formal) act where a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, and the defect in a (formal) act where a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.
  29. Two excellences in a (formal) act: the excellence of a (formal) act for which leave should be asked, and the excellence of a (formal) act where there is a motion.
  30. And two further excellences in a (formal) act: the excellence of a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, and the excellence of a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.
  31. Two grounds for belonging to a different communion: either of oneself one makes oneself belong to a different communion, or a complete Order suspends one for not seeing or not making amends for (an offence) or for not giving up (a wrong view).
  32. Two grounds for belonging to the same communion: either of oneself one makes oneself belong to the same communion, or the Order restores one who was suspended for not seeing or not making amends for (an offence) or for not giving up (a wrong view).
  33. Two (groups of) offences involving Defeat: for monks and for nuns.
  34. Two (groups of) offences entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order.
  35. Two (groups of) grave offences.
  36. Two of offences of Expiation.
  37. Two of offences to be confessed.
  38. Two of wrong-doing.
  39. Two of wrong speech: for monks and for nuns.
  40. Seven offences, seven classes of offence.
  41. An Order is split by two methods: by a (formal) act or by a voting-ticket.
  42. Two individuals should not be ordained: one lacking the full age, one lacking a limb.
  43. And two further individuals should not be ordained: one who has fallen away from the matter, and the karaṇadukkaṭaka.
  44. And two further individuals should not be ordained: he who is not complete, and he who is complete but has not asked.
  45. One should not live in dependence on two individuals: on an unconscientious one nor on an ignorant one.
  46. Guidance should not be given by two individuals: by an unconscientious one and by a conscientious one if one has not requested him.
  47. Guidance should be given to two individuals: the ignorant one and the conscientious one if he requests.
  48. Two individuals are incapable of falling into an offence: Buddhas and Hermit Buddhas.
  49. Two individuals are capable of falling into an offence: monks and nuns.
  50. Two individuals are incapable of consciously falling into an offence: the ariyan individuals who are monks and nuns.
  51. Two individuals are capable of consciously falling into an offence: ordinary individuals who are monks and nuns.
  52. Two individuals are incapable of consciously transgressing a matter that goes too far: ariyan individuals who are monks and nuns.
  53. Two individuals are capable of consciously transgressing a matter that goes too far: ordinary individuals who are monks and nuns.
  54. Two kinds of protest: one protests by means of the body, one protests by means of speech.
  55. There are two (kinds of) being sent away: there is the individual who has not arrived at the point of being sent away but who, if the Order sends him away, is sometimes rightly sent away, sometimes wrongly sent away.
  56. Two kinds of restoration: there is the individual who has not arrived at the point of being restored but who, if the Order restores him, is sometimes rightly restored, sometimes wrongly restored.
  57. Two acknowledgements: either he acknowledges by body or he acknowledges by speech.
  58. Two acceptances: either he accepts by body or he accepts by means of something attached to the body.
  59. Two objectings to: either he objects by body or he objects by speech.
  60. Two harmings: harming to the training and harming to possessions.
  61. Two reprovings: either he reproves by body or he reproves by speech.
  62. Two impediments to (the removal of) the kaṭhina privileges: the residence-impediment and the robes-impediment.
  63. Two non-impediments to (the removal of) the kaṭhina privileges: the residence-non-impediment and the robes-non- impediment.
  64. Two (kinds of) robe-material: that (given by) householders and the rag-heap (robe-material).
  65. Two (kinds of) bowl: the iron bowl, the clay bowl.
  66. Two (kinds of) circular (bowl-rests): made of tin, made of lead.
  67. Two (kinds of) allottings of a bowl: either one allots by body or one allots by speech.
  68. Two (kinds of) allottings of a robe: either one allots by body or one allots by speech.
  69. Two (kinds of) assignment: assignment in the presence of and assignment in the absence of.
  70. Two disciplines: for monks and for nuns.
  71. Two things belonging to discipline: what has been laid down and what is in conformity with what has been laid down.
  72. Two subduings of discipline: bridge-breaking in regard to what is not allowable, behaving with moderation in regard to what is allowable.
  73. In two ways one falls into an offence: one falls by means of body and one falls by means of speech.
  74. In two ways one rises from an offence: one rises by means of body and one rises by means of speech.
  75. Two probations: probation for concealing, probation for not concealing.
  76. And two further probations: purifying probation, concurrent probation.
  77. Two mānattas: mānatta for concealing, mānatta for not concealing.
  78. And two further mānattas: mānatta for a fortnight, concurrent mānatta.
  79. For two kinds of individuals there is an interruption: for him who is under probation and for him who is undergoing mānatta.
  80. Two disrespects: disrespect for a person and disrespect for Dhamma.
  81. Two salts: the natural and the made.
  82. And two further salts: sea(-salt), black salt.
  83. And two further salts: rock-salt, culinary salt.
  84. And two further salts: the “Sambhar Lake” (salt), pakkhālaka.
  85. Two enjoyments: inner enjoyment and outer enjoyment.
  86. Two modes of address: low mode of address and high mode of address.
  87. In two ways is there slander: in making dear or in desiring dissension.
  88. In two ways is a group-meal entered upon: by being invited or by asking.
  89. Two (periods for) beginning the rains: the earlier and the later.
  90. Two suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.
  91. Two suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.
  92. Two foolish men: he who carries out a task unasked and he who, when asked, does not carry out a task.
  93. Two wise men: he who does not carry out a task unasked and he who, when asked, carries out a task.
  94. And two further foolish men: he who thinks what is allowable is in what is not allowable and he who thinks what is not allowable is in what is allowable.
  95. Two wise men: he who thinks what is not allowable is in what is not allowable and he who thinks what is allowable is in what is allowable.
  96. And two further foolish men: he who thinks there is an offence in what is not an offence and he who thinks there is not an offence in an offence.
  97. Two wise men: he who thinks there is an offence in an offence and he who thinks there is not an offence in what is not an offence.
  98. And two further foolish men: he who thinks there is Dhamma in what is not-dhamma and he who thinks there is not-dhamma in Dhamma.
  99. Two wise men: he who thinks there is not-dhamma in not-dhamma and he who thinks there is Dhamma in Dhamma.
  100. And two further foolish men: he who thinks there is not-discipline in Discipline and he who thinks there is Discipline in not-discipline.
  101. Two wise men: he who thinks there is not-discipline in not-discipline and he who thinks there is Discipline in Discipline.
  102. Of two individuals the cankers grow: he who is remorseful when he should not be remorseful and he who is not remorseful when he should be remorseful.
  103. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who is not remorseful when he should not be remorseful and he who is remorseful when he should be remorseful.
  104. And of two further individuals the cankers grow: he who thinks what is allowable is in what is not allowable and he who thinks what is not allowable is in what is allowable.
  105. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who thinks what is not allowable is in what is not allowable and he who thinks what is allowable is in what is allowable.
  106. And of two further individuals the cankers grow: he who thinks there is an offence in what is not an offence and he who thinks there is not an offence in an offence.
  107. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who thinks there is not an offence in what is not an offence and he who thinks there is an offence in an offence.
  108. And of two further individuals the cankers grow: he who thinks that Dhamma is in not-dhamma and he who thinks there is not-dhamma in Dhamma.
  109. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who thinks there is not-dhamma in not-dhamma and he who thinks there is Dhamma in Dhamma.
  110. And of two further individuals the cankers grow: he who thinks there is not-discipline in Discipline and he who thinks there is Discipline in not-discipline.
  111. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who thinks there is not-discipline in not-discipline and he who thinks there is Discipline in Discipline.
  112. Concluded are the Dyads

    Its Summary

    Awareness, and acquirers, True Dhamma, and requisites, individuals,
    Truth, the ground, while setting out, taking, undertaking, /
    Doing, giving, accepting, through using, and by night,
    Sunrise, cutting off, concealing, and wearing, Observances, /
    Invitation, (formal) acts and further, matter, further ones, and defects,
    And two further ones, excellence, different one, and just the same, /
    Defeat, Order, grave offence, Expiation, Confession,
    Wrong-doing, and also wrong speech, and seven classes of offence, /
    Is split, ordination, similarly a further two,
    Should not live, should not be given, incapable, and also capable, /
    Consciously, and that go too far, protests, being sent away,
    Restoration, and acknowledgement, acceptance, objecting to, /
    He harms, and reprovings, kaṭhina, and similarly two,
    Robes, bowls, what are circular, allottings, likewise two, /
    And assignments, disciplines, and belonging to discipline, subduings,
    And one falls, one rises from, probations, a further two, /
    Two mānattas, and further, interruption, disrespect,
    Two salts, a further three, enjoyment, and by mode of address, /
    And slander, groups, the rains, suspensions, tasks, allowable,
    No offence, non-dhamma, Dhamma, in Discipline, similarly the cankers.

3. Triads

  1. There is the offence one falls into while the Lord is alive, not after the parinibbāna; there is the offence one falls into after the parinibbāna, not while the Lord is alive; there is the offence one falls into both while the Lord is alive as well as after the parinibbāna.
  2. There is the offence one falls into at a right time, not at a wrong time; there is the offence one falls into at a wrong time, not at a right time; there is the offence one falls into at a right time as well as at a wrong time.
  3. There is the offence one falls into during the night, not by day … by day, not during the night … during the night as well as by day.
  4. There is the offence that one of ten years’ standing falls into, not one of less than ten years’ standing; there is the offence that one of less than ten years’ standing falls into, not one of ten years’ standing; there is the offence that one of ten years’ standing and one of less than ten years’ standing fall into.
  5. There is the offence that one of five years’ standing falls into, not one of less than five years’ standing; there is the offence that one of less than five years’ standing falls into, not one of five years’ standing; there is the offence that one of five years’ standing and one of less than five years’ standing fall into.
  6. There is the offence that one of skilled mind falls into; there is the offence that one of unskilled mind falls into; there is the offence that one of indeterminate mind falls into.
  7. There is the offence that one having a pleasant feeling falls into; there is the offence that one having a painful feeling falls into; there is the offence that one having neither a painful nor a pleasant feeling falls into.
  8. Three grounds for reproof according to what has been seen, heard, or suspected.
  9. Three methods of taking votes: the secret, the open, and whispering in the ear.
  10. Three objections: (to) great wishes, discontent, unsubduedness.
  11. Three permissions: small wishes, content, subduedness. And three further objections: (to) great wishes, discontent, immoderation.
  12. Three permissions: small wishes, content, moderation.
  13. Three layings down: a laying down, a supplementary laying down, a laying down that has not yet occurred.
  14. And three further layings down: a laying down (that holds good) everywhere, a laying down (that holds good only) for some regions, a laying down that is shared.
  15. And three further layings down: a laying down that is not shared, a laying down for one (Order only), a laying down for both (Orders).
  16. There is the offence an ignorant person falls into, not the wise man; there is the offence the wise man falls into, not the ignorant person; there is the offence the ignorant person falls into as well as the wise man.
  17. There is the offence one falls into on the next new-moon day, not on the next full-moon day … on the next full-moon day, not the next new-moon day … on the next new-moon day as well as on the next full-moon day.
  18. There is what is allowed on the next new-moon day, not on the next full-moon day; … on the next full-moon day, not on the next new-moon day … on the next new-moon day as well as on the next full-moon day.
  19. There is the offence one falls into in the cold weather, not in the hot weather, not in the rains … in the hot weather, not in the cold weather, not in the rains … in the rains, not in the cold weather, not in the hot weather.
  20. There is the offence an Order falls into, not a group, not an individual … a group falls into, not an Order, not an individual … an individual falls into, not an Order, not a group.
  21. There is what is allowed for an Order, not for a group, not for an individual; there is what is allowed for a group, not for an Order, not for an individual; there is what is allowed for an individual, not for an Order, not for a group.
  22. Three concealings: one conceals the subject, not the offence; one conceals the offence, not the subject; one conceals the subject as well as the offence.
  23. Three coverings: a covering to the bathroom, a covering to the water, a covering by clothes.
  24. Three things are hidden, not open: women-folk practise (their ways) in concealment, not openly; the mantras of brahmins are practised in concealment, not openly; a false view is practised in concealment, not openly.
  25. Three things shine forth when they are unveiled, not in concealment: the moon’s disc shines forth when it is unveiled, not when it is hidden; the sun’s disc … not when it is hidden; the Dhamma-and-Discipline proclaimed by the Tathāgata shines forth when it is unveiled, not when it is hidden.
  26. Three times for the appropriation of lodgings: the earlier, the later, the intervening.
  27. There is the offence one who is ill falls into, not one who is not ill; there is the offence one who is not ill falls into, not one who is ill; there is the offence one who is ill falls into as well as one who is not ill.
  28. Three suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.
  29. Three suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.
  30. Three probations: concealed probation, unconcealed probation, purifying probation.
  31. Three mānattas: concealed mānatta, unconcealed mānatta, the mānatta for a fortnight.
  32. Three interruptions for a monk who is under probation: dwelling with, dwelling away separated from, not announcing.
  33. There is the offence one falls into inside, not outside; there is the offence one falls into outside, not inside; there is the offence one falls into inside as well as outside.
  34. There is the offence one falls into inside a boundary, not outside a boundary; there is the offence one falls into outside a boundary, not inside a boundary; there is the offence one falls into inside a boundary as well as outside a boundary.
  35. By three ways does one fall into an offence: one falls by means of body … by means of speech … by means of body, by means of speech.
  36. By three further ways does one fall into an offence: in the midst of an Order, in the midst of a group, in the presence of an individual.
  37. In three ways does one arise from an offence: one arises by means of body, one arises by means of speech, one arises by means of body, by means of speech.
  38. By three further ways does one arise from an offence: in the midst of an Order, in the midst of a group, in the presence of an individual.
  39. Three givings of a verdict of past insanity are not legally valid.
  40. Three givings of a verdict of past insanity are legally valid.
  41. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of censure against a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is a maker of strife, a maker of quarrels, a maker of disputes, a maker of contention, a maker of legal questions in an Order; if he is ignorant, inexperienced, full of offences not rid of them; if he lives in company with householders in unbecoming association with householders.
  42. An Order, if it So desires, may carry out a (formal) act of guidance … association with householders.
  43. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is a maker of strife … a maker of legal questions in an Order; if he is ignorant … not rid of them; if he brings a family into disrepute, is of depraved conduct, and if his depraved conduct is seen and also heard.
  44. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of reconciliation against a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is a maker of strife … if he is ignorant … not rid of them; if he reviles and abuses householders.
  45. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of suspension against a monk … for not seeing an offence … if he is a maker of strife … not rid of them; if (though) he has fallen into an offence he does not wish to see the offence.
  46. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of suspension against a monk … for not making amends for an offence … if he is a maker of strife … not rid of them: if (though) he has fallen into an offence he does not wish to make amends for the offence.
  47. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of suspension against a monk who is possessed of three qualities for not giving up a pernicious view: if he is a maker of strife … not rid of them; if he does not wish to give up the pernicious view.
  48. An Order, if it so desires, may plan something hard for a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is a maker of strife … not rid of them; if he lives in company with householders, in unbecoming association with householders.
  49. A (formal) act may be carried out against a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is unconscientious and if he is ignorant and if he is not a regular (monk).
  50. And a (formal) act may be carried out against a monk who is possessed of three further qualities: if, in regard to morality, he has fallen away from moral habit; if, in regard to behaviour, he has fallen away from right behavior; if, in regard to view, he has fallen away from right view.
  51. And a (formal) act may be carried out against a monk who is possessed of three further qualities: if he is possessed of bodily frivolity, if he is possessed of verbal frivolity, if he is possessed of bodily and verbal frivolity.
  52. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he is possessed of bodily bad behaviour … verbal bad behaviour … bodily and verbal bad behaviour.
  53. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he is possessed of harming by means of body … harming by means of speech … harming by means of body and speech.
  54. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he is possessed of a wrong bodily mode of livelihood … a wrong verbal mode of livelihood … a wrong bodily and verbal mode of livelihood.
  55. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if, having fallen into an offence and a (formal) act has been carried out against him, he ordains, gives guidance, makes a novice attend him.
  56. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he falls into that same offence for which a (formal) act was carried out (against him) by an Order, or into another that is similar, or into one that is worse.
  57. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he speaks dispraise of the Buddha of Dhamma … of the Order.
  58. If a monk is possessed of three qualities: if he is unconscientious and if he is ignorant and if he is not a regular monk (but if) he has suspended the Observance in the midst of an Order (but if other monks) have snubbed him, saying: “That’s enough, monk; let there be no strife, no quarrel, no dispute, no contention,” the Observance may be carried out by the Order.
  59. If a monk is possessed of three qualities … there may be Invitation by the Order.
  60. No agreement of an Order should be given to a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  61. If a monk is possessed of three qualities he should not speak in the Order: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  62. A monk who is possessed of three qualities should not be put in any separate place; if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  63. If a monk is possessed of three qualities he should not live in dependence … If a monk is possessed of three qualities he should not give guidance: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  64. If a monk who is possessed of three qualities obtains leave the giving of the leave is not sufficient: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  65. If a monk is possessed of three qualities he should not issue commands: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  66. If a monk is possessed of three qualities he should not ask about Discipline … not a regular monk.
  67. Discipline should not be asked about by means of monk who is possessed of three qualities: … not a regular monk.
  68. (Questions on) Discipline should not be answered by a monk who is possessed of three qualities: … not a regular monk.
  69. (Questions on) Discipline should not be answered through a monk who is possessed of three qualities: … not a regular monk.
  70. An explanation should not be given to a monk who is possessed of three qualities: … not a regular monk.
  71. Discipline should not be discussed together with a monk who is possessed of three qualities: … not a regular monk.
  72. One should not be ordained by a monk who is possessed of three qualities: … not a regular monk.
  73. Guidance should not be given to a monk who is possessed of three qualities: … not a regular monk.
  74. A novice should not be made to attend on a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is unconscientious and ignorant and not a regular monk.
  75. Three Observances: on the fourteenth (day), the fifteenth (day), and the Observance of “being all together”.
  76. And three further Observances: Observance in an Order, Observance in a group, Observance for an individual.
  77. And three further Observances: the Observance at which the rules are recited, the Observance at which there is entire purity, the Observance where there is determination.
  78. Three Invitations: the fourteenth (day), the fifteenth (day), and the Invitation of “being all together”.
  79. And three further Invitations: Invitation in an Order, Invitation in a group, Invitation for an individual.
  80. And three further Invitations: Invitation by the threefold formula, Invitation by the twofold formula, Invitation of those keeping the rains (all) together.
  81. Three (persons) doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya: he who, not getting rid of this, is not a Brahma-farer though pretending to be a Brahma-farer; and he who, though not a pure Brahma-farer, makes an unfounded charge of non-Brahma faring against one who is faring a pure Brahma-faring; and he who speaks like this and is of this view: “There is no defect in sense-pleasures” comes to indulgence among the sense-pleasures.
  82. Three roots of unskill: greed is a root of unskill, hatred is a root of unskill, confusion is a root of unskill.
  83. Three roots of skill: non-greed is a root of skill, non-hatred is a root of skill, non-confusion is a root of skill.
  84. Three ways of bad behavior: bad behaviour through body, bad behaviour through speech, bad behaviour through thought.
  85. Three ways of good behavior: good behaviour through body … speech … thought.
  86. Dependent on three reasons was a meal (to be eaten) by a triad (of monks) laid down by the Lord: for the restraint of evil-minded individuals; for the living in comfort of well-behaved monks lest those of evil desires should split an Order by means of a faction; and out of compassion for families.
  87. Devadatta, overcome and his mind controlled by three bad qualities is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya, staying there for an aeon, incurable: evil desire, evil friendship, coming to a halt midway in his career because his special attainments are of trifling value.
  88. Three agreements: agreement as to a walking staff; agreement as to string; agreement as to a walking staff and string.
  89. Three (kinds of) shoes that are in fixed places and cannot be handed on: privy shoes, urinal shoes, rinsing shoes.
  90. Three (kinds of) foot-rubbers: a stone, a pebble, sea-scum.
  91. Concluded are the Triads

    Its Summary

    While he is alive, at the right time,
    and during the night, ten, five, through skill,
    Feeling, grounds for reproof,
    votes, twice objections, /
    Layings down, and two further, ignorant,
    and at the next new-moon day, is allowed, In the cold weather, an Order, for an Order,
    and concealings, a covering, /
    Things hidden, and unveiled, lodgings, those who are ill,
    The Pātimokkha, probation, mānattas, those under probation, /
    Inside, and inside a boundary, does one fall, and again further,
    Does one arise, and further too,
    verdicts for past insanity are twofold, /
    (Act of) censure, and of guidance,
    of banishment, reconciliation,
    Not seeing, not making amends for,
    and not giving up a (wrong) view, /
    Something hard, (formal) act,
    as to the higher morality,
    frivolity, bad behaviour, harming,
    Mode of livelihood, having fallen, that same (offence),
    dispraise, and about Observance, /
    Invitation, and agreement,
    remaining, and in a separate (place),
    He should not speak, he should not give,
    likewise he should not get leave, /
    He should not issue commands,
    two on what should not be asked about,
    And similarly two on he should not answer,
    and he should not be given an explanation, /
    Discussion, ordination, guidance, and novices,
    Three triads on Observance, three triads on Invitation, /
    (Persons in) the Downfall, unskilled, skilled, two on behaviour,
    A meal by a triad, bad qualities, agreement, and about shoes,
    Similarly things that are foot-rubbers:
    this is the summary for the Triads.

4. Tetrads

  1. There is the offence one falls into through one’s own speech, rises from through another’s speech; there is the offence one falls into through another’s speech, rises from through one’s own speech; there is the offence one falls into through one’s own speech, rises from through one’s own speech; there is the offence one falls into through another’s speech, rises from through another’s speech.
  2. There is the offence one falls into by body, rises from by speech: … falls into by speech, rises from by body … falls into by body, rises from by body falls into by speech, rises from by speech.
  3. There is the offence one falls into when one is asleep, rises from when one is awake; … when one is awake, rises from when one is asleep … asleep, asleep … awake, awake.
  4. There is the offence one falls into unconscious (that it is against ordinance), rises from conscious (that it is against ordinance); … conscious unconscious …; unconscious … unconscious; there is the offence one falls into conscious (that it is against ordinance), rises from conscious (that it is against ordinance).
  5. There is the offence that, falling into, he confesses, confessing he falls into; there is the offence that, falling into he rises from, rising from he falls into.
  6. There is the offence one falls into through doing, rises from through not doing … falls into through not doing, rises from through doing … falls into through doing, rises from through doing … falls into through not doing, rises from through not doing.
  7. Four unariyan statements: speaking of the seen as unseen, speaking of the heard as unheard, speaking of the sensed as unsensed, speaking of the cognized as uncognized.
  8. Four ariyan statements: speaking of the unseen as unseen … of the uncognized as uncognized.
  9. And four further unariyan statements: speaking of the unseen as seen, speaking of the unheard as heard, speaking of the unsensed as sensed, speaking of the uncognized as cognized.
  10. Four ariyan statements: speaking of the seen as seen … the cognized as cognized.
  11. Four offences involving Defeat are shared by monks and nuns.
  12. Four offences involving Defeat are not shared by monks and nuns.
  13. Four requisites: there is the requisite that should be guarded, protected, cherished, made use of; there is the requisite that should be guarded, protected, not cherished, made use of; there is the requisite that should be guarded, protected, not cherished, not made use of; there is the requisite that should not be guarded, not protected, not cherished, not made use of.
  14. There is the offence one falls into in the presence of, rises from in the absence of; there is the offence one falls into in the absence of, rises from in the presence of; … falls into in the presence of, rises from in the presence of; there is the offence one falls into in the absence of, rises from in the absence of.
  15. There is the offence one falls into unknowing, rises from knowing; … falls into knowing, rises from unknowing falls into unknowing, rises from unknowing; there is the offence one falls into knowing, rises from knowing.
  16. By four means does one fall into an offence: one falls by body … by speech … by body, by speech; one falls by a resolution.
  17. And by four further means does one fall into an offence: in the midst of an Order, in the midst of a group, in the presence of an individual, through the appearance of a sexual characteristic.
  18. By four means does one rise from an offence: one rises by body … by speech … by body, by speech; one rises by a resolution.
  19. And by four further means does one rise from an offence: in the midst of an Order, in the midst of a group in the presence of an individual, through the appearance of a sexual characteristic. Together with (its) acquisition he gets rid of the earlier, is established in the later, hintings are allayed descriptions are stopped. Together with (its) acquisition he gets rid of the later, is established in the earlier, hintings are allayed, descriptions are stopped.
  20. Four reprovings: one reproves for falling away from moral habit, one reproves for falling away from good behaviour, one reproves for falling away from right views, one reproves for falling away from right mode of livelihood.
  21. Four probations: probation for concealing, probation for not concealing, purifying probation, concurrent probation.
  22. Four mānattas: mānatta for concealing, mānatta for not concealing, mānatta for a fortnight, concurrent mānatta.
  23. Four interruptions for a monk who is undergoing mānatta: dwelling with, dwelling away separated from, not announcing, going about with less than a group.
  24. Four things discovered of themselves.
  25. Four enjoyments (of food and so on, formally) accepted: for the time being, for a watch of the night, for seven days, for as long as life lasts.
  26. Four great irregular things: (a decoction of) dung, urine, ashes, clay.
  27. Four (formal) acts: a (formal) act for which leave should be asked, a (formal) act at which a motion is put, a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.
  28. And four further (formal) acts: a (formal) act in an incomplete (Order carried out) by what is not the rule; a (formal) act in a complete (Order carried out) by what is not the rule; a (formal) act in an incomplete (Order carried out) by the rule; a (formal) act in a complete (Order carried out) by the rule.
  29. Four fallings away: falling away from moral habit … from good behaviour … from right views … from right mode of livelihood.
  30. Four legal questions: legal question concerning disputes … censure … offences … obligations.
  31. Four defilements of an assembly: a monk who is poor in moral habit, evil in character is a defilement of an assembly; a nun … a lay follower … a female lay follower who is poor in moral habit, evil in character is a defilement of an assembly.
  32. Four adornments of an assembly: a monk who is of moral habit, lovely in character is an adornment of an assembly; a nun … a lay follower … a female lay follower who is of moral habit, lovely in character is an adornment of an assembly.
  33. There is the offence an incoming (monk) falls into, not a resident one; there is the offence a resident (monk) falls into, not an incoming one; there is the offence a resident monk falls into as well as an incoming one; there is the offence that neither a resident (monk) falls into nor an incoming one. There is the offence a (monk who is) going away falls into, not a resident one; there is the offence a resident (monk) falls into, not one who is going away … there is the offence that neither one who is going away nor a resident one falls into.
  34. There is difference as to matter, not difference as to offence; there is difference as to offence, not difference as to matter; there is difference as to matter as well as difference as to offence; there is difference neither as to matter nor as to offence.
  35. There is similarity as to matter, not similarity as to offence; there is similarity as to offence, not similarity as to matter; there is similarity as to matter as well as similarity as to offence; there is similarity neither as to matter nor as to offence.
  36. There is the offence the preceptor falls into, not the one who shares his cell; there is the offence one who shares a cell falls into, not the preceptor; there is the offence the preceptor falls into as well as the one who shares his cell; there is the offence neither … falls into.
  37. There is the offence the teacher falls into, not the pupil … there is the offence neither the teacher nor the pupil falls into.
  38. For four reasons there is no offence in cutting short the rains: if the Order is split, or if there are those desirous of splitting an Order, or if there is danger to life, or if there is danger to the Brahma-faring.
  39. Four bad ways of verbal conduct: lying speech, slanderous speech, harsh speech, gossip.
  40. Four good ways of verbal conduct: truthful speech, non-slanderous speech, gentle speech, utterance of mantras.
  41. There is, in taking, a serious offence that one falls into, a slight one in enjoining; there is, in taking, a slight offence that one falls into, a serious one in enjoining; there is, in taking and in enjoining, a serious offence that one falls into; there is, in taking and in enjoining, a slight offence that one falls into.
  42. There is the individual who merits respectful greeting, does not merit standing up for … standing up for, not respectful greeting … respectful greeting as well as standing up for … merits neither respectful greeting nor standing up for.
  43. There is the individual who merits a seat, does not merit standing up for … who merits neither a seat nor standing up for.
  44. There is the offence one falls into at a (right) time, not at a wrong time … at a wrong time, not at a right time … at a right time as well as at a wrong time … neither at a right time nor at a wrong time.
  45. There is the formal acceptance allowable at a right time, not at a wrong time … at a wrong time, not at a right time … at a right time as well as at a wrong time … allowable neither at a right time nor at a wrong time.
  46. There is the offence one falls into in the border districts, not in the middle ones … in the middle districts, not in the border ones … in the border districts as well as in the middle ones … neither in the border districts nor in the middle ones.
  47. There is what is allowable in the border districts, not in the middle ones … in the middle districts, not in the border ones … in the border districts as well as in the middle ones … neither in the border districts nor in the middle ones.
  48. There is the offence one falls into inside, not outside … outside, not inside … neither inside nor outside … inside as well as outside.
  49. There is the offence one falls into inside the boundary, not outside the boundary … outside the boundary, not inside the boundary … inside the boundary as well as outside the boundary … neither inside the boundary nor outside the boundary.
  50. There is an offence one falls into in a village, not in a forest … in a forest, not in a village … in a village as well as in a forest … neither in a village nor in a forest.
  51. Four reproving: showing the matter, showing the offence, objection to living in communion, objection to the proper duties.
  52. Four preliminary things to be done.
  53. Four occasions when things seem right.
  54. Four Expiations (containing the words) “not for another”.
  55. Four agreements of the monks.
  56. Four followings of a wrong course: he follows a wrong course through partiality (desire) … through hatred … through confusion … through fear.
  57. Four non-followings of a wrong course: he does not follow a wrong course through partiality … hatred … confusion … fear.
  58. Possessed of four qualities an unconscientious monk, following a wrong course through partiality … hatred … confusion … fear, splits an Order.
  59. Possessed of four qualities a modest monk, not following a wrong course through partiality … hatred … confusion … fear, makes harmonious an Order that was split.
  60. Discipline should not be asked about of a monk who is possessed of four qualities: if he follows a wrong course through partiality … fear.
  61. Discipline should not be asked about by a monk who is possessed of four qualities: if he follows a wrong course through partiality … fear.
  62. Questions on Discipline should not be answered for a monk who is possessed of four qualities … should not be answered by a monk who is possessed of four qualities: if he follows a wrong course through partiality … fear.
  63. An explanation should not be given to a monk who is possessed of four qualities …
  64. Discipline should not be discussed together with a monk who is possessed of four qualities: if he follows a wrong course through partiality … fear.
  65. There is an offence one who is ill falls into, not one who is not ill … one who is not ill falls into, not one who is ill … one who is ill falls into as well as one who is not ill … neither one who is ill falls into nor one who is not ill.
  66. Four suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.
  67. Four suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.
  68. Concluded are the Tetrads

    Its Summary

    Through one’s own speech, by body,
    and asleep, unconscious,
    And falling into, through doing,
    statements are four likewise, /
    And by monks and nuns,
    and requisites, in the presence of,
    Unknowing, by body, and by means,
    one rises from is likewise fourfold, /
    With the acquisition, reprovings,
    and it is called probations
    Mānatta, and undergoings too,
    discovered by themselves, (formal) acceptance, /
    Great irregular (things), (formal) acts,
    again (formal) acts fallings away,
    Legal questions, and those poor in moral habit,
    adornment and on an incoming one, /
    One going away, difference as to matter,
    similarity, and about a preceptor,
    Teacher, reason, bad conduct, good conduct, /
    Taking, and individual,
    one who merits, and about a seat,
    At a (right) time, and also it is allowable,
    and it is allowable in the border districts, /
    Inside, and inside a boundary,
    and in a village, and reprovings,
    Preliminary duties, it seems right,
    “not for another,” and agreements, /
    A wrong course and not a wrong course too,
    unconscientious, and about a modest one,
    And two on whom may be asked,
    likewise two on what one may answer,
    Explanation, discussion, ill, and about suspension.

5. Pentads

  1. Five offences.
  2. Five classes of offence.
  3. Five matters that are trained in.
  4. Five deeds whose fruit comes with no delay.
  5. Five individuals who are certain.
  6. Five offences involving cutting down.
  7. In five ways does one fall into an offence.
  8. Five offences due to lying speech.
  9. In five ways does it not become a (formal) act: either one does not carry out a (formal) act by oneself, or one does not look about for another (monk), or one does not give consent or complete purity, or one protests when a (formal) act is being carried out, or when there is the view that a (formal) act that has been carried out is not legally valid.
  10. In five ways does it become a (formal) act: either one carries out a (formal) act by oneself, or one looks about for another (monk), or one gives consent or complete purity, or one does not protest when a (formal) act is being carried out, or when there is the view that a (formal) act that has been carried out is legally valid.
  11. Five things are allowable to a monk who is an almsfood-eater: walking for alms without having asked for permission to do so, a group-meal, an out-of-turn-meal, no determining upon, no assigning.
  12. A monk who is possessed of five qualities, whether he be a depraved monk or one who is steady in morality is mistrusted and suspected if his resort (for alms) is among prostitutes, or among widows, or among grown girls, or among eunuchs, or among nuns.
  13. Five oils: sesamum oil, oil of mustard seed, oil from the “honey-tree”, oil from the castor-oil plant, oil from tallow.
  14. Five tallows: tallow from bears, tallow from fish, tallow from alligators, tallow from swine, tallow from donkeys.
  15. Five losses: loss of relations, loss of possessions … by illness … in moral habit, loss in (right) view.
  16. Five prosperities: prosperity in relations … possessions … health … moral habit, prosperity in (right) view.
  17. Five nullifications of guidance from a preceptor: when preceptor has gone away or left the Order or died or gone over to another side (of the Order), and command is the fifth.
  18. Five persons should not be ordained: one lacking the full age, a one lacking a limb, one who has fallen away from the matter, one who is a karaṇadukkaṭaka, one who is not complete.
  19. Five refuse-rag-robes: (rags thrown down) in a charnel-ground, outside a shop, gnawn by rats, gnawn by white ants scorched by fire. And five further refuse-rag-robes: (those) gnawn by cattle, gnawn by goats, a robe from a shrine, one from a (king’s) consecration, one worn going to or coming from (a charnel-ground).
  20. Five carryings-away: a carrying-away by theft … by force … by stratagem … by concealment, a carrying-away at a casting of the kusa-grass.
  21. Five great thieves are found in the world.
  22. Five things not to be disposed of.
  23. Five things not to be divided up.
  24. Five offences originate by means of body, not by speech, not by thought.
  25. Five offences originate by means of body and by means of speech, not by means of thought.
  26. Five offences lead on to confession.
  27. Five Orders.
  28. Five (ways for) the recital of the Pātimokkha.
  29. Ordination may be conferred by a group with a Vinaya expert as the fifth (member) in all border districts.
  30. Five advantages in the formal making of the kaṭhina-cloth.
  31. Five (formal) acts.
  32. Five offences (for which the offender may be admonished) up to the third time.
  33. There is an offence involving Defeat for in five ways taking something that has not been given.
  34. There is a grave offence for … There is an offence of wrong doing for in five ways taking something that has not been given.
  35. Five unallowable things should not be made use of: what has not been given, and what is not known about, and what is not allowable, and what has not been formally accepted, and what has not been made “left over”.
  36. Five allowable things may be made use of: what has been given … and what has been made “left over”.
  37. Five unmeritorious gifts are considered by the world to be meritorious: a gift of intoxicants, a gift for a festival, a gift of women, a gift of bulls, a gift of pictures.
  38. Five arisen things are hard to drive away: attachment that has arisen is hard to drive away, hatred … confusion … garrulousness … a mind that wanders when it has arisen is hard to drive away.
  39. There are five advantages in brooms: one calms one’s own mind, one calms the mind of others, devas are glad, one accumulates kamma that is conducive to what is pleasant, at the breaking up of the body after dying one arises in a good bourn, a heaven world.
  40. Five further advantages in brooms: one calms one’s own mind … devas are glad, the Teacher’s instruction is carried out, people coming after fall into the way of (right) views.
  41. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not put a limit to his own speech, if he does not put a limit to the speech of another (person), if, not having put a limit to his own speech, not having put a limit to the speech of another (person), he has a (form act carried out not according to the rule, not with (his) acknowledgement.
  42. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he puts a limit to his own speech … has a (formal) act carried out according to the rule, with (his) acknowledgement.
  43. And if he is possessed of five further qualities the expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is an offence, if he does not know what is the root of an offence, if he does not know the arising of an offence, if he does not know the stopping of an offence, if he does not know the course leading to the stopping of an offence.
  44. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows what is an offence … if he knows the course leading to the stopping of an offence.
  45. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is a legal question … the root … the arising … the stopping … the course leading to the stopping of a legal question.
  46. If he is possessed of five qualities … reckoned as clever: If he knows … the course leading to the stopping of a legal question.
  47. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know the subject … the provenance … the laying down … the supplementary laying down, if he does not know the sequence of the connecting words.
  48. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows the subject … the sequence of the connecting words.
  49. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is a motion, if he does not know the carrying out of the motion, if he is not skilled in what comes first, if he is not skilled in what comes afterwards, and if he is one who is unknowing of the (right) time.
  50. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows what is a motion … if he is skilled in what comes afterwards, if he is one who is knowing of the (right) time.
  51. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know what is a slight and what a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with, if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, if he has not learnt properly from a succession of teachers, has not attended properly, has not reflected on properly.
  52. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows what is an offence and what is not an offence … if he has learnt properly from a succession of teachers, has attended properly, has reflected on properly.
  53. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know what is a slight and what a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with, if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, and if the two Pātimokkhas have not been properly handed down to him in detail, not properly sectioned, not properly regulated, not properly investigated clause by clause and in respect of the linguistic form.
  54. If he is possessed of five qualities … clever: if … the two Pātimokkhas have been properly handed down to him in detail, properly section a properly regulated, properly investigated clause by clause and in respect of the linguistic form.
  55. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence … if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, and if he is not skilled in investigating a legal question. If he is possessed of five qualities … clever: … and if he is skilled in investigating a legal question.
  56. Five forest-dwellers: one is a forest-dweller from stupidity from confusion; one of evil desires, filled with covetousness is a forest-dweller; one is a forest-dweller from madness, from a deranged mind; one is a forest-dweller at the thought, “It is praised by Buddhas and disciples of Buddhas”; one is a forest-dweller because he is of few wishes, because of contentment, because of subduedness, because of aloofness, because this is of good avail.
  57. Five almsfood-eaters …
  58. Five refuse-rag-wearers …
  59. Five tree-root-dwellers …
  60. Five charnel-ground-dwellers …
  61. Five open-air-dwellers …
  62. Five three-robe-wearers …
  63. Five house-to-house-seekers …
  64. Five who are sitters …
  65. Five who use any bed …
  66. Five eaters at one session …
  67. Five refusers of food later …
  68. Five who eat bowl-food: … one is a bowl-food-eater from stupidity … because this is of good avail.
  69. A monk who is possessed of five qualities should not live independently: if he does not know the Observance, if he does not know the (formal) acts for Observance, if he does not know the Pātimokkha, if he does not know the recital of the Pātimokkha, if it is less than five years (since his ordination).
  70. A monk who is possessed of five qualities may live independently: if he knows the Observance … if it is five years or more than five years (since his ordination).
  71. And a monk who is possessed of five further qualities should not live independently: if he does not know the Invitation, if he does not know the (formal) acts for Invitation, if he does not know the Pātimokkha, if he does not know the recital of the Pātimokkha, if it is less than five years (since his ordination).
  72. A monk who is possessed of five qualities may live independently: … if it is five years or more than five years (since his ordination).
  73. And a monk who is possessed of five further qualities should not live independently: if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know what is a slight and what a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with, if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, if it is less than five years (since his ordination).
  74. A monk who is possessed of five qualities may live independently: if he knows … what is and what is not a very bad offence, if it is five years or more than five years (since his ordination).
  75. A nun who is possessed of five qualities should not live independently: if she does not know the Observance, if she does not know the (formal) acts for Observance, if she does not know the Pātimokkha, if she does not know the recital of the Pātimokkha, if it is less than five years (since her ordination).
  76. A nun who is possessed of five qualities may live independently … or more than five years (since her ordination).
  77. And a nun who is possessed of five further qualities should not live independently … the same paragraphs as above repeated for nuns … if she knows what is and what is not a very bad offence, and if it is five years or more than five years (since her ordination).
  78. Five perils for one of unpleasing (actions): the self upbraids the self, and the wise, having adjudicated, blame him, an evil Rumour spreads abroad (about him), he does his time while he is confused, at the breaking up of the body after dying he arises in a sorrowful way, a bad bourn, the Downfall, Niraya.
  79. Five advantages for one of pleasing (actions): the self does not upbraid the self, and the wise, having adjudicated, praise him, a lovely rumour spreads abroad (about him), he does his time while he is unconfused, at the breaking up of the body after dying he arises in a good bourn, a heaven world.
  80. And five further perils for one of unpleasing (actions): non-believers are not pleased, there is wavering among some believers the Teacher’s instruction is not carried out, people coming after fall into the way of wrong views, his mind is not pleased.
  81. Five advantages for one of pleasing (actions): non-believers are pleased, there is increase of believers, the Teacher’s instruction is carried out, people coming after do not fall into the way of wrong views, his mind is pleased.
  82. Five perils for one who is dependent on families: he falls into (the offence of) walking for alms without having asked for permission, he falls into (the offence of) sitting down in private, he falls into (the offence of sitting down) on a concealed seat, he falls into (the offence of) teaching Dhamma to women in more than five or six sentences, and he lives full of aspirations after sense-pleasures.
  83. Five perils for a monk who is dependent on families: living in too much association with families there is a constant seeing of the women-folk, if there is seeing there is contact, if there is contact there is intimacy, if there is intimacy there is desire, if his mind (is affected by) desire this may be expected for the monk: either he will fare the Brahma-faring dissatisfied or he will fall into some defiling offence or, disavowing the training, he will revert to the secular life.
  84. Five kinds of propagation: propagation from roots … from stems … from joints … from cuttings, and fifthly propagation from seeds.
  85. Fruit that is in five ways allowable to recluses may be made use of: if it is damaged by fire, damaged by a knife, damaged by (one’s) nail, if it is seedless, and the fifth is if the seeds have been discharged.
  86. Five purifications: having recited the provenance, the rest may be announced as though it had been heard (already): this is the first purification; having recited the provenance, having recited the four offences involving Defeat, the rest may be announced as though it had been heard (already): this is the second purification; having recited the provenance, having recited the four offences involving Defeat, having recited the thirteen offences entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order, the rest may be announced as though it had been heard (already): this is the third purification; having recited the provenance … offences involving Defeat … entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order, having recited the two Undetermined Offences, the rest may be announced as though it had been heard (already): this is the fourth purification; recital in full is the fifth.
  87. And five further purifications: recital of the rules, Observance when there is entire purity, Observance when there is determination, Invitation, and the fifth is Observance with “being all together”.
  88. Five advantages for an expert in Discipline: his own body of moral habit is well guarded.well protected; he is a shelter for those who are affected by scruples; confidently he lives in the midst of an Order; with Dhamma he restrains adversaries (of the Teaching) from one who is well restrained; he is one who practises for the stability of True Dhamma.
  89. Five suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.
  90. Five suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.
  91. Concluded are the Pentads

    Its Summary

    Offence, classes of offence,
    trained in, and with no delay,
    Individuals, and also cutting down,
    and he falls, due to, /
    And it does not become, it becomes,
    allowable, mistrusted, oil,
    Tallow, loss, prosperity,
    nullification, and as to a person, /
    Charnel-ground, and gnawn by cattle,
    theft, and he is called a thief,
    Not to be disposed of, not to be divided up,
    from body from body and speech, /
    Confession, an Order, recital,
    bordering, and about kaṭhina
    (Formal) acts, up to the third time,
    defeat, grave, wrong-doing, /
    Unallowable, and allowable,
    unmeritorious, hard to drive away,
    Brooms, and a further (five),
    speech, and also about an offence, /
    Legal question, subject,
    motion, offence, and the two,
    These are slight (and) they are strong:
    distinguish between the dark and the bright; /
    Forest, and almsfood-eater,
    refuse-rag, tree, charnel-ground-dwellers,
    In the open air, and robe,
    house-to-house, a sitter, /
    Bed, refusers of food later,
    and too the bowl-food-eater,
    Observance, Invitation,
    and also an offence and what is not an offence,
    And similarly these dark and bright items are for nuns too, /
    Unpleasing (person), pleasing,
    likewise a further two,
    Dependent on families, too much,
    propagation, and allowable to recluses, /
    Purification, and a further too,
    Discipline, and not legally valid,
    Likewise legally valid is spoken of:
    concluded are the fair Pentads.

6. Sextets

  1. Six forms of irreverence.
  2. Six forms of reverence.
  3. Six matters that are trained in.
  4. Six “proper courses”.
  5. Six originations of offences.
  6. Six offences involving cutting down.
  7. In six ways does one fall into an offence.
  8. Six advantages for an expert in Discipline.
  9. Six “at most”.
  10. One may be away, separated from that robe for six nights.
  11. Six (kinds of) robe-material.
  12. Six (kinds of) dyes.
  13. Six offences originate from body and thought, not from speech.
  14. Six offences originate from speech and thought, not from body.
  15. Six offences originate from body and speech and thought.
  16. Six (formal) acts.
  17. Six roots of disputes.
  18. Six roots of censure.
  19. In length six spans of the accepted span.
  20. In breadth six spans.
  21. Six nullifications of guidance from a teacher.
  22. Six supplementary layings down about bathing.
  23. Taking a robe that is imperfectly executed he goes away.
  24. Taking with him a robe that is imperfectly executed he goes away.
  25. A monk who is possessed of six qualities may ordain, he may give guidance, a novice may attend him: if he is possessed of an adept’s body of moral habit … body of concentration … body of wisdom … body of freedom … body of the vision and knowledge of freedom, if he is of ten years’ standing or more than ten years’ standing.
  26. And a monk who is possessed of six further qualities may ordain … a novice may attend him: if he is possessed of an adept’s body of moral habit and encourages another as to an adept’s body of moral habit … if he is himself possessed of an adept’s body of the vision and knowledge of freedom and encourages another as to an adept’s body of the vision and knowledge of freedom, if he is of ten years’ standing or more than ten years’ standing.
  27. And a monk who is possessed of six further qualities may ordain … novice may attend him: if he comes to have faith, if he comes to feel shame, if he comes to be cautious, if he comes to be of stirred up energy, if he comes to be of ready mindfulness if he is of ten years’ standing or of more than ten years’ standing.
  28. And a monk who is possessed of six further qualities may ordain … a novice may attend him: if, in regard to moral habit, he has not fallen away from moral habit; if, in regard to good habits, he has not fallen away from good habits; if, in regard to (right) view, he has not fallen away from right view; if he has heard much; if he is intelligent; if he is … of more than ten years’ standing.
  29. And a monk who is possessed of six further qualities may ordain … a novice may attend him; if he is competent to tend or get another to tend a pupil or one who shares a cell who is ill, to allay or get another to allay dissatisfaction that has arisen, to dispel or get another to dispel, by means of Dhamma, remorse that has arisen, if he knows what is an offence, if he knows the removal of an offence, if he is … of more than ten years’ standing.
  30. And a monk who is possessed of six further qualities may ordain … a novice may attend him: if he is competent to make a pupil or one who shares a cell train in the training regarding the fundamentals of conduct, to lead him in the training regarding the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring, to lead him in what pertains to Dhamma, to lead him in what pertains to Discipline, to discuss or get another to discuss, by means of Dhamma, a false view that has arisen, if he is of … more than ten years standing.
  31. And a monk who is possessed of six further qualities may ordain … a novice may attend him: if he knows what is an offence, if he knows what is not an offence, if he knows what is a slight offence, if he knows what is a serious offence, if the two Pātimokkhas in full have been properly handed down to him, properly sectioned, properly regulated, properly investigated clause by clause and in respect of the linguistic form, if he is … of more than ten years’ standing.
  32. Six suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.
  33. Six suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.
  34. Concluded are the Sextets

    Its Summary

    Irreverences, and reverences,
    trained in, and “proper courses” too,
    Originations, and also cuttings down,
    ways, and about advantage, /
    And “at mosts”, six nights,
    robe-material, and dyes,
    Six too from body and mind,
    as well as six from speech and mind, /
    And from body, speech and mind,
    (formal) acts, and also dispute,
    Censure, and in length,
    breadth, and about guidance, /
    Supplementary layings down,
    taking, and similarly taking with one,
    Adepts, one who encourages,
    faith, and in regard to moral habit,
    Ill, fundamentals of conduct,
    offence, not legally valid, legally valid.

7. Septets

  1. Seven offences.
  2. Seven classes of offence.
  3. Seven matters that are trained in.
  4. Seven “proper courses”.
  5. Seven carryings out on the acknowledgement of are not legally valid.
  6. Seven carryings out on the acknowledgement of are legally valid.
  7. There is no offence in going to seven (classes of people) if the business can be done in seven days.
  8. Seven advantages for the expert in Discipline.
  9. Seven “at mosts”.
  10. It is to be forfeited at sunrise on the seventh day.
  11. Seven decidings.
  12. Seven (formal) acts.
  13. Seven raw grains.
  14. In breadth seven inside.
  15. Seven supplementary layings down for a group-meal.
  16. After one has accepted medicines they may be used as a store for at most seven days.
  17. Taking a robe that has been made up he goes away.
  18. Taking with him a robe that has been made up he goes away.
  19. There is not an offence of a monk’s that should be seen.
  20. There is an offence of a monk’s that should be seen.
  21. There is an offence of a monk’s for which amends should be made.
  22. Seven suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.
  23. Seven suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.
  24. A monk who is possessed of seven qualities is an expert on Discipline: if he knows what is an offence, if he knows what is not an offence; if he knows what is a slight offence, if he knows what is a serious offence; if, possessed of moral habit, he lives controlled by the control of the Pātimokkha; if, possessed of right conduct and resort, seeing danger in the slightest faults, he, undertaking them, trains himself in the rules of training; if he is one who acquires at will, without trouble, without difficulty, the four meditations that are of the purest mentality—abidings in ease here and now; and if, by the destruction of the cankers, he, having realized here and now by his own super-knowledge the freedom of mind and the freedom through wisdom that are cankerless, enters and abides therein.
  25. And if a monk is possessed of seven further qualities he is an expert on Discipline: if he knows what is an offence … if he knows what is a serious offence; if he is one who has heard much, remembers what he has heard, stores up what he has heard—those things, lovely in the beginning, lovely in the middle, lovely at the ending which, with the meaning and the spirit declare the Brahma-faring wholly fulfilled, perfectly purified, such things are much heard by him, borne in mind, familiarized by speech, pondered over in the mind, and are well penetrated by right view; if he is one who acquires at will … enters and abides therein.
  26. And if a monk is possessed of seven further qualities he is an expert on Discipline: … if he knows what is a serious offence; if the two Pātimokkhas have been properly handed down to him in detail, properly sectioned, properly regulated, properly investigated clause by clause and in respect of the linguistic form; if he is one who acquires at will … enters and abides therein.
  27. And if a monk is possessed of seven further qualities he is an expert on Discipline: if he knows … what is a serious offence; if he recollects a variety of former habitations, that is to say one birth and two births … … thus he recollects a variety of former habitations in all their modes and in detail; if with deva-like vision surpassing that of men, he sees beings as they are passing hence … … thus with the deva-like vision surpassing that of men does he see beings as they are passing hence and coming to be—mean, excellent, fair, foul, and he comprehends that beings are in a good bourn, in a bad bourn according to kamma; and if, by the destruction of the cankers … he enters and abides therein.
  28. And if a monk is possessed of seven further qualities … he shines as an expert on Discipline … here and following read he shines as an expert on Discipline instead of he is an expert on Discipline, and repeat the foregoing paragraphs exactly … abides therein.
  29. Seven bad conditions: if one is lacking in faith, is without conscience, is without shame, is one who has heard little, is lazy, is of muddled mindfulness, and is one weak in wisdom.
  30. Seven right conditions: if one has faith, is conscientious, is scrupulous, is one who has heard much, is one whose energy is stirred up, is one whose mindfulness is raised up, and is one full of wisdom.
  31. Concluded are the Septets

    Its summary:

    Offence, classes of offence, trained in, and “proper courses” too,
    Not legally valid, and legally valid, and no offence if within seven days, /
    Advantages, “at mosts,” sunrise, and about deciding,
    (Formal) acts, and raw grains, inside, for a group-meal, /
    For at most seven days, taking, and similarly taking with him,
    There is not, there is, and there is, not legally valid, and legally valid, /
    Four experts on Discipline, and four shining monks,
    And seven wrong conditions too, seven right conditions are taught.

8. Octets

  1. That monk should not be suspended for not seeing an offence by one possessed of eight advantages.
  2. That offence should be confessed even out of faith in others if they are possessed of eight advantages.
  3. Eight “up to the third time”.
  4. In eight ways does one bring a family into disrepute.
  5. Eight headings for the accruing of robe-material.
  6. Eight headings for the withdrawing of the kaṭhina (privileges).
  7. Eight kinds of drinks.
  8. Devadatta, overcome and his mind controlled by eight bad conditions, is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya, staying there for an aeon, incurable.
  9. Eight things belonging to the world.
  10. Eight important rules.
  11. Eight matters that should be confessed.
  12. Lying speech is eightfold.
  13. Eight factors for Observance.
  14. Eight factors for (going on) a message.
  15. Eight customs for members of other sects.
  16. Eight marvellous and wonderful things about the great ocean.
  17. Eight marvellous and wonderful things in this Dhamma and Discipline.
  18. Eight “not left overs”,
  19. Eight “left overs”.
  20. It is to be forfeited on the eighth day at sunrise.
  21. Eight offences involving Defeat.
  22. Completing the eighth thing she should be expelled.
  23. By completing an eighth thing it is marked out even if not (actually) marked out.
  24. Ordination having eight formulas.
  25. (Seats) should be risen from for eight nuns.
  26. A seat should be given to eight nuns.
  27. The woman lay disciple asked for eight boons.
  28. A monk who is possessed of eight qualities may be agreed upon as an exhorter of nuns.
  29. Eight advantages for an expert in Discipline.
  30. Eight “at mosts”.
  31. A monk against whom a (formal) act for specific depravity has been carried out must act rightly in regard to eight things.
  32. Eight suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.
  33. Eight suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.
  34. Concluded are the Octets

    Its Summary

    Not that monk, and in others,
    up to the third time, bringing into disrepute,
    Headings, removal of the kaṭhina (privileges),
    drinks, and overcome by, /
    Belonging to the world, important rules,
    to be confessed lying,
    Observances, factors for a message,
    other sects, and in the sea, /
    Wonderful, not left over,
    left over, to be forfeited,
    Defeats, the eighth thing,
    not marked out, ordination, /
    And too rising from a seat,
    boon, and about an exhorter
    Advantages, “at mosts,”
    acting in regard to eight things
    Not legally valid, and legally valid:
    the Octets are well proclaimed.

9. Nonads

  1. Nine occasions for ill-will.
  2. Nine (ways of) averting ill-will.
  3. Nine matters that are trained in.
  4. Nine offences at once.
  5. An Order is split by nine (monks).
  6. Nine sumptuous foods.
  7. In (eating) nine kinds of meat there is an offence of wrong--doing.
  8. Nine recitals of the Pātimokkha.
  9. Nine “at mosts”.
  10. Nine things rooted in craving.
  11. Ninefold pride.
  12. Nine robes may be allotted.
  13. Nine robes should not be assigned.
  14. In length nine spans of the accepted span.
  15. Nine gifts are not legally valid.
  16. Nine recipients are not legally valid.
  17. Nine enjoyments are not legally valid.
  18. Three gifts are legally valid; three recipients are legally valid; three enjoyments are legally valid.
  19. Nine (ways of) making known are not legally valid.
  20. Nine (ways of) making known are legally valid.
  21. Two nonads for a (formal) act that is not legally valid.
  22. Two nonads for a (formal) act that is legally valid.
  23. Nine suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.
  24. Nine suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.
  25. Concluded are the Nonads

    Its Summary

    Occasions for ill-will, averting,
    trained in, and at once,
    And is split, and sumptuous,
    meat, recital, and “at mosts”, /
    Craving, pride, allottings,
    and assigned, spans,
    Gifts, recipients, enjoyments,
    and again the threefold when legally valid, /
    Not legally valid, makings known that are legally valid,
    and two nonads twice,
    Suspensions of the Pātimokkha
    that are and are not legally valid.

10. Decades

  1. Ten occasions for ill-will.
  2. Ten (ways of) averting ill-will.
  3. Ten matters that are trained in.
  4. A wrong view founded on ten (tenets).
  5. A right view founded on ten (tenets).
  6. Ten (ways of) taking up an extreme view.
  7. Ten wrongnesses.
  8. Ten rightnesses.
  9. Ten ways of unskilled action.
  10. Ten ways of skilled action.
  11. Ten distributions of voting tickets are not legally valid.
  12. Ten distributions of voting tickets are legally valid.
  13. Ten rules of training for novices.
  14. If he is possessed of ten qualities a novice should be expelled.
  15. If he is possessed of ten qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not put a limit to his own speech, if he does not put a limit to the speech of another (person), if, not having put a limit to his own speech, to the speech of another (person), he has a (formal) act carried out not according to rule, not with his acknowledgement, if does not know what is an offence, if he does not know what is the root of an offence, if he does not know the arising … the stopping … the course leading to the stopping of an offence.
  16. If he is possessed of ten qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he puts a limit to his own speech … if he knows what is an offence … the course leading to the stopping of an offence.
  17. And if he is possessed of ten further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is a legal question … the root of a legal question … the arising … the stopping … the course leading to the stopping of a legal question, if he does not know the subject … the provenance … the laying down … the supplementary laying down … the sequence of the connecting words.
  18. If he is possessed of ten qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows what is a legal question … the sequence of the connecting words.
  19. And if he is possessed of ten further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is a motion, if he does not know the carrying out of a motion, if he is not skilled in what comes first, if he is not skilled in what comes afterwards, and if he is one unknowing of the (right) time, if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know a slight and a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with, if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, if he has not learnt properly from a succession of teachers, has not attended properly, has not reflected on properly.
  20. If he is possessed of ten qualities an expert on, Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows what is a motion … if he has learnt properly from a succession of teachers, has attended properly, has reflected on properly.
  21. And if he is possessed of ten further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know a slight and a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with, if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, and if the two Pātimokkhas in full have not been properly handed down to him, not properly sectioned, not properly regulated, not properly investigated clause by clause and in respect of the linguistic form, if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence … if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, and if he is not skilled in investigating a legal question.
  22. If he is possessed of ten qualities … clever: if he knows what is an offence … and if he is skilled in investigating a legal question.
  23. A monk possessed of ten qualities may be agreed upon for a referendum.
  24. Dependent on ten reasons a rule of training for disciples is laid down by the Tathāgata.
  25. Ten perils in entering a king’s women’s quarters.
  26. Ten objects as (alms-) gifts.
  27. Ten gems.
  28. A tenfold Order of monks.
  29. One may ordain through a group of ten (monks).
  30. Ten refuse-rag-robes.
  31. Wearers of ten colours for robes.
  32. One may wear an extra robe for at most ten days.
  33. Ten (colours of) semen.
  34. Ten (kinds of) women.
  35. Ten (kinds of) wives.
  36. Ten points promulgated at Vesālī.
  37. Ten individuals who are not to be greeted.
  38. Ten ways of cursing.
  39. One brings slander in ten ways.
  40. Ten lodgings.
  41. They asked for ten boons.
  42. Ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.
  43. Ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.
  44. Ten advantages from conjey.
  45. Ten (kinds of) flesh are not allowed.
  46. Ten “at mosts”.
  47. An experienced competent monk who is of ten years’ standing may let go forth, may ordain, may give guidance, a novice may attend him.
  48. An experienced competent nun who is of ten years’ standing may let go forth … a woman novice may attend her.
  49. Agreement to ordain may be accepted by an experienced competent nun who is of ten years’ standing.
  50. Training should be given to a girl who has been married for ten years.
  51. Concluded are the Decades

    Its Summary

    Ill-will, averting, matters,
    wrong (view), and right (view), taking up an extreme (view),
    And wrongnesses too, rightnesses,
    unskilled, and also skilled, /
    Not legally valid, and legally valid tickets,
    novices, and expelling,
    Speech, and legal question too,
    motion, and slight too, /
    Slight (and) serious these:
    discriminate between the dark and the bright,
    And referendum, and training,
    and women’s quarters, objects, /
    Gems, and tenfold,
    likewise ordination,
    Refuse-rags, and wearers,
    ten days, semen, women, /
    Wives, ten points, not to be greeted,
    and about cursing,
    And slander too, and lodgings,
    and boons, not legally valid, /
    Legally valid, conjey, and flesh,
    “at mosts,” monk, nun,
    Ordination, married girl:
    the Decades are well proclaimed.

11. Elevens

  1. Eleven individuals who, if they have not been ordained, should not be ordained; if they have been ordained, they should be expelled.
  2. Eleven (kinds of) shoes are not allowable.
  3. Eleven (kinds of) bowls are not allowable.
  4. Eleven (kinds of) robes are not allowable.
  5. Eleven “up to the third time”.
  6. Eleven things which are stumbling-blocks (preventing women from becoming) nuns should be asked about.
  7. Eleven (kinds of) robes may be allotted.
  8. Eleven (kinds of) robes may not be assigned.
  9. On the eleventh day at sunrise it is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture.
  10. Eleven (kinds of) “blocks” are allowable.
  11. Eleven (kinds of) buckles are allowable.
  12. Eleven (kinds of) earth are not allowable.
  13. Eleven (kinds of) earth are allowable.
  14. Eleven nullifications of guidance.
  15. Eleven individuals are not to be greeted.
  16. Eleven “at mosts”.
  17. They asked for eleven boons.
  18. Eleven defects in boundaries.
  19. Eleven perils to be expected for an individual who reviles and abuses.
  20. If the freedom of mind that is loving-kindness is practised, developed, made much of, made a basis, made a vehicle, persisted in, become familiar with and well established eleven advantages are to be expected: one sleeps in comfort, wakes in comfort, dreams no evil dream, is dear to human beings, dear to non-human beings, devatās guard him, fire poison and weapons do not affect him, his mind is easily concentrated, the expression on his face is serene, he does his (karmic) time unconfused, and if he penetrates no higher (to arahantship than the attainment of loving-kindness) he reaches the Brahma-world (on deceasing from this life). If the freedom of mind that is loving-kindness is practised … well established, these eleven advantages are to be expected.

Concluded are the Elevens

Its Summary

Should be expelled, and shoes,
and bowls, and robes,
The third, and should be asked about,
allotting, assigning, /
Sunrise, blocks, buckles,
and not allowable, allowable,
Guidance, and also not to be greeted,
“at mosts,” and boons,
And defects in boundaries, reviling, loving-kindness—
The Elevens are done.

Concluded is As to Gradation

Its summary:

The Units, as well as the Dyads,
and the Triads, Tetrads, Pentads,
Six, seven, eights, and Nonads,
ten, and the Elevens, /
For the welfare of all beings,
by Such a One who made known Dhamma
Were the stainless Gradations taught by the Great Hero. /