The Book of Analysis

12. Analysis Of Jhāna

12.1. Analysis According To The Discourses

Herein a monk dwells restrained and controlled by the fundamental precepts, endowed with (proper) behaviour and a (suitable) alms resort, seeing peril in (his) slightest faults, observing (the precepts) he trains himself in the precepts, guarded as to the doors of the faculties (of the senses), in food knowing the right amount, in the first watch of the night and in the last watch of the night practising the practice of vigilance, with intense effort and penetration practising the practice of development of awakening dhammas; he, in approaching and in departing, acts with awareness; in looking ahead and in looking around he acts with awareness; in bending and in stretching he acts with awareness; in bearing the outer robe, the alms-bowl and the under robe, he acts with awareness; in eating, in drinking, in chewing, in tasting, he acts with awareness; in obeying the calls of nature he acts with awareness; in walking, in standing, in sitting, in sleeping, in waking, in talking, in being silent, he acts with awareness; he approaches a secluded abode, a forest, the foot of a tree, a mountain, a wadi, a hill cave, a cemetery, a remote forest, a desolate place, a heap of straw, (an abode) having little noise, having little tumult, free from the atmosphere of humans, secret from men, suitable for retirement; he, having gone to a forest or having gone to the foot of a tree or having gone to an empty place, sits folding (the legs) crosswise, holding the body erect, setting up mindfulness in front (of him); he, abandoning covetousness (for anything) in the world dwells with consciousness freed from covetousness; he cleanses his consciousness of covetousness. Abandoning ill-will and antipathy he dwells having consciousness without ill-will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; he cleanses his consciousness of ill-will and antipathy. Abandoning sloth and torpor he dwells freed from sloth and torpor, having bright perception, mindful and aware; he cleanses his consciousness of sloth and torpor. Abandoning distraction and remorse he dwells without distraction having internally quiet consciousness; he cleanses his consciousness of distraction and remorse. Abandoning doubt, doubt overcome, he dwells without uncertainty as to skilful dhammas; he cleanses his consciousness of doubt. Abandoning these five hindrances (that are) mental corruptions and attenuation of wisdom, he, aloof from sense pleasures, aloof from unskilful dhammas, attains and dwells in the first jhāna accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application, with rapture and pleasure born of detachment; inhibiting initial application and sustained application he attains and dwells in the second jhāna with internal refinement, exalted development of mind, without initial application, without sustained application, with rapture and pleasure born of samādhi; he, desireless of rapture, dwells equable, mindful, aware, and he experiences pleasure by way of the body (of mental aggregates); this the Noble Ones declare, “The equable, mindful dweller in pleasure”; he attains and dwells in the third jhāna; by the abandoning of pleasure and by the abandoning of pain, then first terminating mental pleasure and mental pain he attains and dwells in the fourth jhāna (which is) neither-pain-nor-pleasure (but is) purity of mindfulness caused by equanimity; having wholly passed the perceptions of form by terminating perceptions of (sense) impingement, by not attending to diversity of perceptions, (concentrating) thus, “Infinite is space”, he attains and dwells in the state of infinity of space; having wholly passed the state of infinity of space, (concentrating) thus, “Infinite is consciousness”, he attains and dwells in the state of infinity of consciousness; having wholly passed the state of infinity of consciousness, (concentrating) thus, “There is nothing whatever”, he attains and dwells in the state of nothingness; having wholly passed the state of nothingness he attains and dwells in the state of neither perception nor non-perception.

(Here Ends) The Summary

“Herein” means: Of this view, of this ability (to comprehend), of this choice, in this holding (i.e. the view that is held), in this truth, in this discipline, in this doctrine, in this exposition, in this supreme practice, in this teaching of the Teacher. Therefore this is called “herein”.

monk” means: monk by designation; monk by acknowledgment; monk because of mendicancy; monk by habit of mendicancy; monk by reaching (the stage of) going for alms; monk by wearing cut up cloth; monk by destroying bad unskilful dhammas; monk by having destroyed bad unskilful dhammas; monk by the limited abandoning of the corruptions; monk by the unlimited abandoning of the corruptions; monk by (being) of the seven supramundane stages; monk by (being) of the final supramundane stage; monk by (being) neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage; monk by excellence (of attainment); monk by goodness; monk by fineness (of quality); monk by (having) essential principles; ordained monk by the united Saṅgha by means of faultless, reasonable action having declaration as the fourth (item).

Fundamental precept” means: Morality, establishment, beginning, footing, mastery, restraint, foremost, chief for the attainment of skilful dhammas. “Restraint” means: Bodily non-transgression, verbal non-transgression, both bodily and verbal non-transgression. “Controlled” means: Possessed of this restraint by the fundamental precepts he is well possessed, attained, well attained, endowed, well endowed, furnished. Therefore this is called “restrained and controlled by the fundamental precepts”.

Dwells” means: Assumes the four postures, exists, protects, keeps going, maintains, turns about, dwells. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Endowed with (proper) behaviour and a (suitable) alms resort” means: There is (proper) behaviour; there is improper behaviour.

Therein what is improper behaviour? Bodily transgression, verbal transgression, both bodily and verbal transgression. This is called improper behaviour. Also all wrong morality is improper behaviour. Herein a certain one makes a living by giving bamboo or by giving leaves or by giving flowers or by giving fruit or by giving soap powder or by giving tooth sticks or by servile behaviour or by bean soup behaviour or by dandling behaviour or by being a foot messenger or by any other wrong livelihood rejected by the Buddha. This is called improper behaviour.

Therein what is (proper) behaviour? Bodily non-transgression, verbal non-transgression, both bodily and verbal non-transgression. This is called (proper) behaviour. Also all moral restraint is (proper) behaviour. Herein a certain one makes a living by not giving bamboo, by not giving leaves, by not giving flowers, by not giving fruit, by not giving soap powder, by not giving tooth sticks, by non-servile behaviour, by non-bean soup behaviour, by non-dandling behaviour, by not being a foot messenger nor by any other wrong livelihood rejected by the Buddha. This is called (proper) behaviour.

Alms resort” means: There is (suitable) alms resort; there is unsuitable alms resort.

Therein what is unsuitable alms resort? Herein a certain one resorts to prostitutes for alms or resorts to widows for alms or resorts to spinsters for alms or resorts to eunuchs for alms or resorts to nuns for alms or resorts to public houses for alms; he dwells consorting with kings, with kings’ ministers, with heretics, with followers of heretics in unbefitting relationship; also those families with no confidence, who are displeased, who are not founts of benevolence, who are abusive and censuring, who are ill-wishers, who are wishers of adversity, wishers of discomfort, who do not wish for safety from the bonds for monks, for nuns, for male devotees, for female devotees; such families he depends on, approaches, frequents. This is called unsuitable alms resort.

Therein what is suitable alms resort? Herein a certain one does not resort to prostitutes for alms, does not resort to widows for alms, does not resort to spinsters for alms, does not resort to eunuchs for alms, does not resort to nuns for alms, does not resort to public houses for alms; he dwells not consorting with kings, with kings’ ministers, with heretics, with followers of heretics in unbefitting relationship; however, those families with confidence, who are pleased, who are founts of benevolence, (whose houses) are radiant with yellow robes, (whose houses abound with) the draught of entering and departing monks, who are well wishers, wishers of welfare, wishers of comfort, who wish for safety from the bonds for monks, for nuns, for male devotees, for female devotees; such families he depends on, approaches, frequents. This is called (suitable) alms resort. Thus of this (proper) behaviour and of this (suitable) alms resort he is possessed, See section 357. furnished. Therefore this is called “endowed with (proper) behaviour and a (suitable) alms resort”.

Seeing peril in (his) slightest faults” means: Therein what are slightest faults? Those faults which are trifling, insignificant, light, said to be light and which should cause mastery, should cause restraint, should cause the rise of consciousness, should attract attention. These are called slightest faults. Thus in these slightest faults he sees fault, he sees peril, he sees danger, he sees escape (therefrom). Therefore this is called “seeing peril in (his) slightest faults”.

Observing (the precepts) he trains himself in the precepts” means: Therein what are the precepts? Four types of precepts are: For monks, monk precepts; for nuns, nun precepts; for male devotees, male devotee precepts; for female devotees, female devotee precepts. These are called the precepts. Thus he exists observing these precepts exclusively, completely, without remainder, entirely. Therefore this is called “observing (the precepts) he trains himself in the precepts”.

Guarded as to the doors of the faculties” means: There is guarding as to the doors of the faculties; there is not guarding as to the doors.

Therein what is “not guarding as to the doors of the faculties”? Herein a certain one seeing a visible (object) with the eye takes in the general appearance, takes in the detail. For whatever reason a person is dwelling without controlling the faculty of eye, covetousness and mental pain, bad unskilful dhammas may (will) follow. He does not exercise restraint thereof; he does not safeguard the faculty of eye; he does not undertake restraint in the faculty of eye. Hearing an audible (object) with the ear. Complete in general form of first example. Smelling an odorous (object) with the nose. Complete in general form of first example. Tasting a sapid (object) with the tongue. Complete in general form of first example. Touching a tangible (object) with the body. Complete in general form of first example. Cognizing an ideational (object) with the mind takes in the general appearance, takes in the detail. For whatever reason a person is dwelling without controlling the faculty of mind, covetousness and mental pain, bad unskilful dhammas may (will) follow. He does not exercise restraint thereof; he does not safeguard the faculty of mind; he does not undertake restraint in the faculty of mind. That which of these six faculties is not guarding, not being guarded, not safeguarding, not restraint. This is called “not guarding as to the doors of the faculties”.

Therein what is “guarding as to the doors of the faculties”? Herein a certain one seeing a visible (object) with the eye does not take in the general appearance, does not take in the detail. For whatever reason a person is dwelling without controlling the faculty of eye, covetousness and mental pain, bad unskilful dhammas may (will) follow. He exercises restraint thereof; he safeguards the faculty of eye; he undertakes restraint in the faculty of eye. Hearing an audible (object) with the ear. Complete in general form of first example. Smelling an odorous (object) with the nose. Complete in general form of first example. Tasting a sapid (object) with the tongue. Complete in general form of first example. Touching a tangible (object) with the body. Complete in general form of first example. Cognizing an ideational (object) with the mind does not take in the general appearance, does not take in the detail. For whatever reason a person is dwelling without controlling the faculty of mind, covetousness and mental pain, bad unskilful dhammas may (will) follow. He exercises restraint thereof; he safeguards the faculty of mind; he undertakes restraint in the faculty of mind. That which of these six faculties is guarding, being guarded, safeguarding, restraint. This is called “guarding as to the doors of the faculties”. Of this guarding as to the doors of the faculties he is possessed, well possessed, See section 357. furnished. Therefore this is called “guarded as to the doors of the faculties”.

In food knowing the right amount” means: There is, “in food knowing the right amount”; there is, “in food not knowing the right amount”.

Therein what is “in food not knowing the right amount”? Herein a certain one not reflecting, improperly takes food for pletitanble pursuits, for pride, for physical charm, for fine physique. That which therein is dissatisfaction, not knowing the right amount, not reflecting on food. This is called “in food not knowing the right amount”.

Therein what is “in food knowing the right amount”? Herein a certain one reflecting, properly takes food, not for pletitanble pursuits, not for pride, not for physical charm, not for fine physique (but) just enough for stabilizing and maintaining this body, for alleviating the pangs (of hunger), for furthering supreme practice; (thinking) thus, this old feeling (i.e. discomfort) I destroy; I will not produce a new feeling (i.e. satiety); and there will be for me sustenance, absence of fault and dwelling comfortably. That which therein is satisfaction, knowing the right amount, reflecting on food. This is called “in food knowing the right amount”. Of this knowing the right amount in food he is possessed, See section 357. furnished. Therefore this is called “in food knowing the right amount”.

And how does a monk in the first watch of the night and in the last watch of the night practise the practice of vigilance? Herein a monk during the day while pacing up and down, while sitting, cleanses his consciousness of obstructive dhammas; during the first watch of the night while pacing up and down, while sitting, he cleanses his consciousness of obstructive dhammas; during the middle watch of the night he lies down on the right side in the lion posture, putting one leg slightly displaced upon the other, mindful, aware, attentive to the idea of arising; during the last watch of the night, he, having arisen, while pacing up and down, while sitting, cleanses his consciousness of obstructive dhammas. Thus a monk in the first watch of the night and in the last watch of the night practises the practice of vigilance.

Intense effort” means: That which is the arousing of mental energy, See section 220. right effort.

Penetration” means: That which is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view.

Practising the practice of the development of awakening dhammas” means: Therein what are awakening dhammas? The seven awakening factors (viz.) mindfulness-awakening-factor, truth investigation-awakening-factor, energy-awakening-factor, rapture-awakening-factor, calmness-awakening-factor, samādhi-awakening-factor, equanimity-awakening-factor. These are called awakening dhammas. Thus these awakening dhammas he pursues, develops, repeats. Therefore this is called “practising the practice of the development of awakening dhammas”.

And how does a monk in approaching and in departing, act with awareness; in looking ahead and in looking around, act with awareness; in bending and in stretching, act with awareness; in bearing the outer robe, the alms-bowl and the under robe, act with awareness; in eating, in drinking, in chewing, in tasting, act with awareness; in obeying the calls of nature, act with awareness; in walking, in standing, in sitting, in sleeping, in waking, in talking, in being silent, act with awareness? Herein a monk mindful and aware, approaches; mindful and aware he departs; mindful and aware he looks ahead; mindful and aware he looks around; mindful and aware he bends; mindful and aware he stretches; mindful he acts with awareness; in bearing the outer robe, the alms-bowl and the under robe, mindful he acts with awareness; in eating, in drinking, in chewing, in tasting, mindful he acts with awareness; in obeying the calls of nature, mindful he acts with awareness; in walking, in standing, in sitting, in sleeping, in waking, in talking, in being silent, mindful he acts with awareness.

Therein what is mindfulness? That which is mindfulness, constant mindfulness, recollection, mindfulness, act of remembering, bearing in mind, non-superficiality, non-forgetfulness, mindfulness, faculty of mindfulness, power of mindfulness, right mindfulness. This is called mindfulness.

Aware” means: Therein what is awareness? That which is wisdom, understanding, investigation, research, truth investigation, discernment, discrimination, differentiation, erudition, proficiency, subtlety, analysis, consideration, breadth, sagacity, guidance, insight, awareness, goad, wisdom, faculty of wisdom, power of wisdom, sword of wisdom, tower of wisdom, light of wisdom, lustre of wisdom, splendour of wisdom, jewel of wisdom, absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called awareness. Thus of this mindfulness and this awareness he is possessed, See section 357. furnished. Thus a monk mindful and aware approaches; mindful and aware he departs; mindful and aware he looks ahead; mindful and aware he looks around; mindful and aware he bends; mindful and aware he stretches; mindful he acts with awareness; in bearing the outer robe, the alms-bowl and the under robe, mindful he acts with awareness; in eating, in drinking, in chewing, in tasting, mindful he acts with awareness; in obeying the calls of nature, mindful he acts with awareness; in walking, in standing, in sitting, in sleeping, in waking, in talking, in being silent, he acts with awareness.

Secluded” means: If the abode is proximate and is not crowded with lay people or with monks; thereby it is secluded. If the abode is distant and is not crowded with lay people or with monks; thereby it is secluded.

Abode” means: Bed is abode; chair also is abode; cushion also is abode; pillow also is abode; vihara also is abode; pent-roofed (house) also is abode; gable-roofed (house) also is abode; watchtower also is abode; circular (house) also is abode; cell also is abode; cave also is abode; foot of a tree also is abode; bamboo thicket also is abode or wherever else monks retreat; all this is abode.

He approaches a secluded abode” means: This secluded abode he approaches, approaches happily, makes use of, depends on, makes skilful use of. Therefore this is called “he approaches a secluded abode”.

Forest” means: Departing beyond the threshold; all this is forest.

Foot of a tree” means: Foot of a tree is just the foot of a tree; mountain is just a mountain; wadi is just a wadi; hill-cave is just a hill-cave; cemetery is just a cemetery; desolate place is just a desolate place; heap of straw is just a heap of straw.

Remote forest” means: This is the name for distant abodes; “remote forest” means: This is the name for jungle thicket abodes; “remote forest” means: This is the name for fearful abodes; “remote forest” means: This is the name for terrifying abodes; “remote forest” means: This is the name for outlying abodes; “remote forest” means: This is the name for abodes not in the neighbourhood of human beings; “remote forest” means: This is the name for insupportable abodes.

Having little noise” means: If the abode is proximate and is not crowded with lay people or with monks; thereby it has little noise. If the abode is distant and is not crowded with lay people or with monks; thereby it has little noise.

Having little tumult” means: That which has little noise, that also has little tumult. That which has little tumult, that also is free from the atmosphere of humans. That which is free from the atmosphere of humans, that also is secret from men. That which is secret from men, that also is suitable for retirement.

Having gone to a forest or having gone to the foot of a tree or having gone to an empty place” means: He has gone to a forest or he has gone to the foot of a tree or he has gone to an empty place.

Sits folding (the legs) crosswise” means: He sits folding (the legs) crosswise.

Holding the body erect” means: The body is erect, stable and well set-up.

Setting up mindfulness in front” means: Therein what is mindfulness? That which is mindfulness, constant mindfulness, recollection, See section 220. right mindfulness. This is called mindfulness. This mindfulness is set-up, well set-up at the tip of the nose or at the centre of the upper lip. Therefore this is called “setting up mindfulness in front”.

Abandoning covetousness in the world” means: Therein what is covetousness? That which is lusting, infatuation, See section 249. infatuation of consciousness. This is called covetousness.

Therein what is the world? The five aggregates (as objects of) the graspings are the world. This is called the world. This covetousness in this world is calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “abandoning covetousness in the world”.

With consciousness freed from covetousness” means: Therein what is consciousness? That which is consciousness, mind, ideation, See section 184. and, depending on the aforesaid, mind-consciousness-element. This is called consciousness. This consciousness is freed from covetousness. Therefore this is called “with consciousness freed from covetousness”.

Dwells” means: Assumes the four postures, exists, protects, keeps going, maintains, turns about, dwells. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Cleanses his consciousness of covetousness” means: Therein what is covetousness? That which is lusting, infatuation, See section 249. infatuation of consciousness. This is called covetousness.

Therein what is consciousness? That which is consciousness, mind, ideation, See section 184. and, depending on the aforesaid, mind-consciousness-element. This is called consciousness. This consciousness he clears, purifies, cleanses, delivers, releases, sets free from this covetousness. Therefore this is called “cleanses his consciousness of covetousness”.

Abandoning ill-will and antipathy” means: There is ill-will; there is antipathy.

Therein what is ill-will? That which is vexation of consciousness resentment, repulsion, hostility, irritation, exasperation, incense-ment, hatred, antipathy, abhorrence, mental disorder, detestation, anger, being angry, state of being angry, hatred, being hateful, state of being hateful, disorder, being disorderly, state of being disorderly, antagonism, hostility, ferocity, abruptness, absence of delight of consciousness. This is called ill-will.

Therein what is antipathy? That which is ill-will is antipathy; that which is antipathy is ill-will; thus this ill-will and this antipathy are calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “abandoning ill-will and antipathy”.

Having consciousness without ill-will” means: Therein what is consciousness? That which is consciousness, mind, ideation, See section 184. and, depending on the aforesaid, mind-consciousness-element. This is called consciousness. This consciousness is without ill-will. Therefore this is called “having consciousness without ill-will”.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Cleanses his consciousness of ill-will and antipathy” means: There is ill-will; there is antipathy.

Therein what is ill-will? That which is vexation of consciousness, See section 542. ferocity, abruptness, absence of delight of consciousness. This is called ill-will.

Therein what is antipathy? That which is ill-will is antipathy; that which is antipathy is ill-will.

Therein what is consciousness? That which is consciousness, mind, ideation, See section 184. and, depending on the aforesaid, mind-consciousness-element. This is called consciousness. This consciousness he clears, purifies, cleanses, delivers, releases, sets free from this ill-will and antipathy. Therefore this is called “cleanses his consciousness of ill-will and antipathy”.

Abandoning sloth and torpor” means: There is sloth; there is torpor.

Therein what is sloth? That which is indisposition of consciousness, unwieldiness, drooping, sagging, sluggishness, being sluggish, state of being sluggish, sloth, being slothful, state of consciousness being slothful. This is called sloth.

Therein what is torpor? That which is indisposition of the body (of mental aggregates), unwieldiness, shrouding, enveloping, barricading within, torpor, sleeping, drowsiness, sleeping, being asleep, state of being asleep. This is called torpor. Thus this sloth and this torpor are calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “abandoning sloth and torpor”.

Freed from sloth and torpor” means: Having given up, having discarded, having freed, having abandoned, having rejected, having both abandoned and rejected that sloth and torpor. Therefore this is called “freed from sloth and torpor”.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Having bright perception” means: Therein what is perception? That which is perception, perceiving, state of perceiving. This is called perception. This perception is bright, unobstructed, very pure, very clear. Therefore this is called “having bright perception”.

Mindful and aware” means: Therein what is mindfulness? That which is mindfulness, constant mindfulness, See section 220. right mindfulness. This is called mindfulness.

Therein what is awareness? That which is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called awareness. Thus of this mindfulness and this awareness he is possessed, See section 357. furnished. Therefore this is called “mindful and aware”.

He cleanses his consciousness of sloth and torpor” means: There is sloth; there is torpor.

Therein what is sloth? See section 546. This is called sloth.

Therein what is torpor? See section 546. This is called torpor.

Therein what is consciousness? See section 184. This is called consciousness. This consciousness he clears, purifies, cleanses, delivers, releases, sets free from this sloth and torpor. Therefore this is called “he cleanses his consciousness of sloth and torpor”.

Abandoning distraction and remorse” means: There is distraction; there is remorse.

Therein what is distraction? That which is distraction of consciousness, disquietude, mental wavering, turmoil of consciousness. This is called distraction.

Therein what is remorse? Perceiving what is proper in what is not proper, perceiving what is not proper in what is proper, perceiving what is fault in what is not fault, perceiving what is not fault in what is fault; that which is similar, remorse, being remorseful, state of being remorseful, mental contrition, mental scarifying. This is called remorse. Thus this distraction and this remorse are calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “abandoning distraction and remorse”.

Without distraction” means: Having given up, having discarded, having freed, having abandoned, having rejected, having both abandoned and rejected that distraction and remorse. Therefore this is called “without distraction”.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Internally” means: That which is personal, self-referable.

Quiet consciousness” means: Therein what is consciousness? That which is consciousness, mind, ideation, See section 184. and, depending on the aforesaid, mind-consciousness-element. This is called consciousness. This consciousness is calmed, tranquillized, quietened internally. Therefore this is called “internally quiet consciousness”.

He cleanses his consciousness of distraction and remorse” means: There is distraction; there is remorse.

Therein what is distraction? That which is distraction of consciousness, disquietude, mental wavering, turmoil of consciousness. This is called distraction.

Therein what is remorse? See section 552. This is called remorse.

Therein what is consciousness? See section 184. This is called consciousness. This consciousness he clears, purifies, cleanses, delivers, releases, sets free from this distraction and remorse. Therefore this is called “he cleanses his consciousness of distraction and remorse”.

Abandoning doubt” means: Therein what is doubt? That which is puzzlement, being puzzled, state of being puzzled, perplexity, doubt, oscillation, dual path, fluctuation, uncertainty of grip, evasion, hesitation, not plunging in, rigidity of consciousness, mental scarifying. This is called doubt. This doubt is calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “abandoning doubt”.

Doubt overcome” means: This doubt is overcome, crossed over, got out of, (he is) gone to the other shore, arrived at the other shore. Therefore this is called “doubt overcome”.

Without uncertainty as to skilful dhammas” means: Concerning this doubt as to skilful dhammas he is not puzzled, does not doubt, is without uncertainty, removed from uncertainty, free from uncertainty. Therefore this is called “without uncertainty as to skilful dhammas”.

He cleanses his consciousness of doubt” means: Therein what is doubt? That which is puzzlement, being puzzled, state of being puzzled, rigidity of consciousness, mental scarifying. This is called doubt.

Therein what is consciousness? That which is consciousness, mind, ideation, See section 184. and, depending on the aforesaid, mind-consciousness-element. This is called consciousness. This consciousness he clears, purifies, cleanses, delivers, releases, sets free from this doubt. Therefore this is called “he cleanses his consciousness of doubt”.

Abandoning these five hindrances” means: These five hindrances are calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “abandoning these five hindrances”.

Mental corruptions” means: These five hindrances are corruptions of consciousness.

Attenuation of wisdom” means: Because of these five hindrances wisdom that has not arisen does not arise, also wisdom that has arisen ceases. Therefore this is called “attenuation of wisdom”.

Aloof from sense pleasures, aloof from unskilful dhammas” means: Therein what are sense pleasures? Wish is sense pleasure, lust is sense pleasure, lustful wish is sense pleasure, thought is sense pleasure, lust is sense pleasure, lustful thought is sense pleasure. These are called sense pleasures.

Therein what are unskilful dhammas? Wish for sense pleasure, ill-will, sloth, torpor, distraction, remorse, doubt. These are called unskilful dhammas. Thus from these sense pleasures and from these unskilful dhammas he is aloof. Therefore this is called “aloof from sense pleasures, aloof from unskilful dhammas”.

Accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application” means: There is initial application; there is sustained application.

Therein what is initial application? That which is mentation, thinking, thought, fixation, focussing, application of the mind, right thought. This is called initial application.

Therein what is sustained application? That which is searching, examining, constant examining, scrutinizing, constant connection of (and) constant inspection by consciousness. This is called sustained application. Thus of this initial application and of this sustained application he is possessed, See section 357. furnished. Therefore this is called “accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application”.

Born of detachment” means: Initial application, sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness; they in this detachment are born, begotten, existent, fully existent, apparent. Therefore this is called “born of detachment”.

Rapture and pleasure” means: There is rapture; there is pleasure.

Therein what is rapture? That which is rapture, gladness, rejoicing, rapture, mirth, merriment, felicity, elation, delight of consciousness. This is called rapture.

Therein what is pleasure? That which is mental ease, mental pleasure, easeful pleasant experience born of mental contact, easeful pleasant feeling born of mental contact. This is called pleasure. This pleasure is accompanied by, co-nascent with, conjoined with, associated with this rapture. Therefore this is called “rapture and pleasure”.

First” means: First in serial order; this is first because it is attained first.

Jhāna” means: Initial application, sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness.

Attains” means: That which is the gaining, gaining repeatedly, acquiring, acquiring well, contacting, realization, achievement of the first jhāna.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Inhibiting initial application and sustained application” means: There is initial application; there is sustained application.

Therein what is initial application? That which is mentation, thinking, See section 565. right thought. This is called initial application.

Therein what is sustained application? That which is searching, examining, constant examining, scrutinizing, constant connection of (and) constant inspection by consciousness. This is called sustained application. Thus this initial application and this sustained application are calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “inhibiting initial application and sustained application”.

Internal” means: That which is personal, self-referable.

Refinement” means: That which is confidence, being confident, trust, implicit faith.

Exalted development of mind” means: That which is stability of consciousness, See section 220. right samādhi.

Without initial application, without sustained application” means: There is initial application; there is sustained application.

Therein what is initial application? That which is mentation, thinking, See section 565. right thought. This is called initial application.

Therein what is sustained application? That which is searching, constant searching, examining, constant examining, scrutinizing, constant connection of (and) constant inspection by consciousness. This is called sustained application. Thus this initial application and this sustained application are calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “without initial application, without sustained application”.

Born of samādhi” means: Refinement, rapture and pleasure; they in this samādhi are born, begotten, existent, fully existent, apparent. Therefore this is called “born of samādhi”.

Rapture and pleasure” means: There is rapture; there is pleasure.

Therein what is rapture? See section 567. This is called rapture.

Therein what is pleasure? See section 567. This is called pleasure. This pleasure is accompanied by, co-nascent with, conjoined with, associated with this rapture. Therefore this is called “rapture and pleasure”.

Second” means: Second in serial order; this is second because it is attained second.

Jhāna” means: Refinement, rapture and pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness.

Attains” means: That which is the gaining, gaining repeatedly, acquiring, acquiring well, contacting, realization, achievement of the second jhāna.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Desireless of rapture” means: Therein what is rapture? That which is rapture, gladness, rejoicing, rapture, mirth, merriment, felicity, elation, delight of consciousness. This is called rapture. This rapture is calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “desireless of rapture”.

Equable” means: Therein what is equanimity? That which is equanimity, having equanimity, supreme equanimity, state of balance of consciousness. This is called equanimity. Of this equanimity he is possessed, See section 357. furnished. Therefore this is called “equable”.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Mindful and aware” means: Therein what is mindfulness? That which is mindfulness, constant mindfulness, See section 220. right mindfulness. This is called mindfulness.

Therein what is awareness? That which is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called awareness. Thus of this mindfulness and of this awareness he is possessed, See section 357. furnished. Therefore this is called “mindful and aware”.

Experiences pleasure by way of the body (of mental aggregates)” means: Therein what is pleasure? That which is mental ease, mental pleasure, easeful pleasant experience born of mental contact, easeful pleasant feeling born of mental contact. This is called pleasure.

Therein what is the body (of mental aggregates)? The aggregate of perception, aggregate of volitional activities, aggregate of consciousness. This is called the body (of mental aggregates). This pleasure he experiences by way of this body (of mental aggregates). Therefore this is called “experiences pleasure by way of the body (of mental aggregates)”.

This the Noble Ones declare” means: Therein what are Noble Ones? Buddhas and disciples of the Buddhas are called Noble Ones; this they declare, preach, define, establish, reveal, analyse, make clear, explain. Therefore this is called “this the Noble Ones declare”.

The equable, mindful dweller in pleasure” means: Therein what is equanimity? That which is equanimity, having equanimity, supreme equanimity, state of balance of consciousness. This is called equanimity.

Therein what is mindfulness? That which is mindfulness, constant mindfulness, See section 220. right mindfulness. This is called mindfulness.

Therein what is pleasure? That which is mental ease, mental pleasure, easeful pleasant experience born of mental contact, easeful pleasant feeling born of mental contact. This is called pleasure. Thus furnished with this equanimity and with this mindfulness and with this pleasure he assumes the four postures, exists, protects, keeps going, maintains, turns about, dwells. Therefore this is called “the equable, mindful dweller in pleasure”.

Third” means: Third in serial order; this is third because it is attained third.

Jhāna” means: Equanimity, mindfulness, awareness, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness.

Attains” means: That which is the gaining, gaining repeatedly, acquiring, acquiring well, contacting, realization, achievement of the third jhāna.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

By the abandoning of pleasure and by the abandoning of pain” means: There is pleasure; there is pain.

Therein what is pleasure? That which is bodily ease, bodily pleasure, easeful pleasant experience born of bodily contact, easeful pleasant feeling born of bodily contact. This is called pleasure.

Therein what is pain? That which is bodily uneasiness, bodily pain, uneasy painful experience born of bodily contact, uneasy painful feeling born of bodily contact. This is called pain. Thus this pleasure and this pain are calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “by the abandoning of pleasure and by the abandoning of pain”.

First terminating mental pleasure and mental pain” means: There is mental pleasure; there is mental pain.

Therein what is mental pleasure? That which is mental ease, mental pleasure, easeful pleasant experience born of mental contact, easeful pleasant feeling born of mental contact. This is called mental pleasure.

Therein what is mental pain? That which is mental uneasiness, mental pain, uneasy painful experience born of mental contact, uneasy painful feeling born of mental contact. This is called mental pain. Thus this mental pleasure and this mental pain are first calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “first terminating mental pleasure and mental pain”.

Neither-pain-nor-pleasure” means: That which is neither mental ease nor uneasiness, neither-painful-nor-pleasant experience born of mental contact, neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling born of mental contact. Therefore this is called “neither-pain-nor-pleasure”.

Purity of mindfulness caused by equanimity” means: Therein what is equanimity? That which is equanimity, having equanimity, supreme equanimity, state of balance of consciousness. This is called equanimity.

Therein what is mindfulness? That which is mindfulness, constant mindfulness, See section 220. right mindfulness. This is called mindfulness. This mindfulness, because of this equanimity, is unobstructed, very pure, very clear. Therefore this is called “purity of mindfulness caused by equanimity”.

Fourth” means: Fourth in serial order; this is fourth because it is attained fourth.

Jhāna” means: Equanimity, mindfulness, one-pointedness of consciousness.

Attains” means: That which is the gaining, gaining repeatedly, acquiring, acquiring well, contacting, realization, achievement of the fourth jhāna.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Having wholly passed the perceptions of form” means: Therein what are perceptions of form? The perception, perceiving, state of perceiving of one who has attained to, who is possessed of, who in this world dwells in the pleasure of the attainment of the state characteristic of the plane of form. These are called perceptions of form. These perceptions of form he has passed over, gone beyond, passed. Therefore this is called “having wholly passed the perceptions of form”.

Terminating perceptions of (sense) impingement” means: Therein what are perceptions of (sense) impingement? Visible (object) perception, audible (object) perception, Intermediate sense perceptions. tangible (object) perception. These are called perceptions of (sense) impingement. These perceptions of (sense) impingement are calmed, tranquillized, inhibited, terminated, vanished, destroyed, well destroyed, withered, well withered, abrogated. Therefore this is called “terminating perceptions of (sense) impingement”.

Not attending to diversity of perceptions” means: Therein what are diversity of perceptions? The perception, perceiving, state of perceiving of one who has not attained (to jhāna) but who is possessed of mind element and possessed of mind-consciousness-element. These are called diversity of perceptions. To this diversity of perceptions he does not attend. Therefore this is called “not attending to diversity of perceptions”.

Infinite is space” means: Therein what is space? That which is space, spatial, void, voidness, interstice, interstitial, not in contact with the four great essentials. This is called space. In this space he sets up, establishes and expands consciousness infinitely. Therefore this is called “infinite is space”.

The state of infinity of space” means: The consciousness and mental concomitant dhammas of one who has attained to, who is possessed of, who in this world dwells in the pleasure of the state of infinity of space.

Attains” means: That which is the gaining, gaining repeatedly, acquiring, acquiring well, contacting, realization, achievement of the state of infinity of space.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Having wholly passed the state of infinity of space” means: This state of infinity of space he has passed over, gone beyond, passed. Therefore this is called “having wholly passed the state of infinity of space”.

Infinite is consciousness” means: He pays attention to and expands infinitely the consciousness which touched that same space. Therefore this is called “infinite is consciousness”.

State of infinity of consciousness” means: The consciousness and mental concomitant dhammas of one who has attained to, who is possessed of, who in this world dwells in the pleasure of the state of infinity of consciousness.

Attains” means: That which is the gaining, gaining repeatedly, acquiring, acquiring well, contacting, realization, achievement of the state of infinity of consciousness.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Having wholly passed the state of infinity of consciousness” means: This state of infinity of consciousness he has passed over, gone beyond, passed. Therefore this is called “having wholly passed the state of infinity of consciousness”.

There is nothing whatever” means: That same consciousness he develops (i.e. refines), causes to cease, causes to disappear, (finally) he sees “there is nothing whatever”. Therefore this is called “there is nothing whatever”.

The state of nothingness” means: The consciousness and mental concomitant dhammas of one who has attained to, who is possessed of, who in this world dwells in the pleasure of the state of nothingness.

Attains” means: That which is the gaining, gaining repeatedly, acquiring, acquiring well, contacting, realization, achievement of the state of nothingness.

Dwells” means: See section 540. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

Having wholly passed the state of nothingness” means: This state of nothingness he has passed over, gone beyond, passed. Therefore this is called “having wholly passed the state of nothingness”.

Having neither perception nor non-perception means: That same state of nothingness he attends to as peace, he develops (refines) the attainment of residual mental dhammas. Therefore this is called having neither perception nor non-perception.

The state of neither perception nor non-perception” means: The consciousness and mental concomitant dhammas of one who has attained to, who is possessed of, who in this world dwells in the pleasure of the state of neither perception nor non-perception.

Attains” means: That which is the gaining, gaining repeatedly, acquiring, acquiring well, contacting, realization, achievement of the state of neither perception nor non-perception.

Dwells” means: Assumes the four postures, exists, protects, keeps going, maintains, turns about, dwells. Therefore this is called “dwells”.

(Here Ends) Analysis According To The Discourses

12.2. Analysis According To Abhidhamma

12.2.1. Skilful Dhammas Characteristic Of The Plane Of Form

The four jhānas are: First jhāna, second jhāna, third jhāna, fourth jhāna.

Therein what is first jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality first jhāna; at that time there is five constituent jhāna (viz.) initial application, sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called first jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna. (1)

Therein what is second jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality second jhāna; at that time there is three constituent jhāna (viz.) rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called second jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna. (2)

Therein what is third jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, desireless of rapture, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality third jhāna; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called third jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna. (3)

Therein what is fourth jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, by the abandoning of pleasure, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality fourth jhāna; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fourth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna. (4)

(Here Ends The Jhānic) Tetrad

Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality first jhāna; at that time there is five constituent jhāna (viz.) initial application, sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called first jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna. (1)

Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, aloof from sense pleasures, aloof from unskilful dhammas, attains and dwells in earth-totality second jhāna without initial application, sustained application only, with rapture and pleasure born of detachment; at that time there is four constituent jhāna (viz.) sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called second jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna. (2)

Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality third jhāna; at that time there is three constituent jhāna (viz.) rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called third jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna. (3)

Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, desireless of rapture, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality fourth jhāna; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fourth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna. (4)

Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, by the abandoning of pleasure, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality fifth jhāna; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fifth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna. (5)

(Here Ends The Jhānic) Pentad

12.2.2. Skilful Dhammas Characteristic Of The Formless Plane

Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the formless plane, he, having wholly passed the state of nothingness, by the abandoning of pleasure, See section 205. attains and dwells in the fourth jhāna accompanied by perception of the state that is neither perception nor non-perception; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fourth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

12.2.3. Supramundane Skilful Dhammas

The four jhānas are: First jhāna, second jhāna, third jhāna, fourth jhāna.

Therein what is first jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in the first jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is five constituent jhāna (viz.) initial application, sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called first jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Therein what is second jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. attains and dwells in the second jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is three constituent jhāna (viz.) rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called second jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Therein what is third jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, desireless of rapture, See section 205. attains and dwells in the third jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called third jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Therein what is fourth jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, by the abandoning of pleasure, See section 205. attains and dwells in the fourth jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fourth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

(Here Ends The Jhānic) Tetrad

Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in the first jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is five constituent jhāna (viz.) initial application, sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called first jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, aloof from sense pleasure, aloof from unskilful dhammas, attains and dwells in the second jhāna without initial application, sustained application only, with rapture and pleasure born of detachment, that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is four constituent jhāna (viz.) sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called second jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. attains and dwells in the third jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is three constituent jhāna (viz.) rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called third jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, desireless of rapture, See section 205. attains and dwells in the fourth jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fourth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, by the abandoning of pleasure, See section 205. attains and dwells in the fifth jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fifth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

(Here Ends The Jhānic) Pentad

12.3.4. Resultants Characteristic Of The Plane Of Form

The four jhānas are: First jhāna, second jhāna, third jhāna, fourth jhāna.

Therein what is first jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality first jhāna; at that time there is contact, See Dhammasaṅgaṇī section 1. there is non-wavering. These dhammas are skilful. Having done, having accumulated that same skilful action characteristic of the plane of form, he, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in resultant earth-totality first jhāna; at that time there is five constituent jhāna (viz.) initial application, sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called first jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Therein what is second jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the plane of form, he, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality second jhāna; at that time there is contact, See Dhammasaṅgaṇī section 1. there is non-wavering. These dhammas are skilful. Having done, having accumulated that same skilful action characteristic of the plane of form, he, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. resultant second jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section 631, but with appropriate modifications. Third jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section 631, but with appropriate modifications. Fourth jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section 631, but with appropriate modifications. First jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section 631, but with appropriate modifications. attains and dwells in earth-totality fifth jhāna; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fifth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

12.2.5. Resultants Characteristic Of The Formless Plane

Herein at the time when a monk develops the path for rebirth in the formless plane, he, having wholly passed the state of nothingness, by the abandoning of pleasure, See section 205. attains and dwells in the fourth jhāna accompanied by perception of the state that is neither perception nor non-perception; at that time there is contact, See Dhammasaṅgaṇī section 1. there is non-wavering. These dhammas are skilful. Having done, having accumulated that same skilful action characteristic of the formless plane, he, having wholly passed the state of nothingness, by the abandoning of pleasure, See section 205. attains and dwells in resultant fourth jhāna accompanied by perception of the state that is neither perception nor non-perception; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fourth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

12.2.6. Supramundane Resultants

The four jhānas are: First jhāna, second jhāna, third jhāna, fourth jhāna.

Therein what is first jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in the first jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is contact, See Dhammasaṅgaṇī section 277. there is non-wavering. These dhammas are skilful. Having done, having developed that same skilful supramundane jhāna, he, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in resultant first jhāna that is hard practice, knowledge slowly acquired and is empty; at that time there is five constituent jhāna (viz.) initial application, sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called first jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Therein what is second jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops supramundane jhāna tending to release, dispersive of continuing rebirth and death; he, for the abandoning of wrong view, for the entering of the first stage, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. attains and dwells in the second jhāna that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; at that time there is contact, See Dhammasaṅgaṇī section 277. there is non-wavering. These dhammas are skilful. Having done, having developed that same skilful supramundane jhāna, he, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. resultant second jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section. but with appropriate modifications. Third jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section. but with appropriate modifications. Fourth jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section. but with appropriate modifications. First jhāna, Complete in general form of first jhāna, section. but with appropriate modifications. attains and dwells in the fifth jhāna that is hard practice, knowledge slowly acquired and is empty; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fifth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

12.2.7. Inoperative Dhammas Characteristic Of The Plane Of Form And The Formless Plane

The four jhānas are: First jhāna, second jhāna, third jhāna, fourth jhāna.

Therein what is first jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops jhāna characteristic of the plane of form, that is inoperative, is neither skilful nor unskilful nor the resultant of action, (is the cause of) pleasant living in the present existence, he, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in earth-totality first jhāna; at that time there is five constituent jhāna (viz.) initial application, sustained application, rapture, pleasure, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called first jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Therein what is second jhāna? Herein at the time when a monk develops jhāna characteristic of the plane of form, that is inoperative, is neither skilful nor unskilful nor the resultant of action, (is the cause of) pleasant living in the present existence, he, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. second jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section 636, but with appropriate modifications. Third jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section 636, but with appropriate modifications. Fourth jhāna. Complete in general form of first jhāna, section 636, but with appropriate modifications. First jhāna, Complete in general form of first jhāna, section 636, but with appropriate modifications. attains and dwells in earth-totality fifth jhāna; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fifth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

Herein at the time when a monk develops jhāna characteristic of the formless plane, that is inoperative, is neither skilful nor unskilful nor the resultant of action, (is the cause of) pleasant living in the present existence, he, having wholly passed the state of nothingness, by the abandoning of pleasure, See section 205. attains and dwells in the fourth jhāna that is accompanied by perception of the state that is neither perception nor non-perception; at that time there is two constituent jhāna (viz.) equanimity, one-pointedness of consciousness. This is called fourth jhāna. (As also are) The remaining dhammas associated with the jhāna.

(Here Ends) Analysis According To Abhidhamma

12.3. Interrogation

The four jhānas: Herein a monk aloof from sense pleasures, aloof from unskilful dhammas, attains and dwells in the first jhāna accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application, with rapture and pleasure born of detachment. Inhibiting initial application and sustained application, he attains and dwells in the second jhāna with internal refinement, exalted development of mind, without initial application, without sustained application, with rapture and pleasure born of samādhi. Desireless of rapture he dwells equable, mindful, aware, and he experiences pleasure by way of mental dhammas; this the Noble Ones declare, “The equable mindful dweller in pleasure”; he attains and dwells in the third jhāna. By the abandoning of pleasure and by the abandoning of pain, then first terminating mental pleasure and mental pain he attains and dwells in the fourth jhāna (which is) neither-pain-nor-pleasure (but is) purity of mindfulness caused by equanimity.

Of the four jhānas how many are skilful; how many unskilful; how many neither-skilful-nor-unskilful. Remaining appropriate triplets and couplets. How many with cause of bewailing; how many without cause of bewailing?

12.3.1. The Triplets

(The four jhānas) Sometimes are skilful; sometimes are neither-skilful-nor-unskilful. Three jhānas are associated with pleasant feeling, except for the pleasant feeling (itself) arisen therein. The fourth jhāna is associated with neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, except for the neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling (itself) arisen therein. Four jhānas sometimes are resultants; sometimes are productive of resultants; sometimes are neither resultants nor productive of resultants. Sometimes are grasped (by craving and false view), are objects of the graspings; sometimes are not grasped, are objects of the graspings; sometimes are not grasped, are not objects of the graspings. Sometimes are not corrupt, are objects of the corruptions; sometimes are not corrupt, are not objects of the corruptions. The first jhāna is accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application except for the initial application and sustained application (themselves) arisen therein. Three jhānas are without initial application, without sustained application. Two jhānas are accompanied by rapture except for the rapture (itself) arisen therein. Three jhānas are accompanied by pleasure except for the pleasure (itself) arisen therein. The fourth jhāna is accompanied by equanimity except for the equanimity (itself) arisen therein. (Four jhānas) Are not to be abandoned either by the first path or by the subsequent paths. Have no roots to be abandoned either by the first path or by the subsequent paths. Sometimes are cumulative (of continuing rebirth and death); sometimes are dispersive; sometimes are neither cumulative nor dispersive. Sometimes are of the seven supramundane stages; sometimes are of the final supramundane stage; sometimes are neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage. Sometimes are sublime; sometimes are immeasurable. Three jhānas should not be said to have, low objects or sublime objects; sometimes have immeasurable object; sometimes should not be said to have, immeasurable object. The fourth jhāna sometimes has low object; sometimes has sublime object; sometimes has immeasurable object; sometimes should not be said to have either, low object; sublime object or immeasurable object. (Four jhānas) Sometimes are intermediate; sometimes are superior. Sometimes are right (dhammas with) fixed (resultant time); sometimes are of no fixed (resultant time). Three jhānas do not have path as their object; sometimes have path as their cause; sometimes have path as their dominating factor; sometimes should not be said to have, path as their cause or path as their dominating factor. The fourth jhāna sometimes has path as its object; sometimes has path as its cause; sometimes has path as its dominating factor; sometimes should not be said to have either, path as its object; path as its cause or path as its dominating factor. (Four jhānas) Sometimes are risen; sometimes are not risen; sometimes are bound to arise. Sometimes are past; sometimes are future; sometimes are present. Three jhānas should not be said to have either, past objects; future objects or present objects. The fourth jhāna sometimes has past object; sometimes has future object; sometimes has present object; sometimes should not be said to have either, past object; future object or present object. (Four jhānas) Sometimes are internal; sometimes are external; sometimes are both internal and external. Three jhānas have external objects. The fourth jhāna sometimes has internal object; sometimes has external object; sometimes has both internal and external object; sometimes should not be said to have either, internal object; external object or both internal and external object. (Four jhānas) Are not visible, are not impingent.

12.3.2. The Couplets

(Four jhānas) Are not roots. Are accompanied by roots. Are associated with roots. Should not be said to be, roots also accompanied by roots; (they) are accompanied by roots but are not roots. Should not be said to be, roots also associated with roots; (they) are associated with roots but are not roots. Are not roots, are accompanied by roots.

(Four jhānas) Are with cause. Are conditioned. Are not visible. Are not impingent. Are not material. Sometimes are mundane; sometimes are supramundane. Are cognizable by one way; are not cognizable by another way.

(Four jhānas) Are not defilements. Sometimes are objects of the defilements; sometimes are not objects of the defilements. Are not associated with the defilements. Should not be said to be, defilements also objects of the defilements; (they) sometimes are objects of the defilements but are not defilements; sometimes should not be said to be, objects of the defilements but are not defilements. Should not be said to be, defilements also associated with the defilements or associated with the defilements but are not defilements. Sometimes are not associated with the defilements, are objects of the defilements; sometimes are not associated with the defilements, are not objects of the defilements.

(Four jhānas) Are not fetters. Complete as for defilements in previous section. Are not ties. Complete as for defilements in previous section. Are not floods. Complete as for defilements in previous section. Are not bonds. Complete as for defilements in previous section. Are not hindrances. Complete as for defilements in previous section. Are not perversions. Complete as for defilements in previous section. Have objects. Are not consciousness. Are volitional activities. Are associated with consciousness. Are conjoined with consciousness. Are generated by consciousness. Are co-existent with consciousness. Accompany consciousness. Are conjoined with, generated by consciousness. Are conjoined with, generated by, co-existent with consciousness. Are conjoined with, generated by, accompany consciousness. Are external. Are not derived. Sometimes are grasped; sometimes are not grasped.

(Four jhānas) Are not graspings. Complete as for defilements in earlier section. Are not corruptions. Complete as for defilements in earlier section. Are not to be abandoned by the first path. Are not to be abandoned by the subsequent paths. Have no roots to be abandoned by the first path. Have no roots to be abandoned by the subsequent paths. The first jhāna is accompanied by initial application except for the initial application (itself) arisen therein. Three jhānas are without initial application. The first jhāna is accompanied by sustained application except for the sustained application (itself) arisen therein. Three jhānas are without sustained application. Two jhānas are with rapture except for the rapture (itself) arisen therein. Two jhānas are without rapture. Two jhānas are accompanied by rapture except for the rapture (itself) arisen therein. Two jhānas are not accompanied by rapture. Three jhānas are accompanied by pleasure except for the pleasure (itself) arisen therein. The fourth jhāna is not accompanied by pleasure. The fourth jhāna is accompanied by equanimity except for the equanimity (itself) arisen therein. Three jhānas are not accompanied by equanimity. (Four jhānas) are not characteristic of the plane of desire. Sometimes are characteristic of the plane of form; sometimes are not characteristic of the plane of form. Three jhānas are not characteristic of the formless plane. The fourth jhāna sometimes is characteristic of the formless plane; sometimes is not characteristic of the formless plane. (Four jhānas) Sometimes are included (i.e. are mundane); sometimes are not included (i.e. are supramundane). Sometimes tend to release; sometimes do not tend to release. Sometimes are of fixed (resultant time); sometimes are of no fixed (resultant time). Sometimes are surpassable; sometimes are not surpassable. Are without cause of bewailing.

(Here Ends) Interrogation

Analysis Of jhāna Is Ended