The Book of Analysis

16. Analysis Of Knowledge

16.1. Singlefold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of singlefold division: The five types of sense consciousness are not roots; are not accompanied by roots; are not associated with roots; are with cause; are conditioned; are not material; are mundane; are objects of the defilements; are objects of the fetters; are objects of the ties; are objects of the floods; are objects of the bonds; are objects of the hindrances; are objects of the perversions; are objects of the graspings; are objects of the corruptions; are neither-skilful-nor-unskilful; have objects; are not volitional activities; are resultants; are grasped (by craving and false view), are objects of the graspings; are not corrupt, are objects of the corruptions; are not “accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application”; are not “without initial application, sustained application only”; are without initial application, without sustained application; are not accompanied by rapture; are not to be abandoned either by the first path or by the subsequent paths; have no roots to be abandoned either by the first path or by the subsequent paths; are neither cumulative nor dispersive (of continuing rebirth and death); are neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage; are low; are characteristic of the plane of desire; are not characteristic of the plane of form; are not characteristic of the formless plane; are included (i.e. are mundane); are not “not included” (i.e. not supramundane); are of no fixed (resultant time); do not tend to release.

(The five types of sense consciousness) Have arisen sense-bases; have arisen objects; have pre-existing sense-bases; have pre-existing objects; have internal sense-bases; have external objects; have non-disintegrated sense-bases; have non-disintegrated objects; have different sense-bases; have different objects; do not experience each other’s object; do not arise without advertence; do not arise without attention; do not arise consecutively, do not arise simultaneously; do not arise immediately following each other.

The five types of sense consciousness are not cognitive; by the five types of sense consciousness one discriminates no state whatever other than mere falling in (i.e. entry of the object); even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one discriminates no state whatever; by the five types of sense consciousness one makes no posture whatever; even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one makes no posture whatever; by the five types of sense consciousness one establishes no bodily action, no verbal action; even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one establishes no bodily action, no verbal action; by the five types of sense consciousness one performs no skilful or unskilful state; even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one performs no skilful or unskilful state; by the five types of sense consciousness one does not attain, does not emerge (from samādhi); even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one does not attain, does not emerge; by the five types of sense consciousness one does not pass away, does not arise (i.e. is not re-born); even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one does not pass away, does not arise; by the five types of sense consciousness one does not sleep, does not wake, does not see dreams; even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one does not sleep, does not wake, does not see dreams; the explanation of the true nature of the basis (of knowledge) is wisdom. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of singlefold division.

16.2. Twofold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of twofold division: Wisdom that is mundane; wisdom that is supramundane. Wisdom cognizable by one way; wisdom not cognizable by another way. Wisdom that is the object of the defilements; wisdom that is not the object of the defilements. Wisdom that is not associated with the defilements, is the object of the defilements; wisdom that is not associated with the defilements, is not the object of the defilements. Wisdom that is the object of the fetters; wisdom that is not the object of the fetters. Wisdom that is not associated with the fetters, is the object of the fetters; wisdom that is not associated with the fetters, is not the object of the fetters. Wisdom that is the object of the ties; wisdom that is not the object of the ties. Wisdom that is not associated with the ties, is the object of the ties; wisdom that is not associated with the ties, is not the object of the ties.

Wisdom that is the object of the floods; wisdom that is not the object of the floods. Wisdom that is not associated with the floods, is the object of the floods; wisdom that is not associated with the floods, is not the object of the floods. Wisdom that is the object of the bonds; wisdom that is not the object of the bonds. Wisdom that is not associated with the bonds, is the object of the bonds; wisdom that is not associated with the bonds, is not the object of the bonds. Wisdom that is the object of the hindrances; wisdom that is not the object of the hindrances. Wisdom that is not associated with the hindrances, is the object of the hindrances; wisdom that is not associated with the hindrances, is not the object of the hindrances. Wisdom that is the object of the perversions; wisdom that is not the object of the perversions. Wisdom that is not associated with the perversions, is the object of the perversions; wisdom that is not associated with the perversions, is not the object of the perversions. Wisdom that is grasped; wisdom that is not grasped. Wisdom that is the object of the graspings; wisdom that is not the object of the graspings. Wisdom that is not associated with the graspings, is the object of the graspings; wisdom that is not associated with the graspings, is not the object of the graspings.

Wisdom that is the object of the corruptions; wisdom that is not the object of the corruptions. Wisdom that is not associated with the corruptions, is the object of the corruptions; wisdom that is not associated with the corruptions, is not the object of the corruptions. Wisdom that is accompanied by initial application; wisdom that is without initial application. Wisdom that is accompanied by sustained application; wisdom that is without sustained application. Wisdom that is with rapture; wisdom that is without rapture. Wisdom that is accompanied by rapture; wisdom that is not accom-panied by rapture. Wisdom that is accompanied by pleasure; wisdom that is not accompanied by pleasure. Wisdom that is accompanied by indifference; wisdom that is not accompanied by indifference. Wisdom that is characteristic of the plane of desire; wisdom that is not characteristic of the plane of desire. Wisdom that is characteristic of the plane of form; wisdom that is not characteristic of the plane of form. Wisdom that is characteristic of the formless plane; wisdom that is not characteristic of the formless plane. Wisdom that is included (i.e. is mundane); wisdom that is not included (i.e. is supramundane). Wisdom tending to release; wisdom not tending to release. Wisdom that is of fixed (resultant time); wisdom that is of no fixed (resultant time). Wisdom that is surpassable; wisdom that is not surpassable. Wisdom that is the cause of resultant; wisdom that is the resultant of cause. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of twofold division.

16.3. Threefold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of threefold division: Wisdom by means of thinking; wisdom by means of hearing; wisdom by means of development. Wisdom by means of giving; wisdom by means of morality; wisdom by means of development. Wisdom that is in higher morality; wisdom that is in higher consciousness; wisdom that is in higher wisdom. Proficiency (in knowing) gain; proficiency (in knowing) loss; proficiency of method. Wisdom that is resultant; wisdom that is productive of resultant; wisdom that is neither resultant nor productive of resultant. Wisdom that is grasped, is the object of the graspings; wisdom that is not grasped, is the object of the graspings; wisdom that is not grasped, is not the object of the graspings. Wisdom that is accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application; wisdom that is without initial application, sustained application only; wisdom that is without initial application, without sustained application.

Wisdom that is accompanied by rapture; wisdom that is accompanied by pleasure; wisdom that is accompanied by indifference. Wisdom that is cumulative; wisdom that is dispersive; wisdom that is neither cumulative nor dispersive. Wisdom that is of the seven supramundane stages; wisdom that is of the final supramundane stage; wisdom that is neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage. Wisdom that is low; wisdom that is sublime; wisdom that is immeasurable. Wisdom that has low object; wisdom that has sublime object; wisdom that has immeasurable object. Wisdom that has path as its object; wisdom that has path as its cause; wisdom that has path as its dominating factor. Wisdom that is risen; wisdom that is not risen; wisdom that is bound to arise. Wisdom that is past; wisdom that is future; wisdom that is present. Wisdom that has past object; wisdom that has future object; wisdom that has present object. Wisdom that is internal; wisdom that is external; wisdom that is both internal and external. Wisdom that has internal object; wisdom that has external object; wisdom that has both internal and external objects.

Wisdom accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application that is resultant; that is productive of resultant; that is neither resultant nor productive of resultant. That is grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is not the object of the graspings. That is accompanied by rapture; that is accompanied by pleasure; that is accompanied by indifference. That is cumulative; that is dispersive; that is neither cumulative nor dispersive. That is of the seven supramundane stages; that is of the final supramun-dane stage; that is neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage. That is low; that is sublime; that is immeasurable. That has low object; that has sublime object; that has immeasurable object. That has path as its object; that has path as its cause; that has path as its dominating factor. That is risen; that is not risen; that is bound to arise. That is past; that is future; that is present. That has past object; that has future object; that has present object. That is internal; that is external; that is both internal and external. That has internal object; that has external object; that has both internal and external object.

Wisdom without initial application, sustained application only that is resultant; that is productive of resultant; that is neither resultant nor productive of resultant. That is grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is not the object of the graspings. That is cumulative; that is dispersive; that is neither cumulative nor dispersive. That is of the seven supramundane stages; that is of the final supramundane stage; that is neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage. That is risen; that is not risen; that is bound to arise. That is past; that is future; that is present. That is internal; that is external; that is both internal and external.

Wisdom without initial application, without sustained application that is resultant; that is productive of resultant; that is neither resultant nor productive of resultant. That is grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is not the object of the graspings. That is accompanied by rapture; that is accompanied by pleasure; that is accompanied by indifference. That is cumulative; that is dispersive; that is neither cumulative nor dispersive. That is of the seven supramundane stages; that is of the final supramundane stage; that is neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage. That has low object; that has sublime object; that has immeasurable object. That has path as its object; that has path as its cause; that has path as its dominating factor. That is risen; that is not risen; that is bound to arise. That is past; that is future; that is present. That has past object; that has future object; that has present object. That is internal; that is external; that is both internal and external. That has internal object; that has external object; that has both internal and external object.

Wisdom accompanied by rapture, wisdom accompanied by pleasure that is resultant; that is productive of resultant; that is neither resultant nor productive of resultant. That is grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is not the object of the graspings. That is accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application; that is without initial application, sustained application only; that is without initial application, without sustained application. That is cumulative; that is dispersive; that is neither cumulative nor dispersive. That is of the seven supramundane stages; that is of the final supramundane stage; that is neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage. That is low; that is sublime; that is immeasurable. That has low object; that has sublime object; that has immeasurable object. That has path as its object; that has path as its cause; that has path as its dominating factor. That is risen; that is not risen; that is bound to arise. That is past; that is future; that is present. That has past object; that has future object; that has present object. That is internal; that is external; that is both internal and external. That has internal object; that has external object; that has both internal and external object.

Wisdom accompanied by indifference that is resultant; that is productive of resultant; that is neither resultant nor productive of resultant. That is grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is the object of the graspings; that is not grasped, is not the object of the graspings. That is cumulative; that is dispersive; that is neither cumulative nor dispersive. That is of the seven supramundane stages; that is of the final supramundane stage; that is neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage. That is low; that is sublime; that is immeasurable. That has low object; that has sublime object; that has immeasurable object. That has path as its object; that has path as its cause; that has path as its dominating factor. That is risen; that is not risen; that is bound to arise. That is past; that is future; that is present. That has past object; that has future object; that has present object. That is internal; that is external; that is both internal and external. That has internal object; that has external object; that has both internal and external object. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of threefold division.

16.4. Fourfold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of fourfold division: Knowledge that action is one’s own possession; knowledge in conformity with the truth; the knowledge of one having the path; the knowledge of one having the fruit. Knowledge of suffering; knowledge of the cause of suffering; knowledge of the cessation of suffering; knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of suffering. Wisdom characteristic of the plane of desire; wisdom characteristic of the plane of form; wisdom characteristic of the formless plane; wisdom not included (i.e. supramundane). Knowledge of (supramundane) dhammas; knowledge following (therefrom); penetrative knowledge; conventional knowledge. There is wisdom for cumulation, not for dispersion; there is wisdom for dispersion, not for cumulation; there is wisdom for cumulation also for dispersion; there is wisdom that is neither for cumulation nor for dispersion. There is wisdom for aversion, not for realization; there is wisdom for realization, not for aversion; there is wisdom for aversion also for realization; there is wisdom neither for aversion nor for realization. Wisdom partaking of deterioration; wisdom partaking of stationariness; wisdom partaking of distinction; wisdom partaking of penetration.

The four analytic insights. The four practices. Four objects. Knowledge of old age and death; knowledge of the cause of old age and death; knowledge of the cessation of old age and death; knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of old age and death. Knowledge of birth. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge of existence. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge of grasping. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge of craving. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge of feeling. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge of contact. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge of the six sense-bases. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge of name & form. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge of consciousness. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge of activities; knowledge of the cause of activities; knowledge of the cessation of activities; knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of activities. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of fourfold division.

16.5. Fivefold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of fivefold division: Right samādhi that has five constituents; right samādhi that has five knowledges. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of fivefold division.

16.6. Sixfold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of sixfold division: Wisdom in the six higher knowledges. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of sixfold division.

16.7. Sevenfold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of sevenfold division: Seventy-seven sense-bases of knowledge. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of sevenfold division.

16.8. Eightfold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of eightfold division: Wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of eightfold division.

16.9. Ninefold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of ninefold division: Wisdom in the nine successive dwellings in attainments. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of ninefold division.

16.10. Tenfold Summary

The basis of knowledge by way of tenfold division: The ten “Tathāgata powers” of the Tathāgata; furnished with which powers the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel (of the Teaching). What are the ten? Herein the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, cause as cause, absence of cause as absence of cause; this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. (1)

And again the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, by way of cause, by way of root, the resultant of past, future and present actions that are performed; that by which the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, by way of cause, by way of root, the resultant of past, future and present actions that are performed; this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. (2)

And again the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the way leading to all (destiny); that by which the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the way leading to all (destiny); this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. (3).

And again the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the world that has many elements, different elements; that by which the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the world that has many elements, different elements; this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. (4)

And again the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the different dispositions of beings; that by which the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the different dispositions of beings; this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. (5)

And again the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the improvement, the deterioration of the faculties of other beings, of other persons; that by which the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the improvement, the deterioration of the faculties of other beings, of other persons; this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies, sets rolling the supreme wheel. (6)

And again the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the corruption of, the purification of, the emergence from jhāna, release, samādhi and attainment; that by which the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the corruption of, the purification of, the emergence from jhāna, release, samādhi and attainment; this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. (7)

And again the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, remembrance of previous existence; that by which the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, remembrance of previous existence; this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. (8)

And again the Tathāgata comprehends, at it really is, the passing away and rebirth of beings; that by which the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the passing away and rebirth of beings; this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. (9)

And again the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the destruction of the defilements; that by which the Tathāgata comprehends, as it really is, the destruction of the defilements; this is a “Tathāgata power” of the Tathāgata. Because of which power the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. These are the ten “Tathāgata powers” of the Tathāgata. Furnished with which powers the Tathāgata claims the leading position; roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies; sets rolling the supreme wheel. (10)

Thus Is The Basis Of Knowledge By Way Of Tenfold Division (Here Ends) The Summary

16.10.1. Singlefold Exposition

The five types of sense consciousness always are not roots; always are not accompanied by roots; always are not associated with roots; always are with cause; always are conditioned; always are not material; always are mundane; always are objects of the defilements; always are objects of the fetters; always are objects of the ties; always are objects of the floods; always are objects of the bonds; always are objects of the hindrances; always are objects of the perversions; always are objects of the graspings; always are objects of the curruptions; always are neither-skilful-nor-unskilful; always have objects; always are not volitional activities; always are resultants; always are grasped, are objects of the graspings; always are not corrupt, are objects of the corruptions; always are not “accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application”; always are not “without initial application, sustained application only”; always are not “without initial application, without sustained application”; always are “not accompanied by rapture”; always are “not to be abandoned either by the first path or by the subsequent paths”; always are neither cumulative nor dispersive; always are neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage; always are low; always are characteristic of the plane of desire; always are not characteristic of the plane of form; always are not characteristic of the formless plane; always are included (i.e. are mundane); always are not “not included” (i.e. not supramundane); always are of no fixed (resultant time); always “do not tend to release”; always (their) arising is cognizable by mind consciousness; always are impermanent; always are subject to old age.

The five types of sense consciousness “have arisen sense-bases, have arisen objects” means: They (each) arise on an arisen sense-base, on an arisen object.

Have pre-existing sense-bases, have pre-existing objects” means: They (each) arise on a pre-existing sense-base, on a pre-existing object.

Have internal sense-bases, have external objects” means: The sense-bases of the five types of sense consciousness are internal, the objects are external.

Have non-disintegrated sense-bases, have non-disintegrated objects means; They (each) arise on a non-disintegrated sense-base, on a non-disintegrated object.

Have different sense-bases, have different objects” means; The sense-base and object of eye consciousness is (one thing); the sense-base and object of ear consciousness is another; the sense-base and object of nose consciousness is another; the sense-base and object of tongue consciousness is another; the sense-base and object of body consciousness is another.

Do not experience each other’s object” means; Ear consciousness does not experience the object of eye consciousness; eye consciousness does not experience the object of ear consciousness either. Nose consciousness does not experience the object of eye consciousness; eye consciousness does not experience the object of nose consciousness either. Tongue consciousness does not experience the object of eye consciousness; eye consciousness does not experience the object of tongue consciousness either. Body consciousness does not experience the object of eye consciousness; eye consciousness does not experience the object of body consciousness either. Of ear consciousness. Each should be dealt with in the same general form as the final example. Of nose consciousness. Each should be dealt with in the same general form as the final example. Of tongue consciousness. Each should be dealt with in the same general form as the final example. Eye consciousness does not experience the object of body consciousness; body consciousness does not experience the object of eye consciousness either. Ear consciousness does not experience the object of body consciousness; body consciousness does not experience the object of ear consciousness either. Nose consciousness does not experience the object of body consciousness; body consciousness does not experience the object of nose consciousness either. Tongue consciousness does not experience the object of body consciousness; body consciousness does not experience the object of tongue consciousness either.

Do not arise without advertence” means: They arise in one who has advertence.

Do not arise without attention” means: They arise in one who has attention.

Do not arise consecutively” means: They do not arise in succession.

Do not arise simultaneously” means: They do not arise at the same moment.

Do not arise immediately following each other” means: Immediately following the arising of eye consciousness, ear consciousness does not arise; immediately following the arising of ear consciousness, eye consciousness does not arise either. Immediately following the arising of eye consciousness, nose consciousness does not arise; immediately following the arising of nose consciousness, eye consciousness does not arise either. Immediately following the arising of eye consciousness, tongue consciousness does not arise; immediately following the arising of tongue consciousness, eye consciousness does not arise either. Immediately following the arising of eye consciousness, body consciousness does not arise; immediately following the arising of body consciousness, eye consciousness does not arise either. Of ear consciousness. Each should be dealt with in the same general form as the final example. Of nose consciousness. Each should be dealt with in the same general form as the final example. Of tongue consciousness. Each should be dealt with in the same general form as the final example. Immediately following the arising of body consciousness, eye consciousness does not arise; immediately following the arising of eye consciousness, body consciousness does not arise either. Immediately following the arising of body consciousness, ear consciousness does not arise; immediately following the arising of ear consciousness, body consciousness does not arise either. Immediately following the arising of body consciousness, nose consciousness does not arise; immediately following the arising of nose consciousness, body consciousness does not arise either. Immediately following the arising of body consciousness, tongue consciousness does not arise; immediately following the arising of tongue consciousness, body consciousness does not arise either.

The five types of sense consciousness are not cognitive” means: For the five types of sense consciousness there is no turning towards (the object) or cognition or advertence or attention.

By the five types of sense consciousness one discriminates no state whatever” means: By the five types of sense consciousness one discriminates no state whatever.

Other than mere falling in” means: Other than mere falling in (i.e. entry of the object).

Even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one discriminates no state whatever” means: Immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one discriminates no state whatever, even by mind element.

By the five types of sense consciousness one makes no posture whatever” means: By the five types of sense consciousness one makes no posture whatever, either going, standing, sitting or lying.

Even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one makes no posture whatever” means: Immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one makes no posture whatever, either going, standing, sitting or lying, even by mind element.

By the five types of sense consciousness one establishes no bodily action, no verbal action” means: By the five types of sense consciousness one establishes no bodily action, no verbal action.

Even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one establishes no bodily action, no verbal action” means: Immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one establishes no bodily action, no verbal action, even by mind element.

By the five types of sense consciousness one performs no skilful or unskilful state” means: By the five types of sense consciousness one performs no skilful or unskilful state.

Even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one performs no skilful or unskilful state” means: Immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one performs no skilful or unskilful state, even by mind element.

By the five types of sense consciousness one does not attain, does not emerge” means: By the five types of sense consciousness one does not attain, does not emerge.

Even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one does not attain, does not emerge” means: Immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one does not attain, does not emerge, even by mind element.

By the five types of sense consciousness one does not pass away, does not arise” means: By the five types of sense consciousness one does not pass away, does not arise (i.e. is not reborn).

Even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one does not pass away, does not arise” means: Immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one does not pass away, does not arise, even by mind element.

By the five types of sense consciousness one does not sleep, does not wake, does not see dreams” means: By the five types of sense consciousness one does not sleep, does not wake, does not see dreams.

Even immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one does not sleep, does not wake, does not see dreams” means: Immediately following the five types of sense consciousness one does not sleep, does not wake, does not see dreams, even by mind element. Thus the explanation of the true nature of the basis (of knowledge) is wisdom. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of singlefold division.

(Here Ends) Singlefold Exposition

16.10.2. Twofold Exposition

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is mundane wisdom; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is supramundane wisdom. All wisdom is cognizable by one way; is not cognizable by another way.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is the object of the defilements; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not the object of the defilements. In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not associated with the defilements, is the object of the defilements; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not associated with the defilements, is not the object of the defilements.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is the object of the fetters; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not the object of the fetters. In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not associated with the fetters, is the object of the fetters; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not associated with the fetters, is not the object of the fetters.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is the object of the ties; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not the object of the ties. In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not associated with the ties, is the object of the ties; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not associated with the ties, is not the object of the ties.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is the object of the floods; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not the object of the floods. In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not associated with the floods, is the object of the floods; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not associated with the floods, is not the object of the floods.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is the object of the bonds; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not the object of the bonds. In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not associated with the bonds, is the object of the bonds; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not associated with the bonds, is not the object of the bonds.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is the object of the hindrances; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not the object of the hindrances. In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not associated with the hindrances, is the object of the hindrances; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not associated with the hindrances, is not the object of the hindrances.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is the object of the perversions; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not the object of the perversions. In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not associated with the perversions, is the object of the perversions; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not associated with the perversions, is not the object of the perversions.

In the three planes the wisdom in resultants is wisdom that is grasped by craving and false view; in the three planes the wisdom is skilful (dhammas), in the three planes the wisdom in inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas), the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not grasped.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is the object of the graspings; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not the object of the graspings. In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not associated with the graspings, is the object of the graspings; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not associated with the graspings, is not the object of the graspings.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is the object of the corruptions; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not the object of the corruptions. In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not associated with the corruptions, is the object of the corruptions; . the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not associated with the corruptions, is not the object of the corruptions.

Wisdom associated with initial application is wisdom that is accompanied by initial application; wisdom not associated with initial application is wisdom that is without initial application. Wisdom associated with sustained application is wisdom that is accompanied by sustained application; wisdom not associated with sustained application is wisdom that is without sustained application. Wisdom associated with rapture is wisdom that is with rapture; wisdom not associated with rapture is wisdom that is without rapture. Wisdom associated with rapture is wisdom that is accompanied by rapture; wisdom not associated with rapture is wisdom that is not accompanied by rapture. Wisdom associated with pleasure is wisdom that is accompanied by pleasure; wisdom not associated with pleasure is wisdom that is not accompanied by pleasure. Wisdom associated with indifference is wisdom that is accompanied by indifference; wisdom not associated with indifference is wisdom that is not accompanied by indifference.

The wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) characteristic of the plane of desire is wisdom that is characteristic of the plane of desire; the wisdom characteristic of the plane of form, wisdom characteristic of the formless plane, wisdom not included (i.e. supramundane) is wisdom that is not characteristic of the plane of desire. The wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) characteristic of the plane of form is wisdom that is characteristic of the plane of form; the wisdom characteristic of the plane of desire, wisdom characteristic of the formless plane, wisdom not included (i.e. supramundane) is wisdom that is not characteristic of the plane of form. The wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) characteristic of the formless plane is wisdom that is characteristic of the formless plane; the wisdom characteristic of the plane of desire, wisdom characteristic of the plane of form, wisdom not included (i.e. supramundane) is wisdom that is not characteristic of the formless plane.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is included (i.e. is mundane); the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not included (i.e. is supramundane). The wisdom in the four paths is wisdom tending to release; in the three planes the wisdom in skilful (dhammas), in the four planes the wisdom in resultant (dhammas), in the three planes the wisdom in inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom not tending to release. The wisdom in the four paths is wisdom that is of fixed (resultant time); in the three planes the wisdom in skilful (dhammas), in the four planes the wisdom in resultant (dhammas), in the three planes the wisdom in inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is of no fixed (result-ant time). In the three planes the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is surpassable; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is not surpassable.

Therein what is wisdom that is the cause of resultant? In the four planes the wisdom in skilful (dhammas), the wisdom in the inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) of the arahat who causes higher knowledge to arise, who causes attainment to arise, is wisdom that is the cause of resultant. In the four planes the wisdom in resultant (dhammas), the wisdom in the inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) of the arahat having higher knowledge that has arisen, having attainment that has arisen, is wisdom that is the resultant of cause. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of twofold division.

(Here Ends) Twofold (Exposition)

16.10.3. Threefold Exposition

Therein what is “wisdom by means of thinking”? (The wisdom) In the spheres of work invented by ingenuity or in the spheres of craft invented by ingenuity or in the branches of science invented by ingenuity or (knowledge that) action is one’s own possession or (knowledge that) in conformity with truth form is impermanent; feeling; Is impermanent. perception; Is impermanent. volitional activities; Is impermanent. or consciousness is impermanent; that which is similar, in conformity, ability (to comprehend), view, choice, opinion, seeing, ability to apprehend (these) dhammas, is acquired without hearing from others. This is called wisdom by means of thinking.

Therein what is “wisdom by means of hearing”? (The wisdom) In the spheres of work invented by ingenuity or in the spheres of craft invented by ingenuity or in the branches of science invented by ingenuity or (knowledge that) action is one’s own possession or (knowledge that) in conformity with truth form is impermanent; feeling Is impermanent.; perception Is impermanent.; volitional activities Is impermanent.; or consciousness is impermanent; that which is similar, in conformity, that ability (to comprehend), view, choice, opinion, seeing, ability to apprehend (these) dhammas, is acquired by hearing from others. This is called wisdom by means of hearing.

All the wisdom of one who has attained, is, wisdom by means of development.

Therein what is “wisdom by means of giving”? Concerning giving, the achieving of giving, that which arises is wisdom, under-standing, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom by means of giving.

Therein what is “wisdom by means of morality”? Concerning morality, the achieving of morality, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom by means of morality.

All the wisdom of one who has attained, is, wisdom by means of development.

Therein what is “wisdom that is in higher morality”? In one restrained by the restraint of the fundamental precepts, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that is in higher morality.

Therein what is “wisdom that is in higher consciousness”? In one attaining the attainment (of dhammas) characteristic of the plane of form and characteristic of the formless plane, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that is in higher consciousness.

Therein what is “wisdom that is in higher wisdom”? The wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits. This is called wisdom that is in higher wisdom.

Therein what is “proficiency (in knowing) gain”? In one paying attention to these dhammas, unskilful dhammas which have not arisen do not arise; also unskilful dhammas which have arisen are abandoned; moreover, in one paying attention to these dhammas, skilful dhammas which have not arisen arise; also skilful dhammas which have arisen exist for increase, for maturity, for development, for completion; that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called proficiency (in knowing) gain.

Therein what is “proficiency (in knowing) loss”? In one paying attention to these dhammas, skilful dhammas which have not arisen do not arise; also skilful dhammas which have arisen cease; moreover, in one paying attention to these dhammas, unskilful dhammas which have not arisen arise; also unskilful dhammas which have arisen exist for increase, for maturity; that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called proficiency (in knowing) loss. All the wisdom in the method of the aforesaid is proficiency of method.

In the four planes the wisdom in resultant (dhammas) is wisdom that is resultant; in the four planes the wisdom in skilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is productive of resultant; in the three planes the wisdom in inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is neither resultant nor productive of resultant.

In the three planes the wisdom in resultant (dhammas) is wisdom that is grasped, is the object of the graspings; in the three planes the wisdom in skilful (dhammas), in the three planes the wisdom in inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is not grasped, is the object of the graspings; the wisdom in the four paths and the four fruits is wisdom that is not grasped, is not the object of the graspings.

Wisdom associated with initial application and sustained application is wisdom that is accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application; wisdom not associated with initial application, associated with sustained application, is wisdom that is without initial application, sustained application only; wisdom not associated with initial application or sustained application is wisdom that is without initial application, without sustained application.

Wisdom associated with rapture is wisdom that is accompanied by rapture; wisdom associated with pleasure is wisdom that is accompanied by pleasure; wisdom associated with indifference is wisdom that is accompanied by indifference.

In the three planes the wisdom in skilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is cumulative; the wisdom in the four paths is wisdom that is dispersive; in the four planes the wisdom in resultant (dhammas), in the three planes the wisdom in inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is neither cumulative nor dispersive.

The wisdom in the four paths and in three fruits is wisdom that is of the seven supramundane stages; the topmost wisdom in the fruit of arahantship is wisdom that is of the final supramundane stage; in the three planes the wisdom in skilful (dhammas), in the three planes the wisdom in resultant (dhammas), in the three planes the wisdom in inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) is wisdom that is neither of the seven supramundane stages nor of the final supramundane stage.

The wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) characteristic of the plane of desire is wisdom that is low; the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) characteristic of the plane of form and characteristic of the formless plane is wisdom that is sublime; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom that is immeasurable.

Therein what is “wisdom that has low objects”? Concerning low dhammas, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has low object.

Therein what is “wisdom that has sublime object”? Concerning sublime dhammas, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has sublime object.

Therein what is “wisdom that has immeasurable object? Concerning immeasurable dhammas, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has immeasurable object.

Therein what is “wisdom that has path as its object”? Concerning the Noble Path, that which arises is wisdom, under-standing, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has path as its object. The wisdom in the four paths is the wisdom that has path as its cause.

Therein what is “wisdom that has path as its dominating factor”? Having made the Noble Path dominant, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has path as its dominating factor.

In the four planes the wisdom in resultant (dhammas) sometimes is risen; sometimes is bound to arise; should not be said to be, not risen. In the four planes the wisdom in skilful (dhammas), in the three planes the wisdom in inoperative neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) sometimes is risen; sometimes is not risen; should not be said to be, bound to arise.

All wisdom sometimes is past; sometimes is future; sometimes is present.

Therein what is “wisdom that has past object? Concerning past dhammas, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has past object.

Therein what is “wisdom that has future object”? Concerning future dhammas, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has future object.

Therein what is “wisdom that has present object”? Concerning present dhammas, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has present object.

All wisdom sometimes is internal; sometimes is external; sometimes is both internal and external.

Therein what is “wisdom that has internal object”? Concerning internal dhammas, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has internal object.

Therein what is “wisdom that has external object”? Concerning external dhammas, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has external object.

Therein what is “wisdom that has both internal and external object”? Concerning both internal and external dhammas, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that has both internal and external object. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of threefold division.

(Here Ends) Threefold (Exposition)

16.10.4. Fourfold Exposition

Therein what is “knowledge that action is one’s own possession”? “There is alms-giving; there is sacrifice; there is offering; there is fruit and resultant of actions done rightly and done wrongly; there is this world; there is the next world; there is mother; there is father; there are beings born spontaneously; there are in the world recluses and brahmins who have reached the highest point, who are well practised; who themselves having fully known, having realized this world and the next world make it known (to others)”; thus that which is similar, wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called knowledge that action is one’s own possession. Excepting knowledge that is in conformity with truth, all wisdom that is skilful and is the object of the defilements, is, knowledge that action is one’s own possession.

Therein what is “knowledge in conformity with truth”? “Form is impermanent”; feeling Is impermanent.; perception Is impermanent.; volitional activities; Is impermanent. or “consciousness is impermanent”; that which is similar, in conformity, ability (to comprehend), view, choice, opinion, seeing, ability to apprehend (these) dhammas. This is called knowledge in conformity with truth. Wisdom in the four paths is the knowledge of one having the path. Wisdom in the four fruits is the knowledge of one having the fruit. (1)

The knowledge of one having the path, this is knowledge of suffering; this is knowledge of the cause of suffering; this is knowledge of the cessation of suffering; this is knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

Therein what is “knowledge of suffering”? Concerning suffering, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called knowledge of suffering. Concerning the cause of suffering. Complete as final example. Concerning the cessation of suffering. Complete as final example. Concerning the way leading to the cessation of suffering, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of suffering. (2)

The wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) characteristic of the plane of desire is wisdom characteristic of the plane of desire; the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) characteristic of the plane of form is wisdom characteristic of the plane of form; the wisdom in skilful and neither-skilful-nor-unskilful (dhammas) characteristic of the formless plane is wisdom characteristic of the formless plane; the wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is wisdom not included (i.e. is supramundane). (3)

Therein what is “knowledge of (supramundane) dhammas”? The wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits is knowledge of (supramundane) dhammas. By means of this state that is known, seen, attained, discerned, penetrated, he applies the inference to the past and future; those recluses and brahmins who in the past knew suffering fully; knew the cause of suffering fully; knew the cessation of suffering fully; knew the way leading to the cessation of suffering; this very suffering they knew fully; this very cause of suffering they knew fully; this very cessation of suffering they knew fully; this very way leading to the cessation of suffering they knew fully. Those recluses and brahmins who in the future will know suffering fully; will know the cause of suffering fully; will know the cessation of suffering fully; will know the way leading to the cessation of suffering fully; this very suffering they will know fully; this very cause of suffering they will know fully; this very cessation of suffering they will know fully; this very way leading to the cessation of suffering they will know fully. That which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called knowledge following (therefrom).

Therein what is “penetrative knowledge”? Herein a monk with his consciousness knows distinctly the consciousness of other beings, of other persons; he knows consciousness accompanied by lust, “consciousness is accompanied by lust”; or, he knows consciousness without lust, “consciousness is without lust”; he knows consciousness accompanied by hatred,” consciousness is accompanied by hatred”; or, he knows consciousness without hatred, “consciousness is without hatred”; he knows consciousness accompanied by delusion, “consciousness is accompanied by delusion”; or, he knows consciousness without delusion, “consciousness is without delusion”; he knows constricted consciousness, “consciousness is constricted”; or, he knows scattered consciousness, “consciousness is scattered”; he knows sublime consciousness, “consciousness is sublime”; or, he knows nonsublime consciousness, “consciousness is not sublime”; he knows surpassable consciousness, “consciousness is surpassable”; or, he knows unsurpassable consciousness, “consciousness is unsurpassable”; he knows in samādhi consciousness, “consciousness is in samādhi”; or, he knows non in samādhi consciousness, “consciousness is not in samādhi”; he knows free consciousness, “consciousness is free”; or, he knows nonfree consciousness, “consciousness is not free”. That which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called penetrative knowledge.

Excepting knowledge of (supramundane) dhammas, knowledge following (therefrom), penetrative knowledge; the remaining wisdom is conventional knowledge. (4)

Therein what is “wisdom for cumulation, not for dispersion”? The wisdom in skilful (dhammas) characteristic of the plane of desire is for cumulation, not for dispersion; the wisdom in the four paths is for dispersion, not for cumulation; the wisdom in skilful (dhammas) characteristic of the plane of form and characteristic of the formless plane is for cumulation also for dispersion; the remaining wisdom is neither for cumulation nor for dispersion. (5)

Therein what is “wisdom for aversion not for realization”? The wisdom by which one is without lust for sense pleasure does not realize higher knowledges or the truths. This is called wisdom for aversion, not for realization. The same one by wisdom being without lust for sense pleasure realizes higher knowledge but not the truths. This is called wisdom for realization not for aversion. The wisdom in the four paths is for aversion also for realization. The remaining wisdom is neither for aversion nor for realization. (6)

Therein what is “wisdom partaking of deterioration”? Perception and attention accompanied by sense pleasure prompt one who has gained first jhāna, (this) is wisdom partaking of deterioration; (his) mindfulness in conformity with that state stands still, (this) is wisdom partaking of stationariness; perception and attention not accompanied by initial application prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of distinction; perception and attention accompanied by aversion, connected with absence of lust prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of penetration. Perception and attention accompanied by initial application, prompt one who has gained second jhāna, (this) is wisdom partaking of deterioration; (his) mindfulness in conformity with that state stands still, (this) is wisdom partaking of stationariness; perception and attention accompanied by indifference (to second jhāna) prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of distinction; perception and attention accompanied by aversion, connected with absence of lust, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of penetration. Perception and attention accompanied by rapture and pleasure, prompt one who has gained third jhāna, (this) is wisdom partaking of deterioration; (his) mindfulness in conformity with that state stands still, (this) is wisdom partaking of stationariness; perception and attention accompanied by neither-pain-nor-pleasure, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of distinction; perception and attention accompanied by aversion, connected with absence of lust, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of penetration. Perception and attention accompanied by equanimity, prompt one who has gained fourth jhāna, (this) is wisdom partaking of deterioration; (his) mindfulness in conformity with that state stands still, (this) is wisdom partaking of stationariness; perception and attention accompanied by the state of infinity of space, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of distinction; perception and attention accompanied by aversion, connected with absence of lust, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of penetration. Perception and attention accompanied by (the concept of) form, prompt one who has gained the state of infinity of space, (this) is wisdom partaking of deterioration; (his) mindfulness in conformity with that state stands still; (this) is wisdom partaking of stationariness; perception and attention accompanied by the state of infinity of consciousness, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of distinction; perception and attention accompanied by aversion, connected with absence of lust, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of penetration. Perception and attention accompanied by the state of infinity of space, prompt one who has gained the state of infinity of consciousness, (this) is wisdom partaking of deterioration; (his) mindfulness in conformity with that state stands still, (this) is wisdom partaking of stationariness; perception and attention accompanied by the state of nothingness, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of distinction; perception and attention accompanied by aversion, connected with absence of lust, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of penetration. Perception and attention accompanied by the state of infinity of consciousness, prompt one who has gained the state of nothingness, (this) is wisdom partaking of deterioration; (his) mindfulness in conformity with that state stands still, (this) is wisdom partaking of stationariness; perception and attention accompanied by the state that is neither perception nor nonperception, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of distinction; perception and attention accompanied by aversion, connected with absence of lust, prompt (him), (this) is wisdom partaking of penetration. (7)

Therein what are “the four analytic insights”? Analytic insight of consequence, analytic of origin, analytic insight of philology, analytic insight of knowledge. Knowledge of conse-quence is analytic insight of consequence; knowledge of origin is analytic insight of origin; knowledge of the actual philological definition of these (i.e. 1 & 2) is analytic insight of philology; knowledge of these knowledges is analytic insight of knowledge. These are the four analytic insights. (8)

Therein what are “the four practices”? Wisdom that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired; wisdom that is hard practice and knowledge quickly acquired; wisdom that is easy practice and knowledge slowly acquired; wisdom that is easy practice and knowledge quickly acquired.

Therein what is wisdom that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired? In one causing samādhi to arise with difficulty and with toil, and slowly knowing that condition thoroughly, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that is hard practice and knowledge slowly acquired.

Therein what is wisdom that is hard practice and knowledge quickly acquired? In one causing samādhi to arise with difficulty and with toil, and quickly knowing that condition thoroughly, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that is hard practice and knowledge quickly acquired.

Therein what is wisdom that is easy practice and knowledge slowly acquired? In one causing samādhi to arise with no difficulty and with no toil, and slowly knowing that condition thoroughly, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that is easy practice and knowledge slowly acquired.

Therein what is wisdom that is easy practice and knowledge quickly acquired? In one causing samādhi to arise with no difficulty and with no toil, and quickly knowing that condition thoroughly, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called wisdom that is easy practice and knowledge quickly acquired. These are the four practices. (9)

Therein what are “four objects? Limited wisdom, having limited object; limited wisdom, having unlimited object; unlimited wisdom, having limited object; unlimited wisdom, having unlimited object.

Therein what is limited wisdom, having limited object? In one gaining samādhi not without difficulty, and expanding the object but little, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called limited wisdom, having limited object.

Therein what is limited wisdom, having unlimited object? In one gaining samādhi not without difficulty, and expanding the object greatly, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called limited wisdom, having unlimited object.

Therein what is unlimited wisdom, having limited object? In one gaining samādhi without difficulty, and expanding the object but little, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called unlimited wisdom, having limited object.

Therein what is unlimited wisdom, having unlimited object? In one gaining samādhi without difficulty, expanding the object greatly, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called unlimited wisdom, having unlimited object. These are four objects. (10)

The knowledge of one having the path, this is knowledge of old age and death; this is knowledge of the cause of old age and death; this is knowledge of the cessation of old age and death; this is knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of old age and death.

Therein what is “knowledge of old age and death? Concerning old age and death, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called knowledge of old age and death.

Concerning the cause of old age and death. Complete as final example. Concerning the cessation of old age and death. Complete as final example. Concerning the way leading to the cessation of old age and death, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of old age and death. (11)

The knowledge of one having the path, this is knowledge of birth. Complete in the general form of final example. This is knowledge of existence. Complete in the general form of final example. This is knowledge of grasping. Complete in the general form of final example. This is knowledge of craving. Complete in the general form of final example. This is knowledge of feeling. Complete in the general form of final example. This is knowledge of contact. Complete in the general form of final example. This is knowledge of the six sense-bases. Complete in the general form of final example. This is knowledge of name & form. Complete in the general form of final example. This is knowledge of consciousness. Complete in the general form of final example. This is knowledge of activities; this is knowledge of the cause of activities; this is knowledge of the cessation of activities; this is knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of activities. (10) (21)

Therein what is “knowledge of activities”? Concerning activities, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called knowledge of activities.

Concerning the cause of activities. Complete as final example. Concerning the cessation of activities. Complete as final example. Concerning the way leading to the cessation of activities, that which arises is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is called knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of activities. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of fourfold division.

(Here Ends) Fourfold (Exposition)

16.10.5. Fivefold Exposition

Therein what is “right samādhi that has five constituents”? (Right samādhi is) Rapture-suffusing, pleasure-suffusing, mind-suffusing, light-suffusing, the characteristic of reflection. In two jhadnas wisdom is rapture-suffusing; in three jhānas wisdom is pleasure-suffusing; knowledge of the consciousness of others is mind-suffusing; celestial eye is light-suffusing; the knowledge of reflection of one who emerges from this or that samādhi is the characteristic of reflection. This is called right samādhi that has five constituents.

Therein what is “right samādhi that has five knowledges”? “This samādhi has present pleasure, also in the future has pleasant resultant”, thus the knowledge arises quite separately; “this samādhi is noble, non-worldly”, thus the knowledge arises quite separately; “this samādhi is resorted to by great (i.e. without bad) men”, thus the knowledge arises quite separately; “this samādhi is calm, superior, gained by tranquillity, obtained by exalted development, is not obtained by instigated suppression and hindering”, thus the knowledge arises quite separately; “I myself attain this samādhi mindfully, emerge (therefrom) mindfully”, thus the knowledge arises quite separately. This is right samādhi that has five knowledges. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of fivefold division.

(Here Ends) Fivefold (Exposition)

16.10.6. Sixfold Exposition

Therein what is “wisdom in the six higher knowledges”? Knowledge of various super-normal powers; knowledge of the purity of ear element; knowledge of the consciousness of others; knowledge of the remembrance of previous existence; knowledge of the passing away and rebirth of beings; knowledge of the destruction of the defilements. This is wisdom in the six higher knowledges. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of sixfold division.

16.10.7. Sevenfold Exposition

Therein what are the “seventyseven sense-bases of knowledge”? Knowledge that because of birth there is old age and death; knowledge that in there not being birth there is not old age and death; knowledge that in the past, too, because of birth there is old age and death; knowledge that in there not being birth there is not old age and death; knowledge that in the future, too, because of birth there is old age and death; knowledge that in there not being birth there is not old age and death; that which is (knowledge) of those (knowledges) is knowledge of the establishment of dhammas; that also is the knowledge that (they) are subject to destruction, subject to decay, subject to absence of lust, subject to cessation. Knowledge that because of existence there is birth. Complete in the general form of final example. Knowledge that because of grasping there is existence. Complete in the general form of final example. Knowledge that because of craving there is grasping. Complete in the general form of final example. Knowledge that because of feeling there is craving. Complete in the general form of final example. Knowledge that because of contact there is feeling. Complete in the general form of final example. Knowledge that because of the six sense-bases there is contact. Complete in the general form of final example. Knowledge that because of name & form there are the six sense-bases. Complete in the general form of final example. Knowledge that because of consciousness there is name & form. Complete in the general form of final example. Knowledge that because of activities there is consciousness. Complete in general form of final example. Knowledge that because of ignorance there are activities; knowledge that in there not being ignorance there are not activities; knowledge that in the past, too, because of ignorance there are activities; knowledge that in there not being ignorance there are not activities; knowledge that in the future, too, because of ignorance there are activities; knowledge that in there not being ignorance there are not activities; that which is (knowledge) of those (knowledges) is knowledge of the establishment of dhammas; that also is the knowledge that (they) are subject to destruction, subject to decay, subject to absence of lust, subject to cessation. These are the seventy-seven sense-bases of knowledge. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of sevenfold division.

16.10.8. Eightfold Exposition

Therein what is “wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits”? Wisdom in the path of stream entry; wisdom in the fruit of stream entry; wisdom in the path of once returning; wisdom in the fruit of once returning; wisdom in the path of non-returning; wisdom in the fruit of non-returning; wisdom in the path of arahantship; wisdom in the fruit of arahantship. This is wisdom in the four paths and in the four fruits. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of eightfold division.

16.10.9. Ninefold Exposition

Therein what is “wisdom in the nine successive dwellings in attainments”? Wisdom in the attainment of the first jhāna; wisdom in the attainment of the second jhāna; wisdom in the attainment of the third jhāna; wisdom in the attainment of the fourth jhāna; wisdom in the attainment of the state of infinity of space; wisdom in the attainment of the state of infinity of consciousness; wisdom in the attainment of the state of nothingness; wisdom in the attainment of the state that is neither perception nor non-perception; knowledge of reflection of one who emerges from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling. This is wisdom in the nine successive dwellings in attainments. Thus is the basis of knowledge by way of ninefold division.

16.10.10. Tenfold Exposition

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of cause as cause, absence of cause as absence of cause”? Herein the Tathāgata comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that a person possessed of right view should regard any conditioned thing as permanent, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that a worldly person should regard any conditioned thing as permanent, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that a person possessed of right view should regard any conditioned thing as pleasant, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that a worldly person should regard any conditioned thing as pleasant, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus,“It is not possible, not reasonable, that a person possessed of right view should regard anything as soul, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that a worldly person should regard anything as soul, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that a person possessed of right view should deprive his mother of life, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus,“but it is indeed possible that a worldly person should deprive his mother of life, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that a person possessed of right view should deprive his father of life. Complete in the general form of final example. Should deprive an arahant of life. Complete in the general form of final example. With wicked consciousness should shed the blood of the Tathāgata. Complete in the general form of final example. Should divide the Order. Complete in the general form of final example. Should proclaim another teacher. Complete in general form of first example. Should bring about an eighth existence, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus,“but it is indeed possible that a worldly person should bring about an eighth existence, such a thing is possible”.

He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that in one world system two worthy enlightened ones should arise simultaneously, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that in one world system a single worthy enlightened one should arise, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that in one world system two universal monarchs should arise simultaneously, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that in one world system a single universal monarch should arise, such a thing is possible”.

He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that a woman should be a worthy enlightened one, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that a man should be a worthy enlightened one, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that a woman should be a universal monarch, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that a man should be a universal monarch, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that a woman should become Sakka, should become Māra, should become Brahmā, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that a man should become Sakka, should become Māra, should become Brahmā, such a thing is possible”.

He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that the resultant of wrong bodily action should be desirable, agreeable, pleasant, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that the resultant of wrong bodily action should be not desirable, not agreeable, not pleasant, such a thing is possible.” He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that the resultant of wrong verbal action. Complete appropriately. Of wrong mental action should be desirable, agreeable, pleasant, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that the resultant of wrong verbal action. Complete appropriately. Of wrong mental action should be not desirable, not agreeable, not pleasant, such a thing is possible”.

He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that the resultant of right bodily action should be not desirable, not agreeable, not pleasant, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that the resultant of right bodily action should be desirable, agreeable, pleasant, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that the resultant of right verbal action. Complete appropriately. Of right mental action should be not desirable, not agreeable, not pleasant, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that the resultant of right verbal action. Complete appropriately. Of right mental action should be desirable, agreeable, pleasant, such a thing is possible”.

He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that one having wrong bodily action should, on that account, because of that, when the body breaks up after death be born in a happy, heavenly world”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that one having wrong bodily action should, on that account, because of that, when the body breaks up after death be born in a woeful, unhappy, ruinous state of hell, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that one having wrong verbal action. Complete appropriately. That one having wrong mental action should, on that account, because of that, when the body breaks up after death be born in a happy, heavenly world, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that one having wrong verbal action. Complete appropriately. That one having wrong mental action should, on that account, because of that, when the body breaks up after death be born in a woeful, unhappy, ruinous state of hell, such a thing is possible”.

He comprehends thus, “It is not possible, not reasonable, that one having right bodily action should, on that account, because of that, when the body breaks up after death be born in a woeful, unhappy, ruinous state of hell, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that one having right bodily action should, on that account, because of that, when the body breaks up after death be born in a happy, heavenly world, such a thing is possible”. He comprehends thus, “it is not possible, not reasonable, that one having right verbal action. Complete appropriately. That one having right mental action should, on that account, because of that, when the body breaks up after death be born in a woeful, unhappy, ruinous state of hell, such a thing is not possible”; he comprehends thus, “but it is indeed possible that one having right verbal action. Complete appropriately. That one having right mental action should, on that account, because of that, when the body breaks up after death be born in a happy, heavenly world, such a thing is possible”. These and those dhammas which are roots and causes for the arising of these and those (other) dhammas, this and that is cause; these and those dhammas which are not roots and not causes for the arising of these and those (other) dhammas, this and that is absence of cause; thus, that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of cause as cause, absence of cause as absence of cause. (1)

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is by way of cause, by way of root, of the resultant of past, future and present actions that are performed”? Herein the Tathāgata comprehends thus; there are some bad actions performed, which, prevented by fortunate rebirth, do not mature; there are some bad actions performed, which, prevented by a fortunate body, do not mature; there are some bad actions performed, which, prevented by fortunate time, do not mature; there are some bad actions performed, which, prevented by fortunate effort, do not mature.

There are some bad actions performed, which, because of unfortunate rebirth, do mature; there are some bad actions performed, which, because of an unfortunate body, do mature; there are some bad actions performed, which, because of unfortunate time, do mature; there are some bad actions performed, which, because of unfortunate effort, do mature.

There are some sound actions performed, which, prevented by unfortunate rebirth, do not mature; there are some sound actions performed, which, prevented by an unfortunate body, do not mature; there are some sound actions performed, which, prevented by unfortunate time, do not mature; there are some sound actions performed, which, prevented by unfortunate effort, do not mature.

There are some sound actions performed, which, because of fortunate rebirth, do mature; there are some sound actions performed, which, because of a fortunate body, do mature; there are some sound actions performed, which, because of fortunate time, do mature; there are some sound actions performed, which, because of fortunate effort, do mature; that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is by way of cause, by way of root of the resultant of past, future and present actions that are performed. (2)

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the practice leading to all (destiny)”? Herein the Tathāgata comprehends thus, “This is the path, this is the practice leading to hell”; he comprehends thus, “this is the path, this is the practice leading to the animal plane”; he comprehends thus, “this is the path, this is the practice leading to the ghost plane”; he comprehends thus, “this is the path, this is the practice leading to the human plane”; he comprehends thus, “this is the path, this is the practice leading to the god plane”; he comprehends thus, “this is the path; this is the practice leading to full emancipation”; that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the practice leading to all (destiny). (3)

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the world that has many elements, different elements”? Herein the Tathāgata comprehends the different aggregates; he comprehends the different sense-bases; he comprehends the different elements; he comprehends the different worlds that have many elements, different elements; thus that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the world that has many elements, different elements. (4)

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the different dispositions of beings”? Herein the Tathāgata comprehends thus, “There are beings of inferior disposition; there are beings of superior disposition. Beings of inferior disposition depend on, approach, frequent beings of inferior disposition. Beings of superior disposition depend on, approach, frequent beings of superior disposition.

In the past, too, beings of inferior disposition depended on, approached, frequented beings of inferior disposition. Beings of superior disposition depended on, approached, frequented beings of superior disposition.

In the future, too, beings of inferior disposition will depend on, will approach, will frequent beings of inferior disposition. Beings of superior disposition will depend on, will approach, will frequent beings of superior disposition”. Thus that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the different dispositions of beings. (5)

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the improvement, of the deterioration of the faculty of other beings, of other persons”? Herein the Tathāgata comprehends the inclination of beings; he comprehends the latent tendency; he comprehends characteristic action; he comprehends disposition; he comprehends beings with little dust in their eyes, with much dust in their eyes, with sharp faculties, with weak faculties, of skilful qualities, of unskilful qualities, easy to instruct, hard to instruct, fit or not fit.

And what is the inclination (of thought) of beings? “The world is eternal” or “the world is not eternal”, “the world is finite” or “the world is infinite”, “vital principle and the body are the same” or “vital principle and the body are different”, “the Tathāgata exists after death” or “the Tathāgata does not exist after death” or “the Tathāgata exists and does not exist after death” or “the Tathāgata neither exists nor does not exist after death”, thus there are beings depending on existence views, depending on non-existence views. By not adhering to both these extremes, ability in conformity and knowledge as it really is in specific causality and dependently originated dhammas is gained. This is the inclination of beings.

And what is latent tendency of beings? The seven latent tendencies are: Latent tendency to sensuous lust, latent tendency to repulsion, latent tendency to conceit, latent tendency to wrong view, latent tendency to doubt, latent tendency to lust for existence, latent tendency to ignorance. That which in the world is a lovely thing, pleasant thing, the tendency of beings to lust for that lies latent; that which in the world is an unlovely thing, unpleasant thing, the tendency of beings to repulsion for that lies latent. Thus in these two dhammas it should be understood that ignorance continuously occurs, and coupled therewith, conceit, wrong view and doubt. This is latent tendency of beings.

And what is the characteristic action of beings? Activity producing skilful (resultant), activity producing unskilful (resultant), activity producing unshakeable (resultant), having low level or having high level. This is the characteristic action of beings.

And what is disposition of beings? There are beings of inferior disposition; there are beings of superior disposition; beings of inferior disposition depend on, approach, frequent beings of inferior disposition. Beings of superior disposition depend on, approach, frequent beings of superior disposition.

In the past, too, beings of inferior disposition depended on, approached, frequented beings of inferior disposition. Beings of superior disposition depended on, approached, frequented beings of superior disposition.

In the future, too, beings of inferior disposition will depend on, will approach, will frequent beings of inferior disposition. Beings of superior disposition will depend on, will approach, will frequent beings of superior disposition. This is disposition of beings.

Who are those beings with much dust in their eyes? The ten sense-bases of the corruptions are; Greed, hatred, delusion, conceit, wrong view, doubt, sloth, distraction, absence of sense of shame, absence of fear of blame; those beings in whom these ten sense-bases of corruption are pursued, developed, repeated, enlarged. These are those beinp with much dust in their eyes.

Who are those beings with little dust in their eyes? Those beings in whom these ten sense-bases of corruption are not pursued, not developed, not repeated, not enlarged. These are those beings with little dust in their eyes.

Who are those beings with weak faculties? Five faculties are; The faculty of confidence, faculty of energy, faculty of mindfulness, faculty of samādhi, faculty of wisdom; those beings in whom these five faculties are not pursued, not developed, not repeated, not enlarged. These are those beings with weak faculties.

Who are those beings with sharp faculties? Those beings in whom these five faculties are pursued, developed, repeated, enlarged. These are those beings with sharp faculties.

Who are those beings with unskilful qualities? Those beings who have bad inclinations, have bad latent tendencies, have bad characteristic actions, have bad dispositions, have much dust in their eyes, have weak faculties. These are those beings with unskilful qualities.

Who are those beings with skilful qualities? Those beings who have sound inclinations, have sound characteristic actions, have sound dispositions, have little dust in their eyes, have sharp faculties. These are those beings with skilful qualities.

Who are those beings hard to instruct? Those beings who have unskilful qualities, they indeed are those beings hard to instruct. Those beings who have skilful qualities, they indeed are those beings easy to instruct.

Who are those beings who are not fit? Those beings who are furnished with the obstruction of (unskilful) action, furnished with the obstruction of corruption, furnished with the obstruction of (unskilful) resultant, have no confidence, have no wish (to do skilful), have no wisdom (accompanying rebirth consciousness), are not fit to enter into the immutable rightness of skilful dhammas (i.e. path consciousness). These are those beings who are not fit.

Who are those beings who are fit? Those beings who are not furnished with the obstruction of (unskilful) action, not furnished with the obstruction of corruption, not furnished with the obstruction of (unskilful) resultant, have confidence, have wish (to do skilful), have wisdom (accompanying rebirth consciousness), are fit to enter into the immutable Tightness of skilful dhammas (i.e. path consciousness). These are those beings who are fit; thus, that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the improvement, of the deterioration of the faculty of other beings, of other persons. (6)

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the corruption of, the purification of, the emergence from jhāna, release, samādhi, and attainment”? Jhānic person means four (types of) jhānic persons: There is a certain jhānic person who, having really attained, concludes thus, “There is failure”; there is a certain jhānic person who, having really failed, concludes thus, “There is attainment”; there is a certain jhānic person who, having really attained, concludes thus, “There is attainment”; there is a certain jhānic person who, having really failed, concludes thus, “There is failure”. These are four (types of) jhānic persons.

Another four (types of) jhānic persons: There is a certain jhānic person who attains slowly, emerges quickly; there is a certain jhānic person who attains quickly, emerges slowly; there is a certain jhānic person who attains slowly, emerges slowly; there is a certain jhānic person who attains quickly, emerges quickly. These are four (types of) jhānic persons.

Another four (types of) jhānic persons: There is a certain jhānic person who, in samādhi, is skilful at concentrating, but in samādhi is not skilful at maintaining; there is a certain jhānic person who, in samādhi, is skilful at maintaining, but in samādhi is not skilful at concentrating; there is a certain jhānic person who, in samādhi, is skilful at concentrating, and in samādhi is skilful at maintaining; there is a certain jhānic person who, in samādhi, is neither skilful at concentrating nor, in samādhi, is skilful at maintaining. These are four (types of) jhānic persons.

Jhāna means the four jhānas: First jhāna, second jhāna, third jhāna, fourth jhāna.

Release means eight (types of) release: One having material qualities sees visible (objects). This is the first release.

Not perceiving (his own) internal material qualities, he sees external visible (objects). This is the second release.

He is intent upon the beautiful object only (i.e. the jhānic object). This is the third release.

Having wholly passed the perceptions of form by terminating perceptions of (sense) impingement, by not attending to diversity of perceptions, (concentrating) thus,“Infinite is space”, he attains and dwells in the state of infinity of space. This is the fourth release.

Having wholly passed the state of infinity of space, (concentrating) thus, “Infinite is consciousness”, he attains and dwells in the state of infinity of consciousness. This is the fifth release.

Having wholly passed the state of infinity of consciousness, (concentrating) thus, “There is nothing whatever”, he attains and dwells in the state of nothingness. This is the sixth release.

Having wholly passed the state of nothingness, he attains and dwells in the state that is neither perception nor non-perception. This is the seventh release.

Having wholly passed the state that is neither perception nor non-perception, he attains and dwells in the state of cessation of perception and feeling. This is the eighth release.

Samādhi means three (types of) samādhi: samādhi accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application; samādhi without initial application, sustained application only; samādhi without initial application, without sustained application.

Attainment means dwelling in the nine successive attainments: Attainment of the first jhāna, attainment of the second jhāna, attainment of the third jhāna, attainment of the fourth jhāna, attainment of the state of infinity of space, attainment of the state of infinity of consciousness, attainment of the state of nothingness, attainment of the state that is neither perception nor non-perception, attainment of cessation of perception and feeling.

Corruption means a state partaking of deterioration; refinement means a state partaking of distinction; emergence means refinement is emergence; emergence from this and that samādhi is also emergence; thus that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the corruption of, the refinement of, the emergence from, jhāna, release, samādhi and attainment. (7)

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of remembrance of previous existence”? Herein the Tathāgata remembers manifold former existences. For example, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, an hundred births, a thousand births, an hundred-thousand births, many aeons of evolving, many aeons of devolving, many aeons of both evolving and devolving, thus, “I was in such a place, having such a name, having such a clan, having such a colour, having such food, experiencing such and such pleasure and pain, such and such an end to the span of life; I myself passing therefrom rose up in such a place; there also I was having such a name, having such a clan, having such a colour, having such food, experiencing such and such pleasure and pain, such and such an end to the span of life; I myself passing therefrom rose up here”; thus, with all qualities, with all details, he remembers manifold former existences; thus, that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of remembrance of previous existence. (8)

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the passing away and rebirth of beings”? Herein the Tathāgata with pure celestial eye surpassing that of man sees beings passing away, rising, inferior, superior, of skilful complexion, of unskilful complexion, happy, miserable; he comprehends beings according to the outcome of actions thus, “Indeed these worthy beings furnished with wrong bodily actions, furnished with wrong verbal actions, furnished with wrong mental actions, scoffers at Noble Ones, having false view, performing actions with false view, they at the breaking up of the body after death rise up in the woeful, unhappy, ruinous state of hell; again, those worthy beings furnished with right bodily actions, furnished with right verbal actions, furnished with right mental actions, not scoffers at Noble Ones, having right view, performing actions with right view; they at the breaking up of the body after death rise up in a happy heavenly world”; thus with pure celestial eye surpassing that of man he sees beings passing away, rising, inferior, superior, of skilful complexion, of unskilful complexion, happy, miserable; he comprehends beings according to the outcome of actions; thus, that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the passing away and rebirth of beings. (9)

Therein what is “the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the destruction of the defilements”? Herein the Tathāgata by the destruction of the defilements, having himself fully known, having realized in the present existence, attains and dwells in freedom of mind, freedom of wisdom that is not the object of the defilements; thus, that which therein is wisdom, understanding, See section 525. absence of delusion, truth investigation, right view. This is the Tathāgata’s knowledge as it really is of the destruction of the defilements. (10)

Analysis Of Knowledge Is Ended