The Book of Analysis

17. Analysis Of Small Items

17.1. Singlefold Summary

Pride of birth; pride of clan; pride of health; pride of youth; pride of life; pride of gain; pride of being honoured; pride of being respected; pride of prominence; pride of having adherents; pride of wealth; pride of appearance; pride of erudition; pride of intelligence; pride of being a knowledgeable authority; pride of being (a regular) alms collector; pride of being not despised; pride of posture (bearing); pride of accomplishment; pride of popularity; pride of being moral; pride of jhāna; pride of dexterity; pride of being tall; pride of (bodily) proportion; pride of form; pride of (bodily) perfection; pride; heedlessness; (mental) rigidity; rivalry; wish for the best; wish for the most; bad wish; foppery; presumption; personal vanity; discourteous living; tedium; apathy; restlessness; after meal drowsiness; mental sluggishness; guile; insinuating talk; signifying; defamation; seeking gain with gain; the conceit thus, “I am better”; the conceit thus, “I am equal”; the conceit thus, “I am inferior”; of one who is better the conceit thus, “I am better”; of one who is better the conceit thus, “I am equal”; of one who is better the conceit thus,“I am inferior”; of one who is equal the conceit thus, “I am better”; of one who is equal the conceit thus, “I am equal”; of one who is equal the conceit thus, “I am inferior”; of one who is inferior the conceit thus, “I am better”; of one who is inferior the conceit thus, “I am equal”; of one who is inferior the conceit thus, “I am inferior”; conceit; excessive conceit; inordinate conceit; self-disrespect conceit; over-estimating conceit; self-conceit; false conceit; thinking about relatives; thinking about (one’s) district; thinking about (how to) not die and/or eel wriggling; thinking associated with sympathy for others; thinking associated with gain, being honoured, fame; thinking associated with being not despised.

(Here Ends) Singlefold (Summary)

17.2. Twofold Summary

Anger and grudging. Smirching and disparaging. Envy and meanness. Deceit and hyprocrisy. Ignorance and craving for existence. Existence view and non-existence view. Eternalistic view and annihilationistic view. Finite view and infinite view. Ultimate beginning view and ultimate end view. Absence of sense of shame and absence of fear of blame. Contumacy and having bad friends. Non-straightness and non-gentleness. Impatience and immoderation. Absence of softness and inhospitality. Not guarding as to the doors of the faculties and in food not knowing the right amount. Unmindfulness and absence of awareness. Moral failure and faulty view. Internal fetters and external fetters.

(Here Ends) Twofold (Summary)

17.3. Threefold Summary

The three unskilful roots; three (types of) unskilful thinking; three (types of) unskilful perception; three unskilful elements; three (types of) wrong action; three defilements; three fetters; three (types of) craving; another three (types of) craving; three (types of) seeking; three (types of) conceitedness; three (types of) fear; three (types of) darkness; three sense-bases of heresy; three (types of) impediment; three (types of) taint; three (types of) impurity; three (types of) discrepancy; another three (types of) discrepancy; three (types of) fire; three (types of) acridity; another three (types of) acridity.

Gratification view, soul view, false view. Tedium, troubling, wrong behaviour. Contumacy, having bad friends, diversity of perception. Distraction, indolence, heedlessness. Discontent, absence of awareness, wish for the most. Absence of sense of shame, absence of fear of blame, heedlessness. Disregard, contumacy, having bad friends. Absence of confidence, not knowing entreaty, indolence. Distraction, absence of restraint, wrong morality. Absence of desire to see Noble Ones, absence of desire to hear the true Doctrine, reproachful state of mind. Unmindfulness, absence of awareness, mental wavering. Improper attention, dependence on the wrong path and mental sluggishness.

(Here Ends) Threefold (Summary)

17.4. Fourfold Summary

Four defilements; four ties; four floods; four bonds; four graspings; four arisings of craving; four practices of wrong course; four inversions; four (types of) ignoble speech; another four (types of) ignoble speech; four (types of) wrong action; another four (types of) wrong action; four (types of) fear; another four (types of) fear; four wrong views.

(Here Ends) Fourfold (Summary)

17.5. Fivefold Summary

Five fetters belonging to low (existence); five fetters belonging to high (existence); five (types of) meanness; five adhesions; five arrows; five mental spikes; five (types of) mental bondage; five hindrances; five immediate resultant actions; five wrong views; five hostile actions; five misfortunes; the five disadvantages of impatience; five fears; five theories of Nibbāna in the present existence.

(Here Ends) Fivefold (Summary)

17.6. Sixfold Summary

Six roots of contention; six (types of) lusting wish; six sense-bases of enmity; six groupings of craving; six (types of) disrespect; six retrogressive dhammas; another six retrogressive dhammas; six (types of) examining with mental pleasure; six (types of) examining with mental pain; six (types of) examining with indifference; six (types of) mental pleasure connected with sensuousness; six (types of) mental pain connected with sensuousness; six (types of) indifference connected with sensuousness; six wrong views.

(Here Ends) Sixfold (Summary)

17.7. Sevenfold Summary

Seven latent tendencies; seven fetters; seven evolvements; seven vitiated dhammas; seven wrong actions; seven (types of) conceit; seven wrong views.

(Here Ends) Sevenfold (Summary)

17.8. Eightfold Summary

Eight sense-bases of corruption; eight sense-bases of laziness; deflection of consciousness in eight worldly conditions; eight (types of) ignoble speech; eight (types of) falseness; eight defects of man; eight theories of having non-perception; eight theories of having neither perception nor non-perception.

(Here Ends) Eightfold (Summary)

17.9. Ninefold Summary

Nine sense-bases of vexation; nine impurities of man; ninefold conceit; nine dhammas rooted in craving; nine (types of) perturbation; nine (types of) imagination; nine (types of) unsteadiness; nine (types of) obsession; nine (mental) conditions.

(Here Ends) Ninefold (Summary)

17.10. Tenfold Summary

ten bases of corruption; ten bases of vexation; ten paths of unskilful action; ten fetters; ten (types of) falseness; false view that has ten bases; extremist view that has ten bases.

(Here Ends) Tenfold (Summary)

Eighteen occurrences of craving in connection with internal (aggregates); eighteen occurrences of craving in connection with external (aggregates); (taking) these together collectively and briefly there are thirty-six occurrences of craving; thus, thirty-six past occurrences of craving; thirty-six future occurrences of craving; thirty-six present occurrences of craving; (taking) these together collectively and briefly there are one-hundred-and-eight occurrences of craving; also those sixty-two wrong views which were spoken of by the Bhagavā in the Brahmājala Exposition.

Summary (Is Ended)

17.10.1. Singlefold Exposition

Therein what is “pride of birth”? Depending on birth (there is) pride, being proud, state of being proud, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called pride of birth.

Therein what is “pride of clan”? Depending on clan. Complete as final example. Depending on health. Complete as final example. Depending on youth. Complete as final example. Depending on life. Complete as final example. Depending on gain. Complete as final example. Depending on being honoured. Complete as final example. Depending on being respected. Complete as final example. Depending on prominence. Complete as final example. Depending on having adherents. Complete as final example. Depending on wealth. Complete as final example. Depending on appearance. Complete as final example. Depending on erudition. Complete as final example. Depending on intelligence. Complete as final example. Depending on being a knowledgeable authority. Complete as final example. Depending on being (a regular) alms-collector. Complete as final example. Depending on being not despised. Complete as final example. Depending on posture. Complete as final example. Depending on accomplishment. Complete as final example. Depending on popularity. Complete as final example. Depending on being moral. Complete as final example. Depending on jhāna. Complete as final example. Depending on dexterity. Complete as final example. Depending on being tall . Complete as final example. Depending on (bodily) proportion. Complete as final example. Depending on form. Complete as final example. Depending on (bodily) perfection (there is) pride, being proud, state of being proud, also conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called pride of (bodily) perfection.

Therein what is “pride”? That which is pride, being proud, state of being proud, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called pride.

Therein what is “heedlessness”? Wrong bodily action or wrong verbal action or wrong mental action or the succumbing and repeated succumbing of consciousness to the five strands of sense pleasures or not working carefully, not working constantly, working spasmodically, being stagnant, relinquishing wish, relinquishing the task, non-pursuance, non-development, non-repetition, non-resolution, non-practising, heedlessness in the development of skilful dhammas; that which is similar, heedlessness, being heedless, state of being heedless. This is called heedlessness.

Therein what is “(mental) rigidity”? That which is rigidity, being rigid, state of being rigid, hardness, harshness, inflexibility of consciousness, non-pliancy. This is called (mental) rigidity.

Therein what is “rivalry”? That which is rivalry, counter-rivalry, act of rivalry, act of counter-rivalry, state of counter-rivalry. This is called rivalry.

Therein what is “wish for the best”? The greater desire of one discontented with such requisites as robe, alms-food, abode, medicine for helping the sick or with the five strands of sense pleasures; that which is similar, wishing, act of wishing, wish for the best, lust, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness. This is called wish for the best.

Therein what is “wish for the most”? The greater desire of one discontented with such requisites as robe, alms-food, abode, medicine for helping the sick or with the five strands of sense pleasures; that which is similar, wishing, act of wishing, wish for the most, lust, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness. This is called wish for the most.

Therein what is “bad wish”? Herein a certain one, being without confidence, wishes thus, may people know me as having confidence; being of wrong morality he wishes thus, may people know me as virtuous; being without learning he wishes thus, may people know me as very learned; being delighted with company he wishes thus, may people know me as secluded; being lazy he wishes thus, may people know me as strenuously energetic; being unmindful he wishes thus, may people know me as alertly mindful; being without samādhi he wishes thus, may people know me as having samādhi; being of no wisdom he wishes thus, may people know me as wise; being not free from the defilements he wishes thus, may people know me as free from the defilements; that which is similar, wishing, act of wishing, bad wish, lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness. This is called bad wish.

Therein what is “foppery”? That which is foppery, elegance, being clever, state of being clever, posing, state of posing. This is called foppery.

Therein what is “presumption”? That which is presumption, being presumptuous, state of being presumptuous, self-indulgence, being self-indulgent, state of being self-indulgent, agitation, desire for the nicer. This is called presumption.

Therein what is “personal vanity”? Decoration of the robes, decoration of the alms-bowl, decoration of the abode; the decoration, beautifying, taking pride in, adorning, cupidity, state of cupidity, act of personal vanity, personal vanity for this putrid body and for the external requisites. This is called personal vanity.

Therein what is “discourteous living”? Contrariness, captiousness, disregard, being disregardful, disrespect, non-deference to mother or father or elder or brother or teachers or preceptor or the Buddha or disciples or certain other respectable people. This is called discourteous living.

Therein what is “tedium”? Tedium, having tedium, displeasure, being displeased, dissatisfaction, dread of remote abodes or certain higher skilful dhammas. This is called tedium.

Therein what is “apathy”? That which is apathy, being apathetic, mental lethargy, idleness, being idle, state of being idle. This is called apathy.

Therein what is “restlessness”? That which is twitching, restlessness, bending forward, bending backward, twisting, stretching upwards, fidgeting of the body. This is called restlessness.

Therein what is “after meal drowsiness”? That which in one who has eaten is dizziness because of food, fatigue because of food, feverishness because of food, bodily unfitness. This is called after meal drowsiness.

Therein what is “mental sluggishness”? That which is indisposition of consciousness, unwieldiness, drooping, sagging, sluggishness, being sluggish, state of being sluggish, sloth, being slothful, state of consciousness being slothful. This is called mental sluggishness.

Therein what is “guile”? In one who depends on gain, honour and fame, who has bad wishes, who is troubled by wishes: by the so called using of the requisites, by talking allusively, by the setting up or by the arranging or by the proper arranging of the posture: there is knitting the brows, act of knitting the brows, guile, being guileful, state of being guileful. This is called guile.

Therein what is “insinuating talk”? In one who depends on gain, honour and fame, who has bad wishes, who is troubled by wishes: that which to others is welcoming talk, insinuating talk, entertaining talk, laudatory talk, flattering talk, inferential talk, repeated inferential talk, coaxing talk, repeated coaxing talk, constant pleasant talk, servility (in talking), bean soupery (in talking), dandling (behaviour). This is called insinuating talk.

Therein what is “signifying”? In one who depends on gain, honour and fame, who has bad wishes, who is troubled by wishes: that which to others is a sign, signifying, hinting talk, hinting action, allusive talk, roundabout talk. This is called signifying.

Therein what is “defamation”? In one who depends on gain, honour and fame, who has bad wishes, who is troubled by wishes: that which to others is abuse, reviling, reproaching, sneering, repeated sneering, ridicule, repeated ridicule, denigration, repeated denigration, talebearing, backbiting. This is called defamation.

Therein what is “seeking gain with gain”? One who depends on gain, honour and fame, who has bad wishes, who is troubled by wishes, takes there material things received here; brings here material things received there; that which is similar, wishing, seeking, continuous seeking, act of wishing, act of seeking, act of continuous seeking for material things. This is called seeking gain with gain.

Therein what is the conceit thus, “I am better”? Herein a certain one by birth or by clan or by skilful family or by beautiful body or by property or by study or by sphere of work or by sphere of craft or by branch of science or by learning or by intelligence or by one reason or another causes conceit to arise; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called the conceit thus, “I am better”.

Therein what is the conceit thus, “I am equal”? Herein a certain one by birth or by clan or by skilful family or by beautiful body or by property or by study or by sphere of work or by sphere of craft or by branch of science or by learning or by intelligence or by one reason or another causes conceit to arise; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called the conceit thus, “I am equal”.

Therein what is the conceit thus, “I am inferior”? Herein a certain one by birth or by clan or by skilful family or by beautiful body or by property or by study or by sphere of work or by sphere of craft of by branch of science or by learning or by intelligence or by one reason or another causes self-disrespect to arise; that which is similar, self-disrespect, being self-disrespectful, state of being self-disrespectful, scorning (self), being very scornful, state of being very scornful, self-disdain, self-despising, self-contempt. This is called the conceit thus, “I am inferior”.

Therein of one who is better what is the conceit thus, “I am better”? Herein a certain one who is better by birth or by clan or by skilful family or by beautiful body or by property or by study or by sphere of work or by sphere of craft or by branch of science or by learning or by intelligence or by one reason or another places himself as better than others; he, depending thereon, causes conceit to arise; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This of one who is better is called the conceit thus, “I am better”.

Therein of one who is better what is the conceit thus, “I am equal”? Herein a certain one who is better by birth or by clan or by skilful family or by beautiful body or by property or by study or by sphere of work or by sphere of craft or by branch of science or by learning or by intelligence or by one reason or another places himself as equal to others; he, depending thereon, causes conceit to arise; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This of one who is better is called the conceit thus, “I am equal”.

Therein of one who is better what is the conceit thus, “I am inferior”? Herein a certain one who is better by birth or by clan or by skilful family or by beautiful body or by property or by study or by sphere of work or by sphere of craft or by branch of science or by learning or by intelligence or by one reason or another places himself as inferior to others; he, depending thereon, causes self-disrespect to arise; that which is similar, self-disrespect, being self-disrespectful, state of being self-disrespectful, scorning (self), being very scornful, state of being very scornful, self-disdain, self-despising, self-contempt. This of one who is better is called the conceit thus, “I am inferior”.

Therein of one who is equal what is the conceit thus, “I am better”? Herein a certain one who is equal by birth or by clan or by skilful family, Intermediate words, see section 866. or by one reason or another places himself as better than others; he, depending thereon, causes conceit to arise; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, Intermediate words, see section 866. desire of consciousness for a banner. This of one who is equal is called the conceit thus, “I am better”.

Therein of one who is equal what is the conceit thus, “I am equal”? Herein a certain one who is equal by birth or by clan or by skilful family, Intermediate words, see section 866. or by one reason or another places himself as equal to others; he, depending thereon, causes conceit to arise; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This of one who is equal is called the conceit thus, “I am equal”.

Therein of one who is equal what is the conceit thus “I am inferior”? Herein a certain one who is equal by birth or by clan or by skilful family, Intermediate words, see section 866. or by one reason or another places himself as inferior to others; he, depending thereon, causes self-disrespect to arise; that which is similar, self-disrespect, being self-disrespectful, state of being self-disrespectful, scorning (self), being very scornful, state of being very scornful, self-disdain, self-despising, self-contempt. This in one who is equal is called the conceit thus, “I am inferior”.

Therein of one who is inferior what is the conceit thus, “I am better”? Herein a certain one who is inferior by birth or by clan or by skilful family, Intermediate words, see section 866. or by one reason or another places himself as better than others; he, depending thereon, causes conceit to arise; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This of one who is inferior is called the conceit thus ,“I am better”.

Therein of one who is inferior what is the conceit thus, “I am equal”? Herein a certain one who is inferior by birth or by clan or by skilful family, Intermediate words, see section 866. or by one reason or another places himself as equal to others; he, depending thereon, causes conceit to arise; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This of one who is inferior is called the conceit thus, “I am equal”.

Therein of one who is inferior what is the conceit thus, “I am inferior”? Herein a certain one who is inferior by birth or by clan or by skilful family, Intermediate words, see section 866. or by one reason or another places himself as inferior to others; he, depending thereon, causes self-disrespect to arise; that which is similar, self-disrespect, being self-disrespectful, state of being self-disrespectful, scorning (self), being very scornful, state of being very scornful, self-disdain, self-despising, self-contempt. This of one who is inferior is called the conceit thus, “I am inferior”.

Therein what is “conceit”? That which is conceit, being conceited, a state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called conceit.

Therein what is “excessive conceit”? Herein a certain one by birth or by clan or by skilful family, Intermediate words, see section 866. or by one reason or another considers himself above others; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called excessive conceit.

Therein what is “inordinate conceit”? Herein a certain one by birth or by clan or by skilful family, Intermediate words, see section 866. or by one reason or another first places himself as equal to others, later places himself as better; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called inordinate conceit.

Therein what is “self-disrespect conceit”? Herein a certain one by birth or by clan or by skilful family or by beautiful body or by property or by study or by sphere of work or by sphere of craft or by branch of science or by learning or by intelligence or by one reason or another causes self-disrespect to arise; that which is similar, self-disrespect, being self-disrespectful, state of being self-disrespectful, scorning (self), being very scornful, state of being very scornful, self-disdain, self-despising, self-contempt. This is called self-disrespect conceit.

Therein what is “over-estimating conceit”? In not having reached, there is perception of having reached; in not having done, there is perception of having done; in not having attained, there is perception of having attained; in not having realized, there is perception of having realized; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called over-estimating conceit.

Therein what is “self-conceit”? The conceit thus, I am form; the wish thus, I am (form); the latent tendency thus, I am (form); feeling. Complete in the general form of final example. Perception. Complete in the general form of final example. Volitional activities. Complete in general form of final example. The conceit thus, I am conscious-ness; the wish thus, I am (consciousness); the latent tendency thus, I am (consciousness); that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called self-conceit.

Therein what is “false conceit”? Herein a certain one by bad sphere of work or by bad sphere of craft or by bad branch of science or by bad learning or by bad intelligence or by bad behaviour or by bad habit and practice or by bad view or by one reason or another causes conceit to arise; that which is similar, conceit, being conceited, state of being conceited, loftiness, haughtiness, (flaunting a) flag, assumption, desire of consciousness for a banner. This is called false conceit.

Therein what is “thinking about relatives”? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought connected with worldly forms concerning relatives. This is called thinking about relatives.

Therein what is “thinking about (one’s) district”? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought connected with worldly forms concerning (one’s) district. This is called thinking about (one’s) district.

Therein what is “thinking about (how to) not die and/or eel wriggling”? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought associated with rigorous practice, associated with wrong view, connected with worldly forms. This is called thinking about (how to) not die and/or eel wriggling.

Therein what is “thinking associated with sympathy for others”? Herein a certain one dwells in association with householders, rejoicing with them, sorrowing with them, happy when they are happy, unhappy when they are unhappy, when work arises to be done he personally applies effort; that which therein is mentation, thinking, wrong thought connected with worldly forms. This is called thinking associated with sympathy for others.

Therein what is “thinking associated with gain, being honoured, fame”? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought connected with worldly forms concerning gain, honour and fame. This is called thinking associated with gain, being honoured, fame.

Therein what is “thinking associated with being not despised”? Herein a certain one by birth or by clan or by skilful family or by beautiful body or by property or by study or by sphere of work or by sphere of craft or by branch of science or by learning or by intelligence or by one reason or another (thinks) thus, “May other people not despise me”; that which therein is mentation, thinking, wrong thought connected with worldly forms. This is called thinking associated with being not despised.

(Here Ends) Singlefold (Exposition)

17.10.2. Twofold Exposition

Therein what is “anger”? That which is anger, being angry, state of being angry, hatred, being hateful, state of being hateful, disorder, being disorderly, state of being disorderly, antagonism, hostility, ferocity, abruptness, absence of delight of consciousness. This is called anger.

Therein what is “grudging”? First there is anger, later grudging; that which is similar, grudging, being grudging, state of being grudging, maintaining, maintenance, continuous maintenance, continuity, successive binding together, strengthening of anger. This is called grudging. (1)

Therein what is “smirching”? That which is smirching, being smirching, state of being smirching, derogation, derogatory action. This is called smirching.

Therein what is “disparaging? That which is disparaging, being disparaging, state of being disparaging, causing dispute, competing, not giving in. This is called disparaging. (2)

Therein what is “envy”? That which for the gain, honour, being respected, regard, salutation, respectful offering to others, is envy, being envious, state of being envious, jealousy, being jealous, state of being jealous. This is called envy.

Therein what is “meanness”? Five (types of) meanness: Meanness (concerning) dwelling, meanness (concerning) family, meanness (concerning) gain, meanness (concerning) reputation, meanness (concerning) the Doctrine. That which is similar, meanness, being mean, state of being mean, avarice, ignobleness, niggardliness, cramped state of mind. This is called meanness. (3)

Therein what is “deceit”? Herein a certain one having performed wrong action with the body, having performed wrong action with speech, having performed wrong action with the mind, to hide that (action) evokes an bad wish; he wishes thus, “May no-one know me”; he thinks thus, “May no-one know me”; he says the words thus, “May no-one know me”; he tries with the body thus, “May no-one know me”; that which is similar, deceit, being deceitful, glossing over, deception, cheating, confusing the issue, evading, concealment, secrecy, hiding, covering, not making clear, not making known, hiding well, subterfuge. This is called deceit.

Therein what is “hypocrisy? Herein a certain one is a hypocrite, a fraud; that which therein is hypocrisy, being hypocritical, state of being hypocritical, roughness, being rough, pretence, being pretentious. This is called hypocrisy. (4)

Therein what is “ignorance”? That which is absence of knowledge, absence of vision, See section 180. barrier of ignorance, the unskilful root of delusion. This is called ignorance.

Therein what is “craving for existence”? That which in connection with existence is wish for existence, lust for existence, passion for existence, craving for existence, fondness for existence, fevering for existence, yearning for existence, clinging to existence. This is called craving for existence. (5)

Therein what is “existence view”? “The soul, also the world, will be (again)”, thus, that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called existence view.

Therein what is “non-existence view”? “The soul, also the world, will not be (again)”, thus, that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called non-existence view. (6)

Therein what is “eternalistic view”? “The soul, also the world, are eternal”, thus, that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called eternalistic view.

Therein what is “annihilationistic view”? “The soul, also the world, will cease”, thus, that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called annihilationistic view. (7)

Therein what is “finite view”? “The soul, also the world, are finite”, thus, that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called finite view.

Therein what is “infinite view”? “The soul, also the world, are infinite”, thus, that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called infinite view. (8)

Therein what is “ultimate beginning view”? Concerning the ultimate beginning of (beings), that which arises is wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called ultimate beginning view.

Therein what is “ultimate end view”? Concerning the ultimate end (of beings), that which arises is wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called ultimate end view. (9)

Therein what is “absence of sense of shame”? That which is not having shame where there should be shame, not having shame at the attaining of bad unskilful dhammas. This is called absence of sense of shame.

Therein what is “absence of fear of blame”? That which is not having fear of blame where there should be fear of blame, not having fear of blame at the attaining of bad unskilful dhammas. This is called absence of fear of blame. (10)

Therein what is “contumacy”? Having been spoken to in accordance with the Teaching there is act of contumacy, state of contumacy, contumacy, contrariness, captiousness, disregard, being disregardful, disrespect, non-deference. This is called contumacy.

Therein what is “having bad friends”? There are those persons who are without confidence, of wrong morality, without learning, mean, of no wisdom. That which is dependence on, strong dependence on, complete dependence on, approaching, approaching intimately, devotion to, complete devotion to, entanglement with them. This is called having bad friends. (11)

Therein what is “non-straightness”? That which is non-straightness, not being straight, deviousness, sinuosity, crookedness. This is called non-straightness.

Therein what is “non-gentleness”? That which is non-pliancy, being ungentle, hardness, harshness, being hard, stiffness, inflexibility of consciousness (i.e.) non-pliancy. This is called non-gentleness. (12)

Therein what is “impatience”? That which is impatience, being impatient, absence of forbearance, ferocity, abruptness, absence of delight of consciousness. This is called impatience.

Therein what is “immoderation”? Bodily transgression, verbal transgression, both bodily and verbal transgression. This is called immoderation. Also all unskilful behaviour is immoderation. (13)

Therein what is “absence of softness”? That speech which is gnarled, scabrous, bitter to others, pricking to others, bordering on anger, not conducive to samādhi; speech uttered similar thereto. That which therein is unpolished speech, speech lacking softness, harsh speech. This is called absence of softness.

Therein what is “inhospitality”? Two (types of) hospitality: Worldly hospitality also doctrinal hospitality. Herein a certain one is inhospitable with regard to worldly hospitality or doctrinal hospitality. This is called inhospitality. (14)

Therein what is “not guarding as to the doors of the faculties”? Herein a certain one, seeing a visible (object) with the eye, takes in the general appearance, takes in the detail. For whatever reason a person is dwelling without controlling the faculty of eye, covetousness and mental pain, bad unskilful dhammas may (will) follow. He does not exercise restraint thereof; he does not safeguard the faculty of eye; he does not undertake restraint in the faculty of eye. Hearing an audible (object) with the ear. Complete in general form of final example. Smelling an odorous (object) with the nose. Complete in general form of final example. Tasting a sapid (object) with the tongue. Complete in general form of final example. Touching a tangible (object) with the body. Complete in general form of first example. Cognizing an ideational (object) with the mind, takes in the general appearance, takes in the detail. For whatever reason a person is dwelling without controlling the faculty of mind, covetousness and mental pain, bad unskilful dhammas may (will) follow. He does not exercise restraint thereof; he does not safeguard the faculty of mind; he does not undertake restraint in the faculty of mind. That which of these six faculties is not guarding, not being guarded, not safeguarding, not restraint. This is called “not guarding as to the doors of the faculties”.

Therein what is “in food not knowing the right amount”? Herein a certain one not reflecting, improperly takes food for pletitanble pursuits, for pride, for physical charm, for fine physique. That which therein is dissatisfaction, not knowing the right amount, not reflecting on food. This is called “in food not knowing the right amount”. (15)

Therein what is “unmindfulness”? That which is absence of mindfulness, absence of constant mindfulness, absence of recollection, absence of mindfulness, absence of act of remembering, absence of bearing in mind, superficiality, forgetfulness. This is called unmindfulness.

Therein what is “absence of awareness”? That which is absence of knowledge, absence of vision, See section 180. barrier of ignorance, the unskilful root of delusion. This is called absence of awareness. (16)

Therein what is “moral failure”? That which is bodily transgression, verbal transgression, both bodily and verbal transgression. This is called moral failure. Also all wrong morality is moral failure.

Therein what is “faulty view”? “There is no alms-giving; there is no sacrifice, See section 971. (there are not) those who themselves having fully known, having realized this world and the next world make it known (to others)”; that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called faulty view. Also all false view is faulty view. (17)

Therein what are “internal fetters”? Five fetters belonging to low existence are internal fetters; five fetters belonging to high existence are external fetters. (18)

(Here Ends) Twofold (Exposition)

17.10.3. Threefold Exposition

Therein what are “the three unskilful roots”? Greed, hatred, delusion.

Therein what is greed? That which is lusting, infatuation, seduction, compliance, passion, passionate lust, infatuation of consciousness, wishing, yearning, clinging, greediness, omniverous greediness, cleaving, slough, allurement, deceit, genetrix, fettering genetrix, sempstress, ensnarer, river, extending, (fishing) line, spreading, urger, consort, hankering, guide to existence, forest, jungle, intimacy, fondness, (greedy) considerateness, kin, want, wanting, state of wanting, wanting visible (objects), wanting audible (objects), wanting odorous (objects), wanting sapid (objects), wanting tangible (objects), wanting gains, wanting wealth, wanting sons, wanting life, muttering, excessive muttering, act of muttering, state of muttering, self-indulgence, being self-indulgent, state of being self-indulgent, agitation, desire for the nicer, incestuous lust, lawless greed, longing, act of longing, entreating, liking, imploring, craving for sense pleasure, craving for existence, craving for non-existence, craving for form, craving for the formless, craving for cessation, craving for visible (objects), craving for audible (objects), craving for odorous (objects), craving for sapid (objects), craving for tangible (objects), craving for ideational (objects), flood, bond, tie, grasping, obstruction, hindrance, covering, bondage, depravity, latent tendency, usurping, creeper, avarice, root of suffering, source of suffering, origin of suffering, Māra’s snare, Māra’s fish-hook, Māra’s domain, river of craving, net of craving, leash of craving, ocean of craving, covetousness, the unskilful root of greed. This is called greed.

Therein what is hatred? “He has done me harm”, thus vexation arises; “He is doing me harm”, thus vexation arises; “He will do me harm”, thus vexation arises; “He has done harm to one dear and pleasant to me, Complete appropriately. he is doing harm, Complete appropriately. he will do harm”, thus vexation arises; “He has done skilful to one not dear and not pleasant to me, Complete appropriately. he is doing skilful, Complete appropriately. he will do skilful”, thus vexation arises; or vexation arises unreasonably. That which is similar, vexation of consciousness, resentment, repulsion, hostility, irritation, exasperation, incensement, hatred, antipathy, abhorrence, mental disorder, detestation, anger, being angry, state of being angry, hatred, being hateful, state of being hateful, disorder, disorderly, antagonism, hostility, ferocity, abruptness, absence of delight of consciousness. This is called hatred.

Therein what is delusion? Absence of knowledge of suffering; absence of knowledge of the cause of suffering; absence of knowledge of the cessation of suffering; absence of knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of suffering; absence of knowledge of the ultimate beginning (of beings); absence of knowledge of the ultimate end (of beings); absence of knowledge of both the ultimate beginning and the ultimate end (of beings); absence of knowledge of specific causality and dependently originated dhammas; that which is similar, absence of knowledge, absence of vision, See section 180. barrier of ignorance, the unskilful root of delusion. This is called delusion. These are the three unskilful roots. (1)

Therein what are “three (types of) unskilful thinking”? Thinking (connected with) desire, thinking (connected with) ill-will, thinking (connected with) cruelty.

Therein what is thinking (connected with) desire? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought associated with desire. This is called thinking (connected with) desire.

Therein what is thinking (connected with) ill-will? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought associated with ill-will. This is called thinking (connected with) ill-will.

Therein what is thinking (connected with) cruelty? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought associated with cruelty. This is called thinking (connected with) cruelty. These are three (types of) unskilful thinking. (2)

Therein what are three (types of) unskilful perception? Perception (connected with) desire, perception (connected with) ill-will, perception (connected with) cruelty.

Therein what is perception (connected with) desire? Perception, act of perceiving, state of perceiving associated with desire. This is called perception (connected with) desire.

Therein what is perception (connected with) ill-will? Perception, act of perceiving, state of perceiving associated with ill-will. This is called perception (connected with) ill-will.

Therein what is perception (connected with) cruelty? Perception, act of perceiving, state of perceiving associated with cruelty. This is called perception (connected with) cruelty. These are three (types of) unskilful perception. (3)

Therein what are “three unskilful elements”? The element of desire, element of ill-will, element of cruelty.

Therein what is the element of desire? Thinking (connected with) desire is the element of desire; thinking (connected with) ill-will is the element of ill-will; thinking (connected with) cruelty is the element of cruelty.

Therein what is thinking (connected with) desire? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought associated with desire. This is called thinking (connected with) desire.

Therein what is thinking (connected with) ill-will? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought associated with ill-will. This is called thinking (connected with) ill-will.

Therein what is thinking (connected with) cruelty? Mentation, thinking, wrong thought associated with cruelty. This is called thinking (connected with) cruelty. These are three unskilful elements. (4)

Therein what are three (types of) wrong action? Wrong bodily action, wrong verbal action, wrong mental action.

Therein what is wrong bodily action? Killing beings, taking that which is not given, sexual misconduct. This is called wrong bodily action.

Therein what is wrong verbal action? False speech, slandering speech, harsh speech, frivolous speech. This is called wrong verbal action.

Therein what is wrong mental action? Covetousness, ill-will, false view. This is called wrong mental action.

Therein what is wrong bodily action? Unskilful bodily action is wrong bodily action; unskilful verbal action is wrong verbal action; unskilful mental action is wrong mental action.

Therein what is unskilful bodily action? Unskilful bodily volition is unskilful bodily action; unskilful verbal volition is unskilful verbal action; unskilful mental volition is unskilful mental action. These are three (types of) wrong action. (5)

Therein what are “three defilements”? The defilement of desire, the defilement of existence, the defilement of ignorance.

Therein what is the defilement of desire? That which in connection with desire is wish for sense pleasure, lust for sense pleasure, passion for sense pleasure, craving for sense pleasure, fondness for sense pleasure, fevering for sense pleasure, yearning for sense pleasure, clinging to sense pleasure. This is called the defilement of desire.

Therein what is the defilement of existence? That which in connection with existence is wish for existence, See section 895. clinging to existence. This is called the defilement of existence.

Therein what is the defilement of ignorance? Absence of knowledge of suffering, See section 909. barrier of ignorance, the unskilful root of delusion. This is called the defilement of ignorance. These are three defilements.

Therein what are “three fetters”? Individuality view, doubt, adherence to habits and practices.

Therein what is individuality view? Herein the unlearned worldling who does not recognize the Noble Ones, is not versed in the teaching of the Noble Ones, is not disciplined in the teaching of the Noble Ones; does not recognize skilful men, is not versed in the teaching of skilful men, is not disciplined in the teaching of skilful men; regards material qualities as the soul; or the soul as having material qualities; or material qualities (as being) in the soul; or the soul (as being) in material qualities; feeling. Complete in general form of final example. Perception. Complete in general form of final example. Volitional activities. Complete in general form of final example. Regards consciousness as the soul; or the soul as having consciousness; or consciousness (as being) in the soul; or the soul (as being) in consciousness; that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called individuality view.

Therein what is doubt? One is puzzled, doubts in the Teacher; one is puzzled, doubts in the Teaching; one is puzzled, doubts in the Order; one is puzzled, doubts in the precepts; one is puzzled, doubts in the ultimate beginning (of beings); one is puzzled, doubts in the ultimate end (of beings); one is puzzled, doubts in both the ultimate beginning and the ultimate end (of beings); one is puzzled, doubts in specific causality and dependently originated dhammas; that which is similar, puzzlement, being puzzled, state of being puzzled, rigidity of consciousness, mental scarifying. This is called doubt.

Therein what is adherence to habits and practices? (The belief in) The purification by means of habit, purification by means of practice, purification by means of both habit and practice of recluses and Brahmins outside this (Teaching); that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called adherence to habits and practices. These are three fetters. (7)

Therein what are “three (types of) craving”? Craving for sense pleasure, craving for existence, craving for non-existence.

Therein what is craving for existence? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness accompanied by existence view. This is called craving for existence.

Therein what is craving for non-existence? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness accompanied by annihilation-istic view. This is called craving for non-existence. The remaining craving is craving for sense pleasure.

Therein what is craving for sense pleasure? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness associated with the element of desire. This is called craving for sense pleasure.

Some texts include, “Therein what is craving for existence”? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness associated with the element of form and the formless element. This is called craving for existence.

Some texts include, “Therein what is craving for non-existence”? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness accompanied by annihilationistic view. This is called craving for non-existence. These are three (types of) craving. (8)

Therein what are “another three (types of) craving”? Craving for sense pleasure, craving for form, craving for the formless.

Therein what is craving for sense pleasure? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness associated with the element of desire. This is called craving for sense pleasure.

Therein what is craving for form? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness associated with the element of form. This is called craving for form.

Therein what is craving for the formless? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness associated with the formless element. This is called craving for the formless. These are three (types) of craving. (9)

Therein what are another three (types of) craving? Craving for form, craving for the formless, craving for cessation.

Therein what is craving for form? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness associated with the element of form. This is called craving for form.

Therein what is craving for the formless? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness associated with the formless element. This is called craving for the formless.

Therein what is craving for cessation? Lusting, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness accompanied by annihilationistic view. This is called craving for cessation. These are three (types of) craving. (10)

Therein what are “three (types of) seeking”? Seeking sense pleasure, seeking existence, seeking supreme practice.

Therein what is seeking sense pleasure? That which in connection with desire is wish for sense pleasure, See section 914. clinging to sense pleasure. This is called seeking sense pleasure.

Therein what is seeking existence? That which in connection with existence is wish for existence, See section 895. clinging to existence. This is called seeking existence.

Therein what is seeking supreme practice? “The world is eternal” or “The world is not eternal” or, See section 815. “A being neither exists nor does not exist after death”; that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called seeking supreme practice.

Therein what is seeking sense pleasure? Lust for sense pleasure and the unskilful bodily action, verbal action and mental action occurring therewith. This is called seeking sense pleasure.

Therein what is seeking existence? Lust for existence and the unskilful bodily action, verbal action and mental action occurring therewith. This is called seeking for existence.

Therein what is seeking supreme practice? Extremist view and the unskilful bodily action, verbal action and mental action occurring therewith. This is called seeking supreme practice. These are three (types of) seeking. (11)

Therein what are “three (types of) conceitedness”? The conceitedness thus, “I am better”; the conceitedness thus, “I am equal”; the conceitedness thus, “I am inferior”. These are three (types of) conceitedness. (12)

Therein what are three (types of) fear? Fear of birth, fear of old age, fear of death.

Therein what is fear of birth? Fear, being fearful, trembling, horripilation, mental terror dependent on birth. This is called fear of birth.

Therein what is fear of old age? Fear, being fearful, trembling, horripilation, mental terror dependent on old age. This is called fear of old age.

Therein what is fear of death? Fear, being fearful, trembling, horripilation, mental terror dependent on death. This is called fear of death. These are three (types of) fear. (13)

Therein what are “three (types of) darkness”? Concerning past time one is puzzled, doubts, is indeterminate, is not clear; or concerning future time one is puzzled, doubts, is indeterminate, is not clear; or now, concerning present time, one is puzzled, doubts, is indeterminate, is not clear. These are three (types of) darkness. (14)

Therein what are “three sense-bases of heresy”? Herein a certain one, recluse or Brahmin, says thus, views thus, “Whatsoever pleasure, pain or neither-pain-nor-pleasure a man experiences, all this is due to past action”; also herein a certain one, recluse or Brahmin, says thus, views thus, “Whatsoever pleasure, pain or neither-pain-nor-pleasure a man experiences, all this is due to the creation of a supreme deity”; also herein a certain one, recluse or Brahmin, says thus, views thus, “Whatsoever pleasure, pain or neither-pain-nor-pleasure a man experiences, all this is without cause, without reason”. These are three sense-bases of heresy. (15)

Therein what are “three (types of) impediment”? Impediment of lust; impediment of hatred; impediment of delusion. These are three (types of) impediment. (16)

Therein what are “three (types of) taint? The taint of lust; the taint of hatred; the taint of delusion. These are three (types of) taint. (17)

Therein what are “three (types of) impurity”? Impurity of lust; impurity of hatred; impurity of delusion. These are three (types of) impurity. (18)

Therein what are “three (types of) discrepancy”? Discrepancy of lust; discrepancy of hatred; discrepancy of delusion. These are three (types of) discrepancy. (19)

Therein what are “another three (types of) discrepancy”? Discrepancy of bodily (action); discrepancy of verbal (action); discrepancy of mental (action). These are three (types of) discrepancy. (20)

Therein what are “three (types of) fire”? The fire of lust; the fire of hatred; the fire of delusion. These are three (types of) fire. (21)

Therein what are “three (types of) acridity”? The acridity of lust; the acridity of hatred; the acridity of delusion. These are three (types of) acridity. (22)

Therein what are another three (types of) acridity? The acridity of bodily (action); the acridity of verbal (action); the acridity of mental (action). These are three (types of) acridity. (23)

Therein what is “gratification view”? Herein a certain one, recluse or Brahmin, says thus, views thus, “There is no fault in sense pleasures”; he plunges into sense pleasures. This is called gratification view.

Therein what is “soul view”? Herein the unlearned worldling who does not recognize the Noble Ones, is not versed in the teaching of the Noble Ones, is not disciplined in the teaching of the Noble Ones; does not recognize skilful men, is not versed in the teaching of skilful men, is not disciplined in the teaching of skilful men; regards material qualities as soul; or soul as having material qualities; or material qualities (as being) in soul; or soul (as being) in material qualities; feeling. Complete in general form of final example. Perception. Complete in general form of final example. Volitional activities. Complete in general form of final example. Regards consciousness as soul; or soul as having consciousness; or consciousness (as being) in soul; or soul (as being) in consciousness; that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called soul view.

Therein what is “false view”? “There is no alms-giving; there is no sacrifice, See section 971. (there are not) those who themselves having fully known, having realized this world and the next world, make it known (to others)”; that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called false view, eternalistic view, gratification view, individuality view, soul view, annihila-tionistic view, false view.

Therein what is “tedium”? Tedium, having tedium, displeasure, being displeased, dissatisfaction, dread of remote abodes or certain higher skilful dhammas. This is called tedium.

Therein what is “troubling”? Herein a certain one hurts (other) beings with the hand or with a clod or with a stick or with a sword or with a rope or with one thing or another; that which is similar, harassing, hurting, annoying, injuring, provoking, enraging, striking others. This is called troubling.

Therein what is “wrong behaviour”? Wrong behaviour, lawless behaviour by means of the body; wrong behaviour, lawless behaviour by means of speech; wrong behaviour, lawless behaviour by means of the mind. This is called wrong behaviour. (25)

Therein what is “contumacy”? Having been spoken to in accordance with the Teaching there is act of contumacy, state of contumacy, contumacy, contrariness, captiousness, disregard, being disregardful, disrespect, non-deference. This is called contumacy.

Therein what is “having bad friends”? There are those persons who are without confidence, of wrong morality, without learning, mean, of no wisdom; that which is dependence on, strong dependence on, complete dependence on, approaching, approaching intimately, devotion to, complete devotion to, entanglement with them. This is called having bad friends.

Therein what is “diversity of perception”? Perception (connected with) desire, perception (connected with) ill-will, perception (connected with) cruelty. This is called diversity of perception. All unskilful perception is diversity of perception. (26)

Therein what is “distraction”? That which is distraction of consciousness, disquietude, mental wavering, turmoil of consciousness. This is called distraction.

Therein what is “indolence”? Wrong bodily action or wrong verbal action or wrong mental action or the succumbing and repeated succumbing of consciousness to the five strands of sense pleasures, or not working carefully, not working constantly, working spasmodically, being stagnant, relinquishing wish, relinquishing the task, non-pursuance, non-development, non-repetition, non-resolution, non-practising, heedlessness in the development of skilful dhammas. This is called indolence.

Therein what is “heedlessness”? Wrong bodily action or wrong verbal action or wrong mental action or the succumbing and repeated succumbing of consciousness to the five strands of sense pleasures, or not working carefully, not working constantly, working spasmodically, being stagnant, relinquishing wish, relinquishing the task, non-pursuance, non-development, non-repetition, non-resolution, non-practising, heedlessness in the development of skilful dhammas; that which is similar, heedlessness, being heedless, state of being heedless. This is called heedlessness. (27)

Therein what is “discontent”? The greater desire of one discontented with such requisites as robe, alms-food, dwelling, medicine for helping the sick or with the five strands of sense pleasures; that which is similar, wishing, act of wishing, discontent, lust, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness. This is called discontent.

Therein what is “absence of awareness”? That which is absence of knowledge, absence of vision, See section 180. barrier of ignorance, the unskilful root of delusion. This is called absence of awareness.

Therein what is “wish for the most”? The greater desire of one discontented with such requisites as robe, alms-food, dwelling, medicine for helping the sick or with the five strands of sense pleasures; that which is similar, wishing, act of wishing, wish for the most, lust, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness. This is called wish for the most. (28)

Therein what is “absence of sense of shame”? That which is not having shame where there should be shame, not having shame at the attaining of bad unskilful dhammas. This is called absence of sense of shame.

Therein what is “absence of fear of blame”? That which is not having fear of blame where there should be fear of blame, not having fear of blame at the attaining of bad unskilful dhammas. This is called absence of fear of blame.

Therein what is “heedlessness”? Wrong bodily action or wrong verbal action or wrong mental action or the succumbing and repeated succumbing of consciousness to the five strands of sense pleasures, or not working carefully, not working constantly, working spasmodically, being stagnant, relinquishing wish, relinquishing the task, non-pursuance, non-development, non-repetition, non-resolution, non-practising, heedlessness in the development of skilful dhammas; that which is similar, heedlessness, being heedless, state of being heedless. This is called heedlessness. (29)

Therein what is “disregard”? That which is disregard, being disregardful, disrespect, non-deference, irreverence, being irreverent, state of being irreverent, unmannerliness, absence of esteem. This is called disregard.

Therein what is “contumacy”? Having been spoken to in accordance with the Teaching there is act of contumacy, state of contumacy, contumacy, contrariness, captiousness, disregard, being disregardful, disrespect, non-deference. This is called contumacy.

Therein what is “having bad friends”? There are those persons who are without confidence, of wrong morality, without learning, mean, of no wisdom; that which is dependence on, strong dependence on, complete dependence on, approaching, approaching intimately, devotion to, complete devotion to, entanglement with them. This is called having bad friends. (30)

Therein what is “non-confidence”? Herein a certain one is without confidence, does not believe in the Buddha or the Teaching or the Order; that which is similar, non-confidence, being non-confident, not putting trust in, not having much faith. This is called non-confidence.

Therein what is “not knowing entreaty”? Five (types of) meanness: Meanness (concerning) dwelling, meanness (concerning) family, meanness (concerning) gain, meanness (concerning) reputation, meanness (concerning) the Doctrine; that which is similar, meanness, being mean, state of being mean, avarice, ignobleness, niggardliness, cramped state of mind. This is called not knowing entreaty.

Therein what is “indolence”? Wrong bodily action or wrong verbal action or wrong mental action or the succumbing and repeated succumbing of consciousness to the five strands of sense pleasures, or not working carefully, not working constantly, working spasmodically, being stagnant, relinquishing wish, relinquishing the task, non-pursuance, non-development, non-repetition, non-resolution, non-practising, heedlessness. In the development of skilful dhammas. This is called indolence. (31)

Therein what is “distraction”? That which is distraction of consciousness, disquietude, mental wavering, turmoil of consciousness. This is called distraction.

Therein what is “absence of restraint”? Herein a certain one seeingavisible(object) with the eye, takes in the general appearance, takes in the detail. For whatever reason a person is dwelling without controlling the faculty of eye, covetousness and mental pain, bad unskilful dhammas may (will) follow. He does not exercise restraint thereof; he does not safeguard the faculty of eye; he does not undertake restraint in the faculty of eye. Hearing an audible (object) with the ear. Complete in general form of first example. Smelling an odorous (object) with the nose. Complete in general form of first example. Tasting a sapid (object) with the tongue. Complete in general form of first example. Touching a tangible (object) with the body. Complete in general form of first example. Cognizing an ideational (object) with the mind, takes in the general appearance, takes in the detail. For whatever reason a person is dwelling without controlling the faculty of mind, covetousness and mental pain, bad unskilful dhammas may (will) follow. He does not exercise restraint thereof; he does not safeguard the faculty of mind; he does not undertake restraint in the faculty of mind. This is called absence of restraint

Therein what is “wrong morality”? Bodily transgression, verbal transgression, both bodily and verbal transgression. This is called wrong morality. (32)

Therein what is “absence of desire to see Noble Ones”? Therein what are Noble Ones? Buddhas and the disciples of the Buddhas are called Noble Ones; that which is absence of desire to see, absence of desire to look at, absence of desire to go near, absence of desire to come together with these Noble Ones. This is called absence of desire to see Noble Ones.

Therein what is “absence of desire to hear the true Doctrine”? Therein what is the true Doctrine? The four establishments of mindfulness, the four right exertions, the four sense-bases of accomplishment, five faculties, five powers, the seven awakening factors, the Noble Eightfold Path; this is called the true Doctrine. That which is absence of desire to hear, absence of desire to listen, absence of desire to promote, absence of desire to retain this true Doctrine. This is called absence of desire to hear the true Doctrine.

Therein what is “reproachful state of mind”? Therein what is reproach? That which is reproach, repeated reproach, being reproachful, being repeatedly reproachful, state of being repeatedly reproachful, contempt, despising, reviling, finding fault. This is called reproachful state of mind. (33)

Therein what is “unmindfulness”? That which is absence of mindfulness, absence of constant mindfulness, absence of recollection, absence of mindfulness, absence of act of remembering, absence of bearing in mind, superficiality, forgetfulness. This is called unmindfulness.

Therein what is “absence of awareness”? That which is absence of knowledge, absence of vision, See section 180. barrier of ignorance, the unskilful root of delusion. This is called absence of awareness.

Therein what is “mental wavering”? That which is distraction of consciousness, disquietude, mental wavering, turmoil of consciousness. This is called mental wavering. (34)

Therein what is “improper attention”? There is improper attention thus, “In impermanence there is permanence”; there is improper attention thus, “In pain there is pleasure”; there is improper attention thus, “In absence of soul there is a soul”; there is improper attention thus, “In absence of beauty there is beauty”; or, turning of the mind, repeated turning, cognition, advertence, attention to what is contrary to truth. This is called improper attention.

Therein what is “dependence on the wrong path”? Therein what is wrong path? Wrong view, wrong thought, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, wrong samādhi; this is called wrong path. That which is dependence on, strong dependence on, complete dependence on, approaching, approaching intimately, devotion to, complete devotion to, entanglement with this wrong path. This is called dependence on the wrong path.

Therein what is “mental sluggishness”? That which is indisposition of consciousness, unwieldiness, drooping, sagging, sluggishness, being sluggish, state of being sluggish, sloth, being slothful, state of consciousness being slothful. This is called mental sluggishness. (35)

(Here Ends) Threefold (Exposition)

17.10.4. Fourfold Exposition

Therein what are “four defilements”? The defilement of desire, the defilement of existence, the defilement of wrong view, the defilement of ignorance.

Therein what is the defilement of desire? That which in connection with desire is wish for sense pleasure, lust for sense pleasure, passion for sense pleasure, craving for sense pleasure, fondness for sense pleasure, fevering for sense pleasure, yearning for sense pleasure, clinging to sense pleasure. This is called the defilement of desire.

Therein what is the defilement of existence? That which in connection with existence is wish for existence, See section 895. clinging to existence. This is called the defilement of existence.

Therein what is the defilement of wrong view? “The world is eternal” or “the world is not eternal”, “the world is finite” or “the world is infinite”, “vital principle and the body are the same” or “vital principle and the body are different”, “the Tathāgata exists after death” or “the Tathāgata does not exist after death” or “the Tathāgata exists and does not exist after death” or “the Tathāgata neither exists nor does not exist after death”; that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called the defilement of wrong view. Also all false view is the defilement of wrong view.

Therein what is the defilement of ignorance? Absence of knowledge of suffering; absence of knowledge of the cause of suffering; absence of knowledge of the cessation of suffering; absence of knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of suffering; absence of knowledge of the ultimate beginning (of beings); absence of knowledge of the ultimate end (of beings); absence of knowledge of both the ultimate beginning and the ultimate end (of beings); absence of knowledge of specific causality and depen-dently originated dhammas; that which is similar, absence of knowledge, absence of vision, See section 180. barrier of ignorance, the unskilful root of delusion. This is called the defilement of ignorance. These are four defilements. (1)

Therein what are “four ties”, See Dhammasaṅgaṇī section 1140 et seq.four floods”, See section 914. four bonds”, “four graspings”? The grasping of desire, the grasping of wrong view, the grasping of (wrong) habits and practices, the grasping of soul theory.

Therein what is the grasping of desire? That which in connection with desire is wish for sense pleasure, clinging to sense pleasure. This is called the grasping of desire.

Therein what is the grasping of wrong view? “There is no alms-giving; there is no sacrifice, See section 971. (there are not) those who themselves having fully known, having realized this world and the next world, make it known (to others)”; that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called the grasping of wrong view. Excepting the grasping of (wrong) habits and practices and the grasping of soul theory, all false view is the grasping of wrong view.

Therein what is the grasping of (wrong) habits and practices? (The belief in) The purification by means of rule of habit, purification by means of practice, purification by means of both habit and practice of recluses and Brahmins outside this (Teaching); that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called the grasping of (wrong) habits and practices.

Therein what is the grasping of soul theory? Herein the unlearned worldling who does not recognize the Noble Ones, is not versed in the teaching of the Noble Ones, is not disciplined in the teaching of the Noble Ones; does not recognize skilful men, is not versed in the teaching of skilful men, is not disciplined in the teaching of skilful men; regards material qualities as soul; or soul as having material qualities; or material qualities (as being) in soul; or soul (as being) in material qualities; feeling. Complete in general form of final example. Perception. Complete in general form of final example. Volitional activities. Complete in general form of final example. Regards consciousness as soul; or soul as having consciousness; or consciousness (as being) in soul; or soul (as being) in consciousness; that which is similar, wrong view, resorting to wrong view, See section 249. inverted grip. This is called the grasping of soul theory. These are four graspings. (5)

Therein what are “four arisings of craving”? When in a monk the craving arising on account of a robe arises; when in a monk the craving arising on account of food arises; when in a monk the craving arising on account of a dwelling arises; when in a monk the craving arising on account of excellent and more excellent things arises. These are four arisings of craving. (6)

Therein what are “four practices of wrong course”? One practises the wrong course of partiality; one practises the wrong course of hatred; one practises the wrong course of delusion; one practises the wrong course of fear; that which is similar, wrong course, the practice of wrong course, the practice of partiality, the practice of categorizing, water practice. These are four practices of wrong course. (7)

Therein what are “four inversions”? Inverted perception, inverted consciousness, inverted view is thus, “In impermanence there is permanence”; inverted perception, inverted consciousness, inverted view is thus, “In pain there is pleasure”; inverted perception, inverted consciousness, inverted view is thus, “In absence of soul there is a soul”; inverted perception, inverted consciousness, inverted view is thus,“In absence of beauty there is beauty”. These are four inversions. (8)

Therein what are “four (types of) ignoble speech”? Having not seen he says he has seen; having not heard he says he has heard; having not thought he says he has thought; having not known he says he knows. These are four (types of) ignoble speech. (9)

Therein what are “another four (types of) ignoble speech”? Having seen he says he has not seen; having heard he says he has not heard; having thought he says he has not thought; having known he says he does not know. These are four (types of) ignoble speech. (10)

Therein what are “four (types of) wrong action”? Killing beings, taking that which is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech. These are four (types of) wrong action. (11)

Therein what are “another four (types of) wrong action”? False speech, slanderous speech, harsh speech, frivolous speech. These are four (types of) wrong action. (12)

Therein what are “four (types of) fear”? Fear of birth, fear of old age, fear of decay, fear of death. These are four (types of) fear. (13)

Therein what are “another four (types of) fear”? Fear of kings, fear of thieves, fear of fire, fear of water. These are four (types of) fear. (14)

Therein what are “another four (types of) fear”? Fear of waves, fear of crocodiles, fear of whirlpools, fear of fierce fish. These are four (types of) fear. (15)

Therein what are “another four (types of) fear”? Fear of self-condemnation, fear of condemnation by others, fear of punishment, fear of woeful dhammas. These are four (types of) fear. (16)

Therein what are “four wrong views”? Wrong view arises firmly as truth thus, “Pleasure and pain are produced by the self”; wrong view arises firmly as truth thus, “Pleasure and pain are produced by another (cause)”; wrong view arises firmly as truth thus, “Pleasure and pain are produced by the self and are produced by another (cause)”; wrong view arises firmly as truth thus, “Pleasure and pain are not produced by the self, are not produced by another (cause) but arise without cause”. These are four wrong views. (17)

(Here Ends) Fourfold (Exposition)

17.10.5. Fivefold Exposition

Therein what are “five fetters belonging to low (existence)”? Individuality view, doubt, adherence to (wrong) habits and practices, wish for sense pleasure, ill-will. These are five fetters belonging to low (existence). (1)

Therein what are “five fetters belonging to high (existence)”? Lust for form, lust for the formless, conceit, distraction, ignorance. These are five fetters belonging to high (existence). (2)

Therein what are “five (types of) meanness”? Meanness (concerning) dwelling, meanness (concerning) family, meanness (concerning) gain, meanness (concerning) reputation, meanness (concerning) the Doctrine. These are five (types of) meanness. (3)

Therein what are “five adhesions”? The adhesion of lust, the adhesion of hatred, the adhesion of delusion, the adhesion of conceit, the adhesion of wrong view. These are five adhesions. (4)

Therein what are “five arrows”? The arrow of lust, the arrow of hatred, the arrow of delusion, the arrow of conceit, the arrow of wrong view. These are five arrows. (5)

Therein what are “five mental spikes”? One is puzzled, doubts, is indeterminate, is not clear about the Teacher; one is puzzled, doubts, is indeterminate, is not clear about the Teaching; one is puzzled, doubts, is indeterminate, is not clear about the Order; one is puzzled, doubts, is indeterminate, is not clear about the precepts; one offends, displeases, mentally afflicts, becomes a spike to fellow disciples. These are five mental spikes. (6)

Therein what are “five (types of) mental bondage”? One is not without lust, not without wish, not without love, not without thirst, not without fever, not without craving for sense pleasure; one is not without lust for the body; one is not without lust for the form (of others). Having eaten as much as fills the stomach one dwells indulging in the pleasure of bed, in the pleasure of lolling, in the pleasure of sleep. One practises the religious life praying for some godly existence thus, “May I by this habit or by this practice or by this austerity or by this religious life become a (high) god or other kind of god”. These are five (types of) mental bondage. (7)

Therein what are “five hindrances”? The hindrance of wish for sense pleasure, the hindrance of ill-will, the hindrance of sloth and torpor, the hindrance of distraction and remorse, the hindrance of doubt. These are five hindrances. (8)

Therein what are “five immediate resultant actions”? A mother is deprived of life, a father is deprived of life, an arahant is deprived of life, with wicked consciousness the blood of the Tathāgata is shed, the Order is divided. These are five immediate resultant actions. (9)

Therein what are “five wrong views”? This some people declare thus, “The soul has perception and is not deceased after death”; this some people declare thus, “The soul has no perception and is not deceased after death”; this some people declare thus, “The soul neither has nor has not perception and is not deceased after death”; (some) make known the annihilation, the destruction, the non-existence of the existing being (after death) or some people declare Nibbāna in the present existence. These are five wrong views. (10)

Therein what are “five hostile actions”? Killing beings, taking that which is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, (taking) intoxicating beers, wines and spirits causing heedlessness. These are five hostile actions. (11)

Therein what are “five misfortunes”? Misfortune through relatives, misfortune through wealth, misfortune through disease, misfortune through (corrupted) morality, misfortune through wrong view. These are five misfortunes. (12)

Therein what are “the five disadvantages of impatience”? One is not dear, not pleasant to many people; one is the enemy of many and has many faults; one dies confused; at the breaking up of the body after death one is reborn in the woeful, unhappy, ruinous state of hell. These are the five disadvantages of impatience. (13)

Therein what are “five fears”? Fear (concerning) livelihood, fear of disapproval, fear (that is) timidity in assemblies, fear of death, fear of unhappy (rebirth). These are five fears. (14)

Therein what are “five theories of Nibbāna in the present existence”? Herein a certain one, recluse or Brahmin, says thus, views thus, “Because, friend, this soul affected by, possessed of the five strands of sense pleasure, revels; therefore, friend, this soul attains the highest Nibbāna in the present existence”; thus some make known the highest Nibbāna of the existing being in the present existence.

Another said to that (person) thus, “Friend, this soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much does not attain highest Nibbāna in the present existence, why is that? Friend, sense pleasures are indeed impermanent, suffering, subject to change; in them different dhammas of change arise, (also) sorrow, lamentation, pain (physical), mental pain, despair. Because, friend, this soul, aloof from sense pleasures, See section 205. attains and dwells in the first jhāna, therefore, friend, this soul indeed attains highest Nibbāna in the present existence”; thus some make known the highest Nibbāna of the existing being in the present existence.

Another said to that (person) thus, “Friend, this soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say that it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much does not attain highest Nibbāna in the present existence, why is that? Therein that which is initial application and sustained application, by that much it seems to be gross. Because, friend, this soul, inhibiting initial application and sustained application, See section 205. attains and dwells in the second jhāna, therefore, friend, this soul indeed attains highest Nibbāna in the present existence”; thus some make known the highest Nibbāna of the existing being in the present existence.

Another said to that (person) thus, “Friend, this soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say that it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much does not attain highest Nibbāna in the present existence, why is that? Therein that which is raptureful elation of the mind, by that much it seems to be gross. Because, friend, this soul, desireless of rapture, See section 205. attains and dwells in the third jhāna, therefore, friend, this soul indeed attains highest Nibbāna in the present existence”; thus some make known the highest Nibbāna of the existing being in the present existence.

Another said to that (person) thus, “Friend, this soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say that it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much does not attain highest Nibbāna in the present existence, why is that? Therein that which is pletitanble rapture, mentally cognized, by that much it seems to be gross. Because, friend, this soul, by the abandoning of pleasure, See section 205. attains and dwells in the fourth jhāna, therefore, friend, this soul indeed attains highest Nibbāna in the present existence”; thus some make known the highest Nibbāna of the existing being in the present existence. These are five theories of Nibbāna in the present existence. (15)

(Here Ends) Fivefold (Exposition)

17.10.6. Sixfold Exposition

Therein what are “six roots of contention”? Anger, smirching, envy, hypocrisy, bad wish, stubbornness. These are six roots of contention. (1)

Therein what are “six (types of) lusting wish”? dhammas of lusting wish connected with sensuousness, (viz.) lust, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness connected with sensuousness for pleasant visible (objects); for pleasant audible (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For pleasant odorous (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For pleasant sapid (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For pleasant tangible (objects). Complete in general form of final example. Lust, infatuation, infatuation of consciousness connected with sensuousness for pleasant ideational (objects). These are six (types of) lusting wish. (2)

Therein what are “six sense-bases of enmity”? Vexation of consciousness, resentment, hostility, abruptness, absence of delight of consciousness for unpleasant visible (objects); for unpleasant audible (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For unpleasant odorous (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For unpleasant sapid (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For unpleasant tangible (objects). Complete in general form of final example. Vexation of consciousness, resentment, hostility, abruptness, absence of delight of consciousness for unpleasant ideational (objects). These are six sense-bases of enmity. (3)

Therein what are “six groupings of craving”? Craving for visible (objects), craving for audible (objects), craving for odorous (objects), craving for sapid (objects), craving for tangible (objects), craving for ideational (objects). These are six groupings of craving. (4)

Therein what are “six (types of) disrespect”? One dwells without respect, without deference for the Teacher; one dwells without respect, without deference for the Teaching; one dwells without respect, without deference for the Order; one dwells without respect, without deference for the precepts; one dwells without respect, without deference for heedfulness; one dwells without respect, without deference for hospitality. These are six (types of) disrespect. (5)

Therein what are “six retrogressive dhammas”? Enjoying action, enjoying talk, enjoying sleep, enjoying company, enjoying mixing, enjoying obsessions. These are six retrogressive dhammas. (6)

Therein what are “another six retrogressive dhammas”? Enjoying action, enjoying talk, enjoying sleep, enjoying company, contumacy, having bad friends. These are six retrogressive dhammas. (7)

Therein what are “six (types of) examining with mental pleasure”? Seeing a visible (object) with the eye one examines the visible (object) which is the cause of mental pleasure; hearing an audible (object) with the ear. Complete in general form of final example. Smelling an odorous (object) with the nose. Complete in general form of final example. Tasting a sapid (object) with the tongue. Complete in general form of final example. Touching a tangible (object) with the body. Complete in general form of final example. Cognizing an ideational (object) with the mind one examines the ideational (object) which is the cause of mental pleasure. These are six (types of) examining with mental pleasure. (8)

Therein what are “six (types of) examining with mental pain”? Seeing a visible (object) with the eye one examines the visible (object) which is the cause of mental pain; hearing an audible (object) with the ear. Complete in general form of final example. Smelling an odorous (object) with the nose. Complete in general form of final example. Tasting a sapid (object) with the tongue. Complete in general form of final example. Touching a tangible (object) with the body. Complete in general form of final example. Cognizing an ideational (object) with the mind one examines the ideational (object) which is the cause of mental pain. These are six (types of) examining with mental pain. (9)

Therein what are “six (types of) examining with indifference”? Seeing a visible (object) with the eye one examines the visible (object) which is the cause of indifference; hearing an audible (object) with the ear. Complete in general form of final example. Smelling an odorous (object) with the nose. Complete in general form of final example. Tasting a sapid (object) with the tongue. Complete in general form of final example. Touching a tangible (object) with the body. Complete in general form of final example. Cognizing an ideational (object) with the mind one examines the ideational (object) which is the cause of indifference. These are six (types of) examining with indifference. (10)

Therein what are “six (types of) mental pleasure connected with sensuousness”? Mental ease, mental pleasure, easeful pleasant experience born of mental contact, easeful pleasant feeling born of mental contact connected with sensuousness for pleasant visible (objects); for pleasant audible (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For pleasant odorous (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For pleasant sapid (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For pleasant tangible (objects). Complete in general form of final example. Mental ease, mental pleasure, easeful pleasant experience born of mental contact, easeful pleasant feeling born of mental contact connected with sensuousness for pleasant ideational (objects). These are six (types of) mental pleasure connected with sensuousness. (11)

Therein what are “six (types of) mental pain connected with sensuousness”? Mental uneasiness, mental pain, uneasy painful experience born of mental contact, uneasy painful feeling born of mental contact connected with sensuousness for unpleasant visible (objects); for unpleasant audible (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For unpleasant odorous (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For unpleasant sapid (objects). Complete in general form of final example. For unpleasant tangible (objects). Complete in general form of final example. Mental uneasiness, mental pain, uneasy painful experience born of mental contact, uneasy painful feeling born of mental contact connected with sensuousness for unpleasant ideational (objects). These are six (types of) mental pain connected with sensuousness. (12)

Therein what are “six (types of) indifference connected with sensuousness”? Neither mental ease nor uneasiness, neither-painful-nor-pleasant experience born of mental contact, neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling born of mental contact connected with sensuousness for visible (objects) which are the causes of indiffer-ence; for audible (objects) which are the causes of indifference. Complete in general form of final example. For odorous (objects) which are the causes of indifference. Complete in general form of final example. For sapid (objects) which are the causes of indifference. Complete in general form of final example. For tangible (objects) which are the causes of indifference. Complete in general form of final example. Neither mental ease nor uneasiness, neither-painful-nor-pleasant experience born of mental contact, neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling born of mental contact connected with sensuousness for ideational (objects) which are the causes of indifference. These are six (types of) indifference connected with sensuousness. (13)

Therein what are “six wrong views”? Wrong view arises in him firmly as truth thus, “There is a soul in me”; or wrong view arises in him firmly as truth thus, “There is no soul in me”; or wrong view arises in him firmly as truth thus, “I, the soul, recognize a soul”; or wrong view arises in him firmly as truth thus, “I, the soul, recognize no soul”; or wrong view arises in him firmly as truth thus, “I, without a soul, recognize a soul”; or, indeed, wrong view is in him thus, “This soul in me speaks and feels; for a long time in this and that (existence) it experiences the resultant of skilful and unskilful actions; this (soul) is not born and never was; this (soul) is not born and never will be; this (soul) is permanent, durable, eternal, not subject to change”; thus wrong view arises in him firmly as truth. These are six wrong views. (14)

(Here Ends) Sixfold (Exposition)

17.10.7. Sevenfold Exposition

Therein what are “seven latent tendencies”? The latent tendency of lust for sense pleasure, the latent tendency of repulsion, the latent tendency of conceit, the latent tendency of wrong view, the latent tendency of doubt, the latent tendency of lust for existence, the latent tendency of ignorance. These are seven latent tendencies. (1)

Therein what are “seven fetters”? The fetter of lust for sense pleasure, the fetter of repulsion, the fetter of conceit, the fetter of wrong view, the fetter of doubt, the fetter of lust for existence, the fetter of ignorance. These are seven fetters. (2)

Therein what are “seven evolvements”? The evolvement of lust for sense pleasure, the evolvement of repulsion, the evolvement of conceit, the evolvement of wrong view, the evolvement of doubt, the evolvement of lust for existence, the evolvement of ignorance. These are seven evolvements. (3)

Therein what are “seven vitiated dhammas”? One is without confidence; one is without sense of shame; one is without fear of blame; one is without learning; one is lazy; one is unmindful; one has no wisdom. These are seven vitiated dhammas. (4)

Therein what are “seven wrong actions”? Killing beings, taking that which is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, slanderous speech, harsh speech, frivolous speech. These are seven wrong actions. (5)

Therein what are “seven (types of) conceit”? Conceit, excessive conceit, inordinate conceit, self-disrespect conceit, over-estimating conceit, self-conceit, false conceit. These are seven (types of) conceit. (6)

Therein what are “seven wrong views”? Herein a certain one, recluse or Brahmin, says thus, views thus, “Because, friend, this soul has form, is connected with the four great essentials, is produced from mother and father, at the breaking up of the body is annihilated, is destroyed, does not exist after death; therefore, friend, this soul is indeed annihilated completely”; thus some make known the annihilation, destruction, non-existence of the existing being. (7) (1)

Another said to that (person) thus, “Friend, this soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say that it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much is not annihilated completely. Indeed, friend, there is another soul pertaining to gods which has form, is characteristic of the plane of desire, eats the nutrient factor (of food); this you do not know, do not see; this I know, I see; because, friend, that soul at the breaking up of the body is annihilated, is destroyed, does not exist after death; therefore, friend, this soul is indeed annihilated completely”; thus some make known the annihilation, destruction, non-existence of the existing being. (7) (2)

Another said to that (person) thus, “Friend, this soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say that it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much is not annihilated completely. Indeed, friend, there is another soul pertaining to gods which has form, is mind made having all limbs great and small, having no lack of faculties; this you do not know, do not see; this I know, I see; because, friend, that soul at the breaking up of the body is annihilated is destroyed, does not exist after death; therefore, friend, this soul is indeed annihilated completely”; thus some make known the annihilation, destruction, non-existence of the existing being. (7) (3)

Another said to that (person) thus, “Friend, this soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say that it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much is not annihilated completely. Indeed, friend, there is another soul which, having wholly passed the perceptions of form by terminating perceptions of (sense) impingement, by not attending to diversity of perceptions, (concentrating) thus, “Infinite is space”, reaches the state of infinity of space; this you do not know, do not see; this I know, I see; because, friend, that soul at the breaking up of the body is annihilated, is destroyed, does not exist after death; therefore, friend, this soul is indeed annihilated completely”; thus some make known the annihilation, destruction, non-existence of the existing being. (7) (4)

Another said to that (person) thus, “Friend, this soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say that it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much is not annihilated completely. Indeed, friend, there is another soul which, having wholly passed the state of infinity of space (concentrating) thus, “Infinite is consciousness”, reaches the state of infinity of consciousness; this you do not know, do not see; this I know, I see; because, friend, that soul at the breaking up of the body is annihilated, is destroyed, does not exist after death; therefore, friend, this soul is indeed annihilated completely”; thus some make known the annihilation, destruction, non-existence of the existing being. (7) (5)

Another said to that (person) thus, “Friend, this soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say that it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much is not annihilated completely. Indeed, friend, there is another soul which, having wholly passed the state of infinity of consciousness (concentrating) thus, “There is nothing whatever”, reaches the state of nothingness; this you do not know, do not see; this I know, I see; because, friend, that soul at the breaking up of the body is annihilated, is destroyed, does not exist after death; therefore, friend, this soul is indeed annihilated completely”; thus some make known the annihilation, destruction, non-existence of the existing being. (7) (6)

Another said to that (person) thus, “This soul indeed exists, you say such, I do not say that it does not exist. Indeed, friend, this soul even by this much is not annihilated completely. Indeed, friend, there is another soul which, having wholly passed the state of nothingness reaches the state that is neither perception nor non-perception; this you do not know, do not see; this I know, I see; because, friend, that soul at the breaking up of the body is annihilated, is destroyed, does not exist after death; therefore, friend, this soul is indeed annihilated completely”; thus some make known the annihilation, destruction, non-existence of the existing being. These are seven wrong views. (7) (7)

(Here Ends) Sevenfold (Exposition)

17.10.8. Eightfold Exposition

Therein what are “eight sense-bases of corruption”? Greed, hatred, delusion, conceit, wrong view, doubt, sloth, distraction. These are eight sense-bases of corruption.

Therein what are “eight sense-bases of laziness”? Herein there is work to be done by a monk; his (thought) is thus, “Indeed there will be work to be done by me, but when doing the work my body will become tired; well, I will lie down”. He lies down, does not arouse energy for the attaining of the unattained, for the obtaining of the unobtained, for the realizing of the unrealized. This is the first sense-base of laziness.

And again, work is done by the monk, his (thought) is thus, “Indeed I did the work, but when doing the work my body became tired; well, I will lie down”. He lies down, does not arouse energy for the attaining of the unattained, for the obtaining of the unobtained, for the realizing of the unrealized. This is the second sense-base of laziness.

And again, there is a journey to be made by the monk, his (thought) is thus, “Indeed there will be a journey to be made by me, but while making the journey my body will become tired; well, I will lie down”. He lies down, does not arouse energy for the attaining of the unattained, for the obtaining of the unobtained, for the realizing of the unrealized. This is the third sense-base of laziness.

And again, a journey is made by the monk, his (thought) is thus, “Indeed I made the journey, but when making the journey my body became tired; well, I will lie down”. He lies down, does not arouse energy for the attaining of the unattained, for the obtaining of the unobtained, for the realizing of the unrealized. This is the fourth sense-base of laziness.

And again, the monk wandering through village or town for alms-food does not get sufficient or adequate coarse or fine food, his (thought) is thus, “Indeed, I, wandering through village or town, did not get sufficient or adequate coarse or fine food, this body of mine became tired, not fit for work; well, I will lie down”. He lies down, does not arouse energy for the attaining of the unattained, for the obtaining of the unobtained, for the realizing of the unrealized. This is the fifth sense-base of laziness.

And again, the monk wandering through village or town for alms-food gets sufficient and adequate coarse or fine food, his (thought) is thus, “Indeed, I, wandering through village or town for alms-food received sufficient and adequate coarse or fine food, this body of mine became tired, not fit for work, like a soaked bean; well, I will lie down”. He lies down, does not arouse energy for the attaining of the unattained, for the obtaining of the unobtained, for the realizing of the unrealized. This is the sixth sense-base of laziness.

And again, there arises in the monk a trifling illness, his (thought) is thus, “This trifling illness has arisen in me, it is proper to lie down; well, I will lie down”. He lies down, does not arouse energy for the attaining of the unattained, for the obtaining of the unobtained, for the realizing of the unrealized. This is the seventh sense-base of laziness.

And again, the monk is recovered from illness, recently recovered from illness, his (thought) is thus, “Indeed, I have recovered from illness, recently recovered from illness, this body of mine is weak, unfit for work; well, I will lie down”. He lies down, does not arouse energy for the attaining of the unattained, for the obtaining of the unobtained, for the realizing of the unrealized; this is the eighth sense-base of laziness. These are eight sense-bases of laziness.

Therein in what eight worldly conditions is there deflection of consciousness? Infatuation with gain, hostility to absence of gain, infatuation with popularity, hostility to absence of popularity, infatuation with praise, hostility to blame, infatuation with pleasure, hostility to pain. In these eight worldly conditions there is deflection of consciousness.

Therein what are “eight (types of) ignoble speech”? Having not seen he says he has seen; having not heard he says he has heard; having not thought he says he has thought; having not known he says he knows; having seen he says he has not seen; having heard he says he has not heard; having thought he says he has not thought; having known he says he does not know. These are eight (types of) ignoble speech

Therein what are “eight (types of) falseness”? Wrong view, wrong thought, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, wrong samādhi. These are eight (types of) falseness.

Therein what are “eight defects of man”? Herein monks accuse a monk of an offence; that monk being accused by monks of an offence, with absence of mindfulness prevaricates thus, “I do not remember, I do not remember”. This is the first defect of man.

And again monks accuse a monk of an offence; that monk being accused by the monks of an offence retorts to the accuser himself thus, “What is the skilful of talking to a foolish incompetent one like you, do you think one such as you should speak to me”? This is the second defect of man.

And again monks accuse a monk of an offence; that monk being accused by the monks of an offence, counter-accuses the accuser himself thus, “You, too, have fallen into such an offence as this, first of all you make amends”. This is the third defect of man.

And again monks accuse a monk of an offence; that monk being accused by the monks of an offence evades by one way or another, takes the conversation outside (the subject), shows anger, hatred, sulkiness. This is the fourth defect of man.

And again monks accuse a monk of an offence; that monk being accused by the monks of an offence speaks in the middle of the gathering of monks, gesticulating senselessly. This is the fifth defect of man.

And again monks accuse a monk of an offence; that monk being accused by the monks of an offence (speaks) thus, “I am neither fallen into nor am I not fallen into (offence)”, and annoys the gathering of monks by being silent. This is the sixth defect of man.

And again monks accuse a monk of an offence; that monk being accused by the monks of an offence, disregarding the gathering of monks, disregarding the accuser, though guilty of offence goes away as he wishes. This is the seventh defect of man.

And again monks accuse a monk of an offence; that monk being accused by the monks of an offence says thus, “Why do you venerable ones worry about me so much now that I give up the precepts and return to the worldly life”? He giving up the training and returning to the worldly life says thus, “Now indeed, venerable ones, be delighted”. This is the eighth defect of man. These are eight defects of man.

Therein what are “eight theories of having non-perception”? The soul has form, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having non-perception”; the soul has no form. Complete in general form of final example. Has form and no form. Complete in general form of final example. Has neither form nor no form. Complete in general form of final example. The soul is finite, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having non-perception”; the soul is infinite, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having non-perception”; the soul is finite and infinite, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having non-perception”; the soul is neither finite nor infinite, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having non-perception”. These are eight theories of having non-perception.

Therein what are “eight theories of having neither perception nor non-perception”? The soul has form, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having neither perception nor non-perception”; the soul has no form, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having neither perception nor non-perception”; the soul has form and no form, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having neither perception nor non-perception”; the soul has neither form nor no form, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having neither perception nor non-perception”; the soul is finite, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having neither perception nor non-perception”; the soul is infinite, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having neither perception nor non-perception”; the soul is finite and infinite, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having neither perception nor non-perception”; the soul is neither finite nor infinite, is not deceased after death, thus some make this known as “having neither perception nor non-perception”. These are eight theories of having neither perception nor non-perception.

(Here Ends) Eightfold (Exposition)

17.10.9. Ninefold Exposition

Therein what are “nine sense-bases of vexation”? “He has done me harm”, thus vexation arises; “He is doing me harm”, thus vexation arises; “He will do me harm”, thus vexation arises; “He has done harm to one dear and pleasant to me, Complete appropriately. he is doing harm, Complete appropriately. he will do harm”, thus vexation arises; “He has done skilful to one not dear and not pleasant to me, Complete appropriately. he is doing skilful, Complete appropriately. he will do skilful”, thus vexation arises. These are nine sense-bases of vexation.

Therein what are “nine impurities of man”? Anger, smirching, envy, meanness, deceit, hypocrisy, false speech, bad wish, false view. These are nine impurities of man.

Therein what is “ninefold conceit”? In one who is better the conceit thus, “I am better”; in one who is better the conceit thus, “I am equal”; in one who is better the conceit thus, “I am inferior”; in one who is equal the conceit thus, “I am better”; in one who is equal the conceit thus, “I am equal”; in one who is equal the conceit thus, “I am inferior”; in one who is inferior the conceit thus, “I am better”; in one who is inferior the conceit thus, “I am equal”; in one who is inferior the conceit thus, “I am inferior”. This is ninefold conceit.

Therein what are “nine dhammas rooted in craving”? Depending on craving there is continuous seeking; depending on continuous seeking there is gain; depending on gain there is judgement; depending on judgement there is lustful wish; depending on lustful wish there is clinging; depending on clinging there is possessiveness; depending on possessiveness there is meanness; depending on meanness there is protection; on account of protection—holding sticks, holding weapons, quarrelling, disputing, contention, (calling) “you, you”, slandering, false speech and many bad unskilful dhammas arise. These are nine dhammas rooted in craving.

Therein what are “nine (types of) perturbation”? “(I) am”, this is a perturbation; “I am”, this is a perturbation; “I this (person) am”, this is a perturbation; “I shall be”, this is a perturbation; “I shall have form”, this is a perturbation; “I shall have no form”, this is a perturbation; “I shall have perception”, this is a perturbation; “I shall have non-perception”, this is a perturbation; “I shall have neither perception nor non-perception”, this is a perturbation. These are nine (types of) perturbation.

Therein what are “nine (types of) imagination, nine (types of) unsteadiness, nine (types of) obsession, nine (mental) conditions”? “(I) am”, this is a (mental) condition; “I am”, this is a (mental) condition; “I this (person) am”, this is a (mental) condition; “I shall be”, this is a (mental) condition; “I shall have form”, this is a (mental) condition; “I shall have no form”, this is a (mental) condition; “I shall have perception”, this is a (mental) condition; “I shall have non-perception”, this is a (mental) condition; “I shall have neither perception nor non-perception”, this is a (mental) condition. These are nine (mental) conditions.

(Here Ends) Ninefold (Exposition)

17.10.10. Tenfold Exposition

Therein what are “ten bases of corruption”? Greed, hatred, delusion, conceit, wrong view, doubt, sloth, distraction, absence of sense of shame, absence of fear of blame. These are ten bases of corruption.

Therein what are “ten bases of vexation”? “He has done me harm”, thus vexation arises; “He is doing me harm” , thus vexation arises; “He will do me harm” , thus vexation arises; “He has done harm to one dear and pleasant to me, Complete appropriately. he is doing harm, Complete appropriately. he will do harm”, thus vexation arises; “He has done skilful to one not dear and not pleasant to me, Complete appropriately. he is doing skilful, Complete appropriately. he will do skilful”, thus vexation arises; or vexation arises unreasonably. These are ten bases of vexation.

Therein what are “ten paths of unskilful action”? Killing beings, taking that which is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, slanderous speech, harsh speech, frivolous speech, covetousness, ill-will, false view. These are ten paths of unskilful action.

Therein what are “ten fetters”? The fetter of lust for sense pleasure, the fetter of repulsion, the fetter of conceit, the fetter of wrong view, the fetter of doubt, the fetter of adherence to habits and practices, the fetter of lust for existence, the fetter of envy, the fetter of meanness, the fetter of ignorance. These are ten fetters.

Therein what are “ten (types of) falseness”? Wrong view, wrong thought, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, wrong samādhi, false knowledge, false freedom. These are ten (types of) falseness.

Therein what is “false view that has ten bases”? “There is no alms-giving; there is no sacrifice; there is no offering; there is no fruit or resultant of actions done rightly and done wrongly; there is no this world; there is no next world; there is no mother; there is no father; there are no beings born spontaneously; there are not in the world recluses and Brahmins who have reached the highest point, who are well practised; who themselves having fully known, having realized this world and the next world make it known (to others)”. This is false view that has ten bases.

Therein what is “extremist view that has ten bases”? “The world is eternal” or “the world is not eternal”, “the world is finite” or “the world is infinite”, “vital principle and the body are the same” or “vital principle and the body are different”, “the Tathāgata exists after death” or “the Tathāgata does not exist after death” or “the Tathāgata exists and does not exist after death” or “the Tathāgata neither exists nor does not exist after death”. This is Extremist view that has ten bases.

(Here Ends) Tenfold (Exposition)

17.11. Exposition Of The Occurrences Of Craving

Therein what are “eighteen occurrences of craving in connection with internal (aggregates)”? There is, “I am”; there is, “I am such an one”; there is, “I am also”; there is, “I am otherwise”; there is, “I shall be”; there is, “I shall be such an one”; there is, “I also shall be”; there is, “I shall be otherwise”; there is, “I am eternal”; there is, “I am not eternal”; there is, “I may be”; there is, “I may be such an one”; there is, “I also may be”; there is, “I may be otherwise”; there is, “would that I may be”; there is, “would that I may be such an one”; there is, “would that I also may be”; there is, “would that I may be otherwise”.

And how is there, “I am”? Making no distinction with regard to any state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, one gets the wish, “I am”; one gets the conceit, “I am”; one gets the wrong view, “l am”; when this happens there are these obsessions, “I am such an one” or “I am also” or “I am otherwise”. (1)

And how is there, “I am such an one”? “I am a ruler” or “I am a Brahmin” or “I am a merchant” or “I am an artisan” or “I am an householder” or “I am an ascetic” or “I am a god” or “I am an human being” or “I have material form” or “I have no material form” or “I have perception” or “I have non-perception” or “I have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “I am such an one”. (2)

And how is there, “I am also”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he is a ruler, so also am I a ruler” or “as he is a Brahmin, so also am I a Brahmin” or “as he is a merchant, so also am I a merchant” or “as he is an artisan, so also am I an artisan” or “as he is an householder, so also am I an householder” or “as he is an ascetic, so also am I an ascetic” or “as he is a god, so also am I a god” or “as he is an human being, so also am I an human being” or “as he has material form, so also have I material form” or “as he has no material form, so also have I no material form” or “as he has perception, so also have I perception” or “as he has non-perception, so also have I non-perception” or “as he has “neither perception nor non-perception”, so also have I “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “I am also”. (3)

And how is there, “I am otherwise”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he is a ruler, I am not a ruler in the same way” or “as he is a Brahmin, I am not a Brahmin in the same way” or “as he is a merchant, I am not a merchant in the same way” or “as he is an artisan, I am not an artisan in the same way” or “as he is an householder, I am not an householder in the same way” or “as he is an ascetic, I am not an ascetic in the same way” or “as he is a god, I am not a god in the same way” or “as he is an human being, I am not an human being in the same way” or “as he has material form, I do not have material form in the same way” or “as he has “no material form”, I do not have “no material form” in the same way” or “as he has perception, I do not have perception in the same way” or “as he has non-perception, I do not have non-perception in the same way” or “as he has “neither perception nor non-perception”, I do not have “neither perception nor non-perception” in the same way”. Thus there is, “I am otherwise”. (4)

And how is there, “I shall be”? Making no distinction with regard to any state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, one gets the wish, “I shall be”; one gets the conceit, “I shall be”; one gets the wrong view, “I shall be”; when this happens there are these obsessions, “I shall be such an one” or “I also shall be” or “I shall be otherwise”. (5)

And how is there, “I shall be such an one”? “I shall be a ruler” or “I shall be a Brahmin” or “I shall be a merchant” or “I shall be an artisan” or “I shall be an householder” or “I shall be an ascetic” or “I shall be a god” or “I shall be an human being” or “I shall have material form” or “I shall have no material form” or “I shall have perception” or “I shall have non-perception” or “I shall have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “I shall be otherwise”. (6)

And how is there, “I also shall be”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he will be a ruler, so also shall I be a ruler” or “as he will be a Brahmin, so also shall I be a Brahmin” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he will have “neither perception nor non-perception”, so also shall I have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “I also shall be”. (7)

And how is there, “I shall be otherwise”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he will be a ruler, I shall not be a ruler in the same way” or “as he will be a Brahmin, I shall not be a Brahmin in the same way” or Intermediate items, as earlier. “as he will have “neither perception nor non-perception”, I shall not have “neither perception nor non-perception” in the same way”. Thus there is, “I shall be otherwise”. (8)

And how is there, “I am eternal”? Making no distinction with regard to any state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, (there is), “I am permanent, I am durable, I am eternal, I am not subject to change”. Thus there is, “I am eternal”. (9)

And how is there,“I am not eternal”? Making no distinction with regard to any state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, (there is), “I shall be annihilated, I shall be destroyed, I shall not be”. Thus there is, “I am not eternal”. (10)

And how is there,“I may be”? Making no distinction with regard to any state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, one gets the wish, “I may be”; one gets the conceit, “I may be”; one gets the wrong view, “I may be”; when this happens there are these obsessions, “I may be such an one” or “I also may be” or “I may be otherwise”. (11)

And how is there, “I may be such an one”? “I may be a ruler” or “I may be a Brahmin” or “I may be a merchant” or “I may be an artisan” or “I may be an householder” or “I maybe an ascetic” or “I may be a god” or “I may be an human being” or “I may have material form” or “I may have no material form” or “I may have perception” or “I may have non-perception” or “I may have “neither perception nor non-perception ”. Thus there is, “I may be such an one”. (12)

And how is there, “I also may be”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he may become a ruler, so also I may become a ruler” or “as he may become a Brahmin, so also I may become a Brahmin” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he may have “neither perception nor non-perception”, so also I may have “neither perception nor non-perception ”. Thus there is, “I also may be”. (13)

And how is there, “I may be otherwise”? Comparing another person (with himself), “Should he be a ruler, I might not be a ruler in the same way” or “should he be a Brahmin, I might not be a Brahmin in the same way” or Intermediate items as earlier. “should he have “neither perception nor non-perception”, I might not have “neither perception nor non-perception “in the same way”. Thus there is, “I may be otherwise”. (14)

And how is there, “Would that I may be”? Making no distinction with regard to any state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, one gets the wish, “Would that I may be”; one gets the conceit, “would that I may be”; one gets the wrong view, “would that I may be”; when this happens there are these obsessions, “would that I may be such an one” or “would that I also may be” or “would that I may be otherwise”. (15)

And how is there, “Would that I may be such an one”? “Would that I may be a ruler” or “would that I may be a Brahmin” or “would that I may be a merchant” or “would that I may be an artisan” or “would that I may be an householder” or “would that I may be an ascetic” or “would that I may be a god” or “would that I may be an human being” or “would that I may have material form” or “would that I may have no material form” or “would that I may have perception” or “would that I may have non-perception” or “would that I may have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “Would that I may be such an one”. (16)

And how is there, “Would that I also may be”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he may become a ruler, would that I also may become a ruler” or “as he may become a Brahmin, would that I also may become a Brahmin” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he may have “neither perception nor non-perception”, would that I also may have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “Would that I also may be”. (17)

And how is there, “Would that I may be otherwise”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he may become a ruler, would that I may not become a ruler in the same way” or “as he may become a Brahmin, would that I may not become a Brahmin in the same way” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he may have “neither perception nor non-perception”, would that I may not have “neither perception nor non-perception” in the same way”. Thus there is, “Would that I may be otherwise”. (18)

These are eighteen occurrences of craving in connection with internal (aggregates).

Therein what are “eighteen occurrences of craving in connection with external (aggregates)”? There is, “By means of this I am”; there is, “by means of this I am such an one”; there is, “by means of this I am also”; there is, “by means of this I am otherwise”; there is, “by means of this I shall be”; there is, “by means of this I shall be such an one”; there is, “by means of this I also shall be”; there is, “by means of this I shall be otherwise”; there is, “by means of this I am eternal”; there is, “by means of this I am not eternal”; there is, “by means of this I may be”; there is, “by means of this I may be such an one”; there is, “by means of this I also may be”; there is, “by means of this I may be otherwise”; there is, “by means of this, would that I may be”; there is, “by means of this, would that I may be such an one”; there is, “by means of this, would that I also may be”; there is, “by means of this, would that I may be otherwise”.

And how is there, “By means of this I am”? Making distinction with regard to a certain state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, one gets the wish, “By means of this I am”; one gets the conceit, “by means of this I am”; one gets the wrong view, “by means of this I am”; when this happens there are these obsessions, “by means of this I am such an one” or “by means of this I am also” or “by means of this I am otherwise”. (1)

And how is there, “By means of this I am such an one”? “By means of this I am a ruler” or “by means of this I am a Brahmin” or “by means of this I am a merchant” or “by means of this I am an artisan” or “by means of this I am an householder” or “by means of this I am an ascetic” or “by means of this I am a god” or “by means of this I am an human being” or “by means of this I have material form” or “by means of this I have no material form” or “by means of this I have perception” or “by means of this I have non-perception” or “by means of this I have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “By means of this I am such an one”. (2)

And how is there, “By means of this I am also”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he is a ruler, so by means of this I also am a ruler” or “as he is a Brahmin, so by means of this I also am a Brahmin” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he has “neither perception nor non-perception”, so by means of this I also have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “By means of this I am also”. (3)

And how is there, “By means of this I am otherwise”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he is a ruler, by means of this I am not a ruler in the same way” or “as he is a Brahmin, by means of this I am not a Brahmin in the same way” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he has “neither perception nor non-perception”, by means of this I do not have” neither perception nor non-perception” in the same way”. Thus there is, “By means of this I am otherwise”. (4)

And how is there, “By means of this I shall be”? Making distinction with regard to a certain state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, one gets the wish, “By means of this I shall be”; one gets the conceit, “by means of this I shall be”; one gets the wrong view, “by means of this I shall be”; when this happens there are these obsessions, “by means of this I shall be such an one” or “by means of this I also shall be” or “by means of this I shall be otherwise”. (5)

And how is there, “By means of this I shall be such an one”? “By means of this I shall be a ruler” or Intermediate items as earlier. “by means of this I shall have no material form” or “by means of this I shall have perception” or “by means of this I shall have non-perception” or “by means of this I shall have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “By means of this I shall be such an one”. (6)

And how is there, “By means of this I also shall be”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he will be a ruler, so by means of this I also shall be a ruler” or “as he will be a Brahmin, so by means of this I also shall be a Brahmin” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he will have “neither perception nor non-perception”, so by means of this I also shall have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “By means of this I also shall be”. (7)

And how is there, “By means of this I shall be otherwise”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he will be a ruler, by means of this I shall not be a ruler in the same way” or “as he will be a Brahmin, by means of this I shall not be a Brahmin in the same way” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he will have “neither perception nor non-perception”, by means of this I shall not have “neither perception nor non-perception “in the same way”. Thus there is, “By means of this I shall be otherwise”. (8)

And how is there, “By means of this I am eternal”? Making distinction with regard to a certain state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, (there is), “By means of this I am permanent, I am durable, I an eternal, I am not subject to change”. Thus there is, “By means of this I am eternal”. (9)

And how is there, “By means of this I am not eternal”? Making distinction with regard to a certain state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, (there is), “By means of this I shall be annihilated, I shall be destroyed, I shall not be”. Thus there is, “By means of this I am not eternal”. (10)

And how is there, “By means of this I may be”? Making distinction with regard to a certain state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, one gets the wish, “By means of this I may be”; one gets the conceit, “by means of this I may be”; one gets the wrong view, “by means of this I may be”; when this happens there are these obsessions, “by means of this I may be such an one” or “by means of this I also may be” or “by means of this I may be otherwise”. (11)

And how is there, “By means of this I may be such an one”? “By means of this I may be a ruler” or “by means of this I may be a Brahmin” or “by means of this I may be a merchant” or “by means of this I may be an artisan” or “by means of this I may be an householder” or “by means of this I may be an ascetic” or “by means of this I may be a god” or “by means of this I may be an human being” or “by means of this I may have material form” or “by means of this I may have no material form” or “by means of this I may have perception” or “by means of this I may have non-perception” or “by means of this I may have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “By means of this I may be such an one”. (12)

And how is there, “By means of this I also may be”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he may become a ruler, so by means of this I also may become a ruler” or “as he may become a Brahmin, so by means of this I also may become a Brahmin” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he may have “neither perception nor non-perception”, so by means of this I also may have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “By means of this I also may be”. (13)

And how is there, “By means of this I may be otherwise”? Comparing another person (with himself), “Should he be a ruler, by means of this I might not be a ruler in the same way” or “should he be a Brahmin, by means of this I might not be a Brahmin in the same way” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he may have “neither perception nor non-perception”, by means of this I may not have “neither perception nor non-perception” in the same way”. Thus there is, “By means of this I may be otherwise”. (14)

And how is there, “By means of this, would that I may be”? Making distinction with regard to a certain state (either) form, feeling, perception, volitional activities (or) consciousness, one gets the wish, “By means of this, would that I may be”; one gets the conceit, “by means of this, would that I may be”; one gets the wrong view, “by means of this, would that I may be”; when this happens there are these obsessions, “by means of this, would that I may be such an one” or “by means of this, would that I also may be” or “by means of this, would that I may be otherwise”. (15)

And how is there, “By means of this, would that I may be such an one”? “By means of this, would that I may be a ruler” or “by means of this, would that I may be a Brahmin” or “by means of this, would that I may be a merchant” or “by means of this, would that I may be an artisan” or “by means of this, would that I may be an householder” or “by means of this, would that I may be an ascetic” or “by means of this, would that I may be a god” or “by means of this, would that I may be an human being” or “by means of this, would that I may have material form” or “by means of this, would that I may have no material form” or “by means of this, would that I may have perception” or “by means of this, would that I may have non-perception” or “by means of this, would that I may have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “By means of this, would that I may be such an one”. (16)

And how is there, “By means of this, would that I also may be”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he may become a ruler, by means of this, would that I also may become a ruler” or “as he may become a Brahmin, by means of this, would that I also may become a Brahmin” or Intermediate items as earlier. “as he may have “neither perception nor non-perception”, by means of this, would that I also may have “neither perception nor non-perception”. Thus there is, “By means of this, would that I also may be”. (17)

And how is there, “By means of this, would that I may be otherwise”? Comparing another person (with himself), “As he may become a ruler, by means of this, would that I may not become a ruler in the same way” or “as he may become a Brahmin, by means of this, would that I may not become a Brahmin in the same way” or “as he may have “neither perception nor non-perception”, by means of this, would that I may not have “neither perception nor non-perception” in the same way”. Thus there is, “By means of this, would that I may be otherwise”. (18)

These are eighteen occurrences of craving in connection with external (aggregates).

Thus these eighteen occurrences of craving in connection with internal (aggregates); these eighteen occurrences of craving in connection with external (aggregates); (taking) these together collectively and briefly there are thirty-six occurrences of craving. Thus the similar thirty-six past occurrences of craving; thirty-six future occurrences of craving; thirty-six present occurrences of craving; (taking) these together collectively and briefly there are one hundred and eight occurrences of craving.

Therein what are the “sixty-two wrong views which were spoken of by the Bhagavā in the Brahmājala Exposition”? Four eternalistic theories; four partial eternalistic theories; four finite and infinite theories; four eel-wriggling theories; two theories (of occurrences) arising without cause; sixteen theories on having perception; eight theories on having non-perception; eight theories on “neither perception nor non-perception”; seven annihi-lationistic theories; five theories on Nibbāna in the present existence. These are the sixty-two wrong views which were spoken of by the Bhagavā in the Brahmājala Exposition.

Analysis Of Small Items Is Ended