Majjhima Nikāya 122

Mahā­suñña­ta­sutta

Evaṃ me sutaṃ—​   ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sakkesu viharati kapila­vatthus­miṃ nigrodhārāme. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇ­ha­samayaṃ nivāsetvā patta­cīvara­mādāya kapilavatthuṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Kapila­vatthus­miṃ piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍa­pāta­paṭik­kanto yena kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāro tenupasaṅkami divāvihārāya. Tena kho pana samayena kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre sambahulāni senāsanāni paññattāni honti. Addasā kho bhagavā kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre sambahulāni senāsanāni paññattāni. Disvāna bhagavato etadahosi: “sambahulāni kho kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre senāsanāni paññattāni. Sambahulā nu kho idha bhikkhū viharantī”ti.

Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā ānando sambahulehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ ghaṭāya sakkassa vihāre cīvarakammaṃ karoti. Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito yena ghaṭāya sakkassa vihāro tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi: “sambahulāni kho, ānanda, kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre senāsanāni paññattāni. Sambahulā nu kho ettha bhikkhū viharantī”ti? “Sambahulāni, bhante, kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre senāsanāni paññattāni. Sambahulā bhikkhū ettha viharanti. Cīvara­kāra­samayo no, bhante, vattatī”ti.

“Na kho, ānanda, bhikkhu sobhati saṅgaṇikārāmo saṅgaṇikarato saṅga­ṇikā­rāma­taṃ anuyutto gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇasammudito. So vatānanda, bhikkhu saṅgaṇikārāmo saṅgaṇikarato saṅga­ṇikā­rāma­taṃ anuyutto gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇasammudito yaṃ taṃ nekkham­ma­su­khaṃ pavivekasukhaṃ upasamasukhaṃ sambodhisukhaṃ tassa sukhassa nikāmalābhī bhavissati akicchalābhī akasiralābhīti—netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Yo ca kho so, ānanda, bhikkhu eko gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho viharati tassetaṃ bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṃ yaṃ taṃ nekkham­ma­su­khaṃ pavivekasukhaṃ upasamasukhaṃ sambodhisukhaṃ tassa sukhassa nikāmalābhī bhavissati akicchalābhī akasiralābhīti—ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.

So vatānanda, bhikkhu saṅgaṇikārāmo saṅgaṇikarato saṅga­ṇikā­rāma­taṃ anuyutto gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇasammudito sāmāyikaṃ vā kantaṃ cetovimuttiṃ upasampajja viharissati asāmāyikaṃ vā akuppanti—netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Yo ca kho so, ānanda, bhikkhu eko gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho viharati tassetaṃ bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṃ sāmāyikaṃ vā kantaṃ cetovimuttiṃ upasampajja viharissati asāmāyikaṃ vā akuppanti—ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.

Nāhaṃ, ānanda, ekaṃ rūpampi samanupassāmi yattha rattassa yathā­bhira­tassa rūpassa vipari­ṇāmañ­ñathā­bhāvā na uppajjeyyuṃ soka­pari­deva­duk­kha­do­manas­sūpāyāsā.

Ayaṃ kho panānanda, vihāro tathāgatena abhisambuddho yadidaṃ—sabba­nimittā­naṃ amanasikārā ajjhattaṃ suññataṃ upasampajja viharituṃ. Tatra ce, ānanda, tathāgataṃ iminā vihārena viharantaṃ bhavanti upasaṅkamitāro bhikkhū bhikkhuniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo rājāno rājamahāmattā titthiyā titthiyasāvakā. Tatrānanda, tathāgato viveka­ninneneva cittena vivekapoṇena viveka­pabbhā­rena vūpakaṭṭhena nekkham­mā­bhira­tena byantībhūtena sabbaso āsa­vaṭṭhā­nīyehi dhammehi aññadatthu uyyo­jani­ka­paṭi­saṃ­yuttaṃ­yeva kathaṃ kattā hoti. Tasmātihānanda, bhikkhu cepi ākaṅkheyya: ‘ajjhattaṃ suññataṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti, tenānanda, bhikkhunā ajjhattameva cittaṃ saṇṭhapetabbaṃ sanni­sā­detab­baṃ ekodi kātabbaṃ samādahātabbaṃ.

Kathañcānanda, bhikkhu ajjhattameva cittaṃ saṇṭhapeti sannisādeti ekodiṃ karoti samādahati? Idhānanda, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi … pe … paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati … pe … dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ … tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ … catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Evaṃ kho, ānanda, bhikkhu ajjhattameva cittaṃ saṇṭhapeti sannisādeti ekodiṃ karoti samādahati. So ajjhattaṃ suññataṃ manasi karoti. Tassa ajjhattaṃ suññataṃ manasikaroto suññatāya cittaṃ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati. Evaṃ santametaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṃ pajānāti: ‘ajjhattaṃ suññataṃ kho me manasikaroto ajjhattaṃ suññatāya cittaṃ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccatī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. So bahiddhā suññataṃ manasi karoti … pe … so ajjhat­ta­bahid­dhā suññataṃ manasi karoti … pe … so āneñjaṃ manasi karoti. Tassa āneñjaṃ manasikaroto āneñjāya cittaṃ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati. Evaṃ santametaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṃ pajānāti: ‘āneñjaṃ kho me manasikaroto āneñjāya cittaṃ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccatī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

Tenānanda, bhikkhunā tasmiṃyeva purimasmiṃ samādhinimitte ajjhattameva cittaṃ saṇṭhapetabbaṃ sanni­sā­detab­baṃ ekodi kātabbaṃ samādahātabbaṃ. So ajjhattaṃ suññataṃ manasi karoti. Tassa ajjhattaṃ suññataṃ manasikaroto ajjhattaṃ suññatāya cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati. Evaṃ santametaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṃ pajānāti: ‘ajjhattaṃ suññataṃ kho me manasikaroto ajjhattaṃ suññatāya cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccatī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. So bahiddhā suññataṃ manasi karoti … pe … so ajjhat­ta­bahid­dhā suññataṃ manasi karoti … pe … so āneñjaṃ manasi karoti. Tassa āneñjaṃ manasikaroto āneñjāya cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati. Evaṃ santametaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṃ pajānāti: ‘āneñjaṃ kho me manasikaroto āneñjāya cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccatī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato caṅkamāya cittaṃ namati, so caṅkamati: ‘evaṃ maṃ caṅkamantaṃ ­nā­bhij­jhā­do­manassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssa­vissantī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato ṭhānāya cittaṃ namati, so tiṭṭhati: ‘evaṃ maṃ ṭhitaṃ ­nā­bhij­jhā­do­manassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssa­vissantī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato nisajjāya cittaṃ namati, so nisīdati: ‘evaṃ maṃ nisinnaṃ ­nā­bhij­jhā­do­manassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssa­vissantī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato sayanāya cittaṃ namati, so sayati: ‘evaṃ maṃ sayantaṃ ­nā­bhij­jhā­do­manassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssa­vissantī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato kathāya cittaṃ namati, so: ‘yāyaṃ kathā hīnā gammā pothujjanikā anariyā anatthasaṃhitā na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṃvattati, seyyathidaṃ—rājakathā corakathā mahāmattakathā senākathā bhayakathā yuddhakathā annakathā pānakathā vatthakathā sayanakathā mālākathā gandhakathā ñātikathā yānakathā gāmakathā nigamakathā nagarakathā janapadakathā itthikathā surākathā visikhākathā kum­bhaṭ­ṭhā­naka­thā pubbapetakathā nānattakathā lokakkhāyikā samud­dak­khā­yikā iti­bhavā­bhava­kathā iti vā iti—evarūpiṃ kathaṃ na kathessāmī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Yā ca kho ayaṃ, ānanda, kathā abhisallekhikā ceto­vi­nīvara­ṇa­sappāyā ekanta­nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati, seyyathidaṃ— appicchakathā santuṭṭhikathā pavivekakathā asaṃsaggakathā vīriyā­rambha­kathā sīlakathā samādhikathā paññākathā vimuttikathā vimutti­ñāṇadas­sana­kathā iti: ‘evarūpiṃ kathaṃ kathessāmī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato vitakkāya cittaṃ namati, so: ‘ye te vitakkā hīnā gammā pothujjanikā anariyā anatthasaṃhitā na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṃvattanti, seyyathidaṃ—kāmavitakko byāpādavitakko vihiṃsāvitakko iti evarūpe vitakke na vitakkessāmī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Ye ca kho ime, ānanda, vitakkā ariyā niyyānikā niyyanti takkarassa sammā­duk­khak­kha­yāya, seyyathidaṃ—nekkham­ma­vitakko abyāpā­da­vitakko avihiṃ­sā­vitakko iti: ‘evarūpe vitakke vitakkessāmī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

Pañca kho ime, ānanda, kāmaguṇā. Katame pañca? Cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā, sotaviññeyyā saddā … ghānaviññeyyā gandhā … jivhāviññeyyā rasā … kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā—ime kho, ānanda, pañca kāmaguṇā. Yattha bhikkhunā abhikkhaṇaṃ sakaṃ cittaṃ pacca­vek­khi­tab­baṃ: ‘atthi nu kho me imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu aññatarasmiṃ vā aññatarasmiṃ vā āyatane uppajjati cetaso samudācāro’ti? Sace, ānanda, bhikkhu pacca­vek­kha­māno evaṃ pajānāti: ‘atthi kho me imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu aññatarasmiṃ vā aññatarasmiṃ vā āyatane uppajjati cetaso samudācāro’ti, evaṃ santametaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṃ pajānāti: ‘yo kho imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu chandarāgo so me nappahīno’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Sace panānanda, bhikkhu pacca­vek­kha­māno evaṃ pajānāti: ‘natthi kho me imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu aññatarasmiṃ vā aññatarasmiṃ vā āyatane uppajjati cetaso samudācāro’ti, evaṃ santametaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṃ pajānāti: ‘yo kho imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu chandarāgo so me pahīno’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

Pañca kho ime, ānanda, upādā­nak­khan­dhā yattha bhikkhunā udayab­bayā­nu­passinā vihātabbaṃ: ‘iti rūpaṃ iti rūpassa samudayo iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo, iti vedanā … iti saññā … iti saṅkhārā … iti viññāṇaṃ iti viññāṇassa samudayo iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti. Tassa imesu pañcasu upādā­nak­khan­dhesu udayab­bayā­nu­passino viharato yo pañcasu upādā­nak­khan­dhesu asmimāno so pahīyati. Evaṃ santametaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṃ pajānāti: ‘yo kho imesu pañcasu upādā­nak­khan­dhesu asmimāno so me pahīno’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Ime kho te, ānanda, dhammā ekantakusalā kusalāyātikā ariyā lokuttarā anavakkantā pāpimatā. Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, ānanda, kaṃ atthavasaṃ sampassamāno arahati sāvako satthāraṃ anubandhituṃ api paṇujjamāno”ti? “Bhagavaṃmūlakā no, bhante, dhammā bhaga­vaṃ­nettikā bhaga­vaṃ­paṭi­saraṇā. Sādhu vata, bhante, bhaga­van­taṃyeva paṭibhātu etassa bhāsitassa attho. Bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī”ti.

“Na kho, ānanda, arahati sāvako satthāraṃ anubandhituṃ, yadidaṃ suttaṃ geyyaṃ veyyākaraṇaṃ tassa hetu. Taṃ kissa hetu? Dīgharattassa hi te, ānanda, dhammā sutā dhātā vacasā paricitā mana­sānu­pekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā. Yā ca kho ayaṃ, ānanda, kathā abhisallekhikā ceto­vi­nīvara­ṇa­sappāyā ekanta­nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati, seyyathidaṃ—appicchakathā santuṭṭhikathā pavivekakathā asaṃsaggakathā vīriyā­rambha­kathā sīlakathā samādhikathā paññākathā vimuttikathā vimutti­ñāṇadas­sana­kathā—evarūpiyā kho, ānanda, kathāya hetu arahati sāvako satthāraṃ anubandhituṃ api paṇujjamāno.

Evaṃ sante kho, ānanda, ācariyūpaddavo hoti, evaṃ sante ante­vāsū­paddavo hoti, evaṃ sante brahma­cārūpad­davo hoti.

Kathañcānanda, ācariyūpaddavo hoti? Idhānanda, ekacco satthā vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ pabbataṃ kandaraṃ giriguhaṃ susānaṃ vanapatthaṃ abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ. Tassa tathā­vūpakaṭ­ṭhassa viharato anvāvattanti brāhma­ṇa­gaha­patikā negamā ceva jānapadā ca. So anvāvattantesu brāhma­ṇa­gaha­pati­kesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca mucchaṃ nikāmayati, gedhaṃ āpajjati, āvattati bāhullāya. Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, upaddavo ācariyo. Ācari­yū­padda­vena avadhiṃsu naṃ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṃkilesikā ponobbhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṃ jāti­jarā­maraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, ānanda, ācariyūpaddavo hoti.

Kathañcānanda, ante­vāsū­paddavo hoti? Tasseva kho panānanda, satthu sāvako tassa satthu viveka­manub­rū­hayamāno vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ pabbataṃ kandaraṃ giriguhaṃ susānaṃ vanapatthaṃ abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ. Tassa tathā­vūpakaṭ­ṭhassa viharato anvāvattanti brāhma­ṇa­gaha­patikā negamā ceva jānapadā ca. So anvāvattantesu brāhma­ṇa­gaha­pati­kesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca mucchaṃ nikāmayati, gedhaṃ āpajjati, āvattati bāhullāya. Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, upaddavo antevāsī. Ante­vāsū­padda­vena avadhiṃsu naṃ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobbhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṃ jāti­jarā­maraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, ānanda, ante­vāsū­paddavo hoti.

Kathañcānanda, brahma­cārūpad­davo hoti? Idhānanda, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vij­jācara­ṇa­sam­panno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisa­damma­sāra­thi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā. So vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ pabbataṃ kandaraṃ giriguhaṃ susānaṃ vanapatthaṃ abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ. Tassa tathā­vūpakaṭ­ṭhassa viharato anvāvattanti brāhma­ṇa­gaha­patikā negamā ceva jānapadā ca. So anvāvattantesu brāhma­ṇa­gaha­pati­kesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca na mucchaṃ nikāmayati, na gedhaṃ āpajjati, na āvattati bāhullāya. Tasseva kho panānanda, satthu sāvako tassa satthu viveka­manub­rū­hayamāno vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ pabbataṃ kandaraṃ giriguhaṃ susānaṃ vanapatthaṃ abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ. Tassa tathā­vūpakaṭ­ṭhassa viharato anvāvattanti brāhma­ṇa­gaha­patikā negamā ceva jānapadā ca. So anvāvattantesu brāhma­ṇa­gaha­pati­kesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca mucchaṃ nikāmayati, gedhaṃ āpajjati, āvattati bāhullāya. Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, upaddavo brahmacārī. Brahma­cārūpad­da­vena avadhiṃsu naṃ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobbhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṃ jāti­jarā­maraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, ānanda, brahma­cārūpad­davo hoti.

Tatrānanda, yo cevāyaṃ ācariyūpaddavo, yo ca ante­vāsū­paddavo ayaṃ tehi brahma­cārūpad­davo duk­kha­vipāka­taro ceva kaṭuka­vipāka­taro ca, api ca vinipātāya saṃvattati.

Tasmātiha maṃ, ānanda, mittavatāya samudācaratha, mā sapattavatāya. Taṃ vo bhavissati dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāya.

Kathañcānanda, satthāraṃ sāvakā sapattavatāya samudācaranti, no mittavatāya? Idhānanda, satthā sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ deseti anukampako hitesī anukampaṃ upādāya: ‘idaṃ vo hitāya, idaṃ vo sukhāyā’ti. Tassa sāvakā na sussūsanti, na sotaṃ odahanti, na aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhapenti, vokkamma ca satthusāsanā vattanti. Evaṃ kho, ānanda, satthāraṃ sāvakā sapattavatāya samudācaranti, no mittavatāya.

Kathañcānanda, satthāraṃ sāvakā mittavatāya samudācaranti, no sapattavatāya? Idhānanda, satthā sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ deseti anukampako hitesī anukampaṃ upādāya: ‘idaṃ vo hitāya, idaṃ vo sukhāyā’ti. Tassa sāvakā sussūsanti, sotaṃ odahanti, aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhapenti, na ca vokkamma satthusāsanā vattanti. Evaṃ kho, ānanda, satthāraṃ sāvakā mittavatāya samudācaranti, no sapattavatāya.

Tasmātiha maṃ, ānanda, mittavatāya samudācaratha, mā sapattavatāya. Taṃ vo bhavissati dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāya. Na vo ahaṃ, ānanda, tathā parakkamissāmi yathā kumbhakāro āmake āmakamatte. Niggayha niggayhāhaṃ, ānanda, vakkhāmi; pavayha pavayha, ānanda, vakkhāmi. Yo sāro so ṭhassatī”ti.

Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamano āyasmā ānando bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandīti.

Mahā­suñña­ta­suttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ dutiyaṃ.