Majjhima Nikāya 67

Cātumasutta

Evaṃ me sutaṃ—​   ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā cātumāyaṃ viharati āmalakīvane. Tena kho pana samayena sāri­putta­mog­gallā­nap­pamu­khāni pañcamattāni bhikkhusatāni cātumaṃ anuppattāni honti bhagavantaṃ dassanāya. Te ca āgantukā bhikkhū nevāsikehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ paṭi­sammo­damānā senāsanāni paññāpayamānā pattacīvarāni paṭisāmayamānā uccāsaddā mahāsaddā ahesuṃ. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi: “ke panete, ānanda, uccāsaddā mahāsaddā, kevaṭṭā maññe macchavilope”ti? “Etāni, bhante, sāri­putta­mog­gallā­nap­pamu­khāni pañcamattāni bhikkhusatāni cātumaṃ anuppattāni bhagavantaṃ dassanāya. Te āgantukā bhikkhū nevāsikehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ paṭi­sammo­damānā senāsanāni paññāpayamānā pattacīvarāni paṭisāmayamānā uccāsaddā mahāsaddā”ti. “Tenahānanda, mama vacanena te bhikkhū āmantehi: ‘satthā āyasmante āmantetī’”ti. “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā yena te bhikkhū tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā te bhikkhū etadavoca: “satthā āyasmante āmantetī”ti. “Evamāvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato ānandassa paṭissutvā yena bhagavā tenu­pasaṅka­miṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Ekamantaṃ nisinne kho te bhikkhū bhagavā etadavoca: “kiṃ nu tumhe, bhikkhave, uccāsaddā mahāsaddā, kevaṭṭā maññe macchavilope”ti? “Imāni, bhante, sāri­putta­mog­gallā­nap­pamu­khāni pañcamattāni bhikkhusatāni cātumaṃ anuppattāni bhagavantaṃ dassanāya. Teme āgantukā bhikkhū nevāsikehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ paṭi­sammo­damānā senāsanāni paññāpayamānā pattacīvarāni paṭisāmayamānā uccāsaddā mahāsaddā”ti. “Gacchatha, bhikkhave, paṇāmemi vo, na vo mama santike vatthabban”ti. “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā senāsanaṃ saṃsāmetvā patta­cīvara­mādāya pakkamiṃsu.

Tena kho pana samayena cātumeyyakā sakyā santhāgāre sannipatitā honti kenacideva karaṇīyena. Addasaṃsu kho cātumeyyakā sakyā te bhikkhū dūratova āgacchante; disvāna yena te bhikkhū tenu­pasaṅka­miṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā te bhikkhū etadavocuṃ: “handa kahaṃ pana tumhe āyasmanto gacchathā”ti? “Bhagavatā kho, āvuso, bhikkhusaṃgho paṇāmito”ti. “Tenahāyasmanto muhuttaṃ nisīdatha, appeva nāma mayaṃ sakkuṇeyyāma bhagavantaṃ pasādetun”ti. “Evamāvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū cātumeyyakānaṃ sakyānaṃ paccassosuṃ. Atha kho cātumeyyakā sakyā yena bhagavā tenu­pasaṅka­miṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Ekamantaṃ nisinnā kho cātumeyyakā sakyā bhagavantaṃ etadavocuṃ: “abhinandatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṃghaṃ; abhivadatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṃghaṃ. Seyyathāpi, bhante, bhagavatā pubbe bhikkhusaṃgho anuggahito; evameva bhagavā etarahi anuggaṇhātu bhikkhusaṃghaṃ. Santettha, bhante, bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ. Tesaṃ bhagavantaṃ dassanāya alabhantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ, siyā vipariṇāmo. Seyyathāpi, bhante, bījānaṃ taruṇānaṃ udakaṃ alabhantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo; evameva kho, bhante, santettha bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ, tesaṃ bhagavantaṃ dassanāya alabhantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ, siyā vipariṇāmo. Seyyathāpi, bhante, vacchassa taruṇassa mātaraṃ apassantassa siyā aññathattaṃ, siyā vipariṇāmo; evameva kho, bhante, santettha bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ, tesaṃ bhagavantaṃ apassantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ, siyā vipariṇāmo. Abhinandatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṃghaṃ; abhivadatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṃghaṃ. Seyyathāpi, bhante, bhagavatā pubbe bhikkhusaṃgho anuggahito; evameva bhagavā etarahi anuggaṇhātu bhikkhusaṃghan”ti.

Atha kho brahmā sahampati bhagavato cetasā ceto­pari­vitak­ka­maññāya—seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya, pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya; evameva—brahmaloke antarahito bhagavato purato pāturahosi. Atha kho brahmā sahampati ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā yena bhagavā tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca: “abhinandatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṃghaṃ; abhivadatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṃghaṃ. Seyyathāpi, bhante, bhagavatā pubbe bhikkhusaṃgho anuggahito; evameva bhagavā etarahi anuggaṇhātu bhikkhusaṃghaṃ. Santettha, bhante, bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ, tesaṃ bhagavantaṃ dassanāya alabhantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ, siyā vipariṇāmo. Seyyathāpi, bhante, bījānaṃ taruṇānaṃ udakaṃ alabhantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ, siyā vipariṇāmo; evameva kho, bhante, santettha bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ, tesaṃ bhagavantaṃ dassanāya alabhantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ, siyā vipariṇāmo. Seyyathāpi, bhante, vacchassa taruṇassa mātaraṃ apassantassa siyā aññathattaṃ, siyā vipariṇāmo; evameva kho, bhante, santettha bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ, tesaṃ bhagavantaṃ apassantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ, siyā vipariṇāmo. Abhinandatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṃghaṃ; abhivadatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṃghaṃ. Seyyathāpi, bhante, bhagavatā pubbe bhikkhusaṃgho anuggahito; evameva bhagavā etarahi anuggaṇhātu bhikkhusaṃghan”ti.

Asakkhiṃsu kho cātumeyyakā ca sakyā brahmā ca sahampati bhagavantaṃ pasādetuṃ bījūpamena ca taruṇūpamena ca. Atha kho āyasmā mahāmoggallāno bhikkhū āmantesi: “uṭṭhethāvuso, gaṇhatha pattacīvaraṃ. Pasādito bhagavā cātumeyyakehi ca sakyehi brahmunā ca sahampatinā bījūpamena ca taruṇūpamena cā”ti. “Evamāvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato ­mahā­mog­gallā­nassa paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā patta­cīvara­mādāya yena bhagavā tenu­pasaṅka­miṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho āyasmantaṃ sāriputtaṃ bhagavā etadavoca: “kinti te, sāriputta, ahosi mayā bhikkhusaṃghe paṇāmite”ti? “Evaṃ kho me, bhante, ahosi: ‘bhagavatā bhikkhusaṃgho paṇāmito. Appossukko dāni bhagavā diṭṭha­dhamma­su­kha­vihāraṃ anuyutto viharissati, mayampi dāni appossukkā diṭṭha­dhamma­su­kha­vihāra­manu­yuttā viharissāmā’”ti. “Āgamehi tvaṃ, sāriputta, āgamehi tvaṃ, sāriputta, diṭṭha­dhamma­su­kha­vihāran”ti. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ­mahā­mog­gallā­naṃ āmantesi: “kinti te, moggallāna, ahosi mayā bhikkhusaṃghe paṇāmite”ti? “Evaṃ kho me, bhante, ahosi: ‘bhagavatā bhikkhusaṃgho paṇāmito. Appossukko dāni bhagavā diṭṭha­dhamma­su­kha­vihāraṃ anuyutto viharissati, ahañca dāni āyasmā ca sāriputto bhikkhusaṃghaṃ pariharissāmā’”ti. “Sādhu sādhu, moggallāna. Ahaṃ vā hi, moggallāna, bhikkhusaṃghaṃ parihareyyaṃ sāri­putta­mog­gallānā vā”ti.

Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: “ cattārimāni, bhikkhave, bhayāni udakorohante pāṭikaṅ­khi­tab­bāni. Katamāni cattāri? Ūmibhayaṃ, kumbhīlabhayaṃ, āvaṭṭabhayaṃ, susukābhayaṃ—imāni, bhikkhave, cattāri bhayāni udakorohante pāṭikaṅ­khi­tab­bāni. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, cattārimāni bhayāni idhekacce puggale imasmiṃ dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajite pāṭikaṅ­khi­tab­bāni. Katamāni cattāri? Ūmibhayaṃ, kumbhīlabhayaṃ, āvaṭṭabhayaṃ, susukābhayaṃ.

Katamañca, bhikkhave, ūmibhayaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco kulaputto saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti: ‘otiṇṇomhi jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi dukkhotiṇṇo dukkhapareto; appeva nāma imassa kevalassa duk­khak­khan­dhassa antakiriyā paññāyethā’ti. Tamenaṃ tathā pabbajitaṃ samānaṃ sabrahmacārī ovadanti, anusāsanti: ‘evaṃ te abhikka­mi­tabbaṃ, evaṃ te paṭik­kami­tabbaṃ, evaṃ te ālokitabbaṃ, evaṃ te vilokitabbaṃ, evaṃ te samiñjitabbaṃ, evaṃ te pasāritabbaṃ, evaṃ te saṅghā­ṭi­patta­cīvaraṃ dhāretabban’ti. Tassa evaṃ hoti: ‘mayaṃ kho pubbe agāriyabhūtā samānā aññe ovadāma, anusāsāma. Ime panamhākaṃ puttamattā maññe, nattamattā maññe, amhe ovaditabbaṃ anusāsitabbaṃ maññantī’ti. So sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, ūmibhayassa bhīto sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvatto. ‘Ūmibhayan’ti kho, bhikkhave, kodhupāyā­sas­setaṃ adhivacanaṃ.

Katamañca, bhikkhave, kumbhīlabhayaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco kulaputto saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti: ‘otiṇṇomhi jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi dukkhotiṇṇo dukkhapareto; appeva nāma imassa kevalassa duk­khak­khan­dhassa antakiriyā paññāyethā’ti. Tamenaṃ tathā pabbajitaṃ samānaṃ sabrahmacārī ovadanti anusāsanti: ‘idaṃ te khāditabbaṃ, idaṃ te na khāditabbaṃ; idaṃ te bhuñjitabbaṃ, idaṃ te na bhuñjitabbaṃ; idaṃ te sāyitabbaṃ, idaṃ te na sāyitabbaṃ; idaṃ te pātabbaṃ, idaṃ te na pātabbaṃ; kappiyaṃ te khāditabbaṃ, akappiyaṃ te na khāditabbaṃ; kappiyaṃ te bhuñjitabbaṃ, akappiyaṃ te na bhuñjitabbaṃ; kappiyaṃ te sāyitabbaṃ, akappiyaṃ te na sāyitabbaṃ; kappiyaṃ te pātabbaṃ, akappiyaṃ te na pātabbaṃ; kāle te khāditabbaṃ, vikāle te na khāditabbaṃ; kāle te bhuñjitabbaṃ, vikāle te na bhuñjitabbaṃ; kāle te sāyitabbaṃ, vikāle te na sāyitabbaṃ; kāle te pātabbaṃ, vikāle te na pātabban’ti. Tassa evaṃ hoti: ‘mayaṃ kho pubbe agāriyabhūtā samānā yaṃ icchāma taṃ khādāma, yaṃ na icchāma na taṃ khādāma; yaṃ icchāma taṃ bhuñjāma, yaṃ na icchāma na taṃ bhuñjāma; yaṃ icchāma taṃ sāyāma, yaṃ na icchāma na taṃ sāyāma; yaṃ icchāma taṃ pivāma, yaṃ na icchāma na taṃ pivāma; kappiyampi khādāma, akappiyampi khādāma; kappiyampi bhuñjāma, akappiyampi bhuñjāma; kappiyampi sāyāma, akappiyampi sāyāma; kappiyampi pivāma, akappiyampi pivāma; kālepi khādāma, vikālepi khādāma; kālepi bhuñjāma vikālepi bhuñjāma; kālepi sāyāma, vikālepi sāyāma; kālepi pivāma, vikālepi pivāma. Yampi no saddhā gahapatikā divā vikāle paṇītaṃ khādanīyaṃ bhojanīyaṃ denti tatthapime mukhāvaraṇaṃ maññe karontī’ti. So sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, kumbhī­la­bhayassa bhīto sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvatto. ‘Kumbhīlabhayan’ti kho, bhikkhave, odarikat­tas­setaṃ adhivacanaṃ.

Katamañca, bhikkhave, āvaṭṭabhayaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco kulaputto saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti: ‘otiṇṇomhi jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi dukkhotiṇṇo dukkhapareto; appeva nāma imassa kevalassa duk­khak­khan­dhassa antakiriyā paññāyethā’ti. So evaṃ pabbajito samāno pubbaṇ­ha­samayaṃ nivāsetvā patta­cīvara­mādāya gāmaṃ vā nigamaṃ vā piṇḍāya pavisati. Arakkhiteneva kāyena arakkhitāya vācāya anupaṭṭhitāya satiyā asaṃvutehi indriyehi so tattha passati gahapatiṃ vā gahapatiputtaṃ vā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitaṃ samaṅgībhūtaṃ pari­cā­rayamā­naṃ. Tassa evaṃ hoti: ‘mayaṃ kho pubbe agāriyabhūtā samānā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitā samaṅgībhūtā paricārimhā. Saṃvijjanti kho pana me kule bhogā. Sakkā bhoge ca bhuñjituṃ puññāni ca kātun’ti. So sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, āvaṭṭabhayassa bhīto sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvatto. ‘Āvaṭṭabhayan’ti kho, bhikkhave, pañcannetaṃ kāmaguṇānaṃ adhivacanaṃ.

Katamañca, bhikkhave, susukābhayaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco kulaputto saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti: ‘otiṇṇomhi jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi dukkhotiṇṇo dukkhapareto; appeva nāma imassa kevalassa duk­khak­khan­dhassa antakiriyā paññāyethā’ti. So evaṃ pabbajito samāno pubbaṇ­ha­samayaṃ nivāsetvā patta­cīvara­mādāya gāmaṃ vā nigamaṃ vā piṇḍāya pavisati. Arakkhiteneva kāyena arakkhitāya vācāya anupaṭṭhitāya satiyā asaṃvutehi indriyehi so tattha passati mātugāmaṃ dunnivatthaṃ vā duppārutaṃ vā. Tassa mātugāmaṃ disvā dunnivatthaṃ vā duppārutaṃ vā rāgo cittaṃ anuddhaṃseti. So rāgā­nuddhaṃ­sena cittena sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, susukābhayassa bhīto sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvatto. ‘Susukābhayan’ti kho, bhikkhave, mātugāmassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri bhayāni, idhekacce puggale imasmiṃ dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajite pāṭikaṅ­khi­tab­bānī”ti.

Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.

Cātumasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ sattamaṃ.