Peṭakopadesa

1. Ariya­saccap­pakāsa­na­paṭha­ma­bhūmi

Namo sammā­sambud­dhā­naṃ para­mattha­dassī­naṃ
sīlā­diguṇa­pāramip­pattā­naṃ.

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammā­sambud­dhassa.

Duve hetū duve paccayā sāvakassa sammādiṭṭhiyā uppādāya—parato ca ghoso saccānusandhi, ajjhattañca yoniso manasikāro. Tattha katamo parato ghoso? Yā parato desanā ovādo anusāsanī saccakathā saccānulomo. Cattāri saccāni—dukkhaṃ samudayo nirodho maggo. Imesaṃ catunnaṃ saccānaṃ yā desanā sandassanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkiriyā pakāsanā—ayaṃ vuccati saccānulomo ghosoti.

Tattha katamo ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikāro?

Ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikāro nāma yo yathādesite dhamme bahiddhā ārammaṇaṃ anabhi­nīha­ritvā yoniso manasikāro—ayaṃ vuccati yoniso manasikāro.

Taṃākāro yoniso dvāro vidhi upāyo. Yathā puriso sukkhe kaṭṭhe vigatasnehe sukkhāya uttarāraṇiyā thale abhi­mantha­mānaṃ bhabbo jotissa adhigamāya. Taṃ kissa hetu. Yoniso aggissa adhigamāya. Evamevassa yamidaṃ duk­kha­sa­muda­ya­nirodha­maggā­naṃ avi­parī­ta­dhamma­desanaṃ manasikaroti—ayaṃ vuccati yoniso manasikāro.

Yathā tisso upamā pubbe assutā ca assutapubbā ca paṭibhanti. Yo hi koci kāmesu avītarāgoti … pe … duve upamā ayoniso kātabbā pacchimesu vuttaṃ. Tattha yo ca parato ghoso yo ca ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikāro—ime dve paccayā. Parato ghosena yā uppajjati paññā—ayaṃ vuccati sutamayī paññā. Yā ajjhattaṃ yoniso manasikārena uppajjati paññā—ayaṃ vuccati cintāmayī paññāti. Imā dve paññā veditabbā. Purimakā ca dve paccayā. Ime dve hetū dve paccayā sāvakassa sammādiṭṭhiyā uppādāya.

Tattha parato ghosassa sac­cā­nusan­dhissa desitassa atthaṃ avijānanto atthap­paṭi­saṃ­vedī bhavissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Na ca atthap­paṭi­saṃ­vedī yoniso manasika­ris­satīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Parato ghosassa sac­cā­nusan­dhissa desitassa atthaṃ vijānanto atthap­paṭi­saṃ­vedī bhavissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati. Atthap­paṭi­saṃ­vedī ca yoniso manasika­ris­satīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati. Esa hetu etaṃ ārammaṇaṃ eso upāyo sāvakassa niyyānassa, natthañño. Soyaṃ na ca suttassa attha­vijāna­nāya saha yutto nāpi ghosānuyogena parato ghosassa atthaṃ avijānantena sakkā uttari manussadhammaṃ ala­mariya­ñāṇadas­sanaṃ adhigantuṃ, tasmā nib­bā­yi­tukā­mena sutamayena atthā pariyesitabbā. Tattha pariyesanāya ayaṃ anupubbī bhavati soḷasa hārā, pañca nayā, aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni.

Tatthāyaṃ uddānagāthā

Soḷasahārā nettī,
Pañcanayā sāsanassa pariyeṭṭhi;
Aṭṭhā­ra­sa­mū­lapadā,
­Kaccāya­na­gotta­niddiṭṭhā.

Tattha katame soḷasahārā?

Desanā vicayo yutti padaṭṭhānaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ catubyūho āvaṭṭo vibhatti parivattano vevacano paññatti otaraṇo sodhano adhiṭṭhāno parikkhāro samāropano—ime soḷasa hārā.

Tattha uddānagāthā

Desanā vicayo yutti,
padaṭṭhāno ca lakkhaṇo;
Catubyūho ca āvaṭṭo,
vibhatti parivattano.

Vevacano ca paññatti,
otaraṇo ca sodhano;
Adhiṭṭhāno parikkhāro,
samāropano soḷaso
.

Tattha katame pañca nayā?

Nandiyāvaṭṭo tipukkhalo sīhavikkīḷito disālocano aṅkusoti.

Tattha uddānagāthā

Paṭhamo nandiyāvaṭṭo,
dutiyo ca tipukkhalo;
Sīhavikkīḷito nāma,
tatiyo hoti so nayo.

Disā­locana­māhaṃsu,
catuttho nayalañjako;
Pañcamo aṅkuso nāma,
sabbe pañca nayā gatā.

Tattha katamāni aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni?

Avijjā taṇhā lobho doso moho subhasaññā sukhasaññā niccasaññā attasaññā samatho vipassanā alobho adoso amoho asubhasaññā dukkhasaññā aniccasaññā anattasaññā, imāni aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni. Tattha nava padāni akusalāni yattha sabbaṃ akusalaṃ samosarati. Nava padāni kusalāni yattha sabbaṃ kusalaṃ samosarati.

Katamāni nava padāni akusalāni yattha sabbaṃ akusalaṃ samosarati?

Avijjā yāva attasaññā, imāni nava padāni akusalāni, yattha sabbaṃ akusalaṃ samosarati.

Katamāni nava padāni kusalāni yattha sabbaṃ kusalaṃ samosarati?

Samatho yāva anattasaññā, imāni nava padāni kusalāni yattha sabbaṃ kusalaṃ samosarati. Imāni aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni.

Tattha imā uddānagāthā

Taṇhā ca avijjā lobho,
Doso tatheva moho ca;
Cattāro ca vipallāsā,
Kilesabhūmi nava padāni.

Ye ca satipaṭṭhānā samatho,
Vipassanā kusalamūlaṃ;
Etaṃ sabbaṃ kusalaṃ,
Indriyabhūmi navapadāni.

Sabbaṃ kusalaṃ navahi padehi yujjati,
Navahi ceva akusalaṃ;
Ekake nava mūlapadāni,
Ubhayato aṭṭhārasa mūlapadāni.

Imesaṃ aṭṭhārasannaṃ mūlapadānaṃ yāni nava padāni akusalāni, ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo; yāni nava padāni kusalāni, ayaṃ duk­kha­nirodha­gāminī paṭipadā. Iti samudayassa dukkhaṃ phalaṃ, duk­kha­nirodha­gāminiyā paṭipadāya nirodhaṃ phalaṃ. Imāni cattāri ariyasaccāni bhagavatā bārāṇasiyaṃ desitāni.

Tattha dukkhassa ariyasaccassa aparimāṇāni akkharāni padāni byañjanāni ākārāni niruttiyo niddesā desitā etasse­vatthassa saṅkāsanāya pakāsanāya vivaraṇāya vibhajanāya uttānīkam­ma­tāya paññāpanāyāti. Yā evaṃ sabbesaṃ saccānaṃ iti ekamekaṃ saccaṃ aparimāṇehi akkha­ra­padab­yañ­jana­ākāra­nirutti­niddesehi pariyesitabbaṃ, tañca byañjanaṃ attha­puthut­tena pana attheva byañ­jana­puthut­tena.

Yo hi koci samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā evaṃ vadeyya “ahaṃ idaṃ dukkhaṃ paccakkhāya aññaṃ dukkhaṃ paññapessāmī”ti tassa taṃ vācā­vatthu­ka­mevassa pucchito ca na sampāyissati. Evaṃ saccāni. Yañca rattiṃ bhagavā abhisambuddho, yañca rattiṃ anupādāya parinibbuto, etthantare yaṃ kiñci bhagavatā bhāsitaṃ suttaṃ geyyaṃ veyyākaraṇaṃ gāthā udānaṃ itivuttakaṃ jātakaṃ abbhutadhammaṃ vedallaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ. Na kiñci buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ dhammadesanāya dhammacakkato bahiddhā, tassa sabbaṃ suttaṃ ariyadhammesu pariyesitabbaṃ. Tattha pariggaṇhanāya ālokasabhāni cattāri ariyasaccāni thāvarāni imāni.

Tattha katamaṃ dukkhaṃ? Jāti jarā byādhi maraṇaṃ saṃkhittena pañcu­pādā­nak­khan­dhā dukkhā. Tatthāyaṃ ­lak­kha­ṇa­niddeso, pātu­bhāva­lak­khaṇā jāti, pari­pāka­lak­khaṇā jarā, duk­kha­duk­kha­tā­lak­khaṇo byādhi, cutilakkhaṇaṃ maraṇaṃ, piya­vippa­yoga­vi­pari­ṇāma­pari­tāpa­na­lak­khaṇo soko, lālappa­na­lak­khaṇo paridevo, ­kāyasam­pīḷa­na­lak­kha­ṇaṃ dukkhaṃ, citta­sam­pīḷa­na­lak­kha­ṇaṃ domanassaṃ, kilesa­pari­dahana­lak­khaṇo upāyāso, amanā­pa­samo­dhāna­lak­khaṇo appiya­sam­payogo, manā­pavinā­bhāva­lak­khaṇo piyavippayogo, adhip­pāya­vivat­ta­na­lak­khaṇo alābho, apariñ­ñā­lak­khaṇā pañcu­pādā­nak­khan­dhā, pari­pāka­cuti­lak­kha­ṇaṃ jarāmaraṇaṃ, pātu­bhāva­cuti­lak­kha­ṇaṃ cutopapatti, paṭi­sandhi­nib­bat­ta­na­lak­khaṇo samudayo, samuda­ya­pari­jahana­lak­khaṇo nirodho, anusa­ya­samuc­cheda­lak­khaṇo maggo. Byādhi­lak­kha­ṇaṃ dukkhaṃ, ­sañjāna­na­lak­khaṇo samudayo, niy­yāni­ka­lak­khaṇo maggo, santilakkhaṇo nirodho. Appaṭi­sandhi­bhāva­nirodha­lak­khaṇā anupādisesā nibbānadhātu, dukkhañca samudayo ca, dukkhañca nirodho ca, dukkhañca maggo ca, samudayo ca dukkhañca, samudayo ca nirodho ca, samudayo ca maggo ca, nirodho ca samudayo ca, nirodho ca dukkhañca, nirodho ca maggo ca, maggo ca nirodho ca, maggo ca samudayo ca, maggo ca dukkhañca.

Tatthimāni suttāni.

“Yamekarattiṃ paṭhamaṃ,
gabbhe vasati māṇavo;
Abbhuṭṭhitova so yāti,
sa gacchaṃ na nivattatī”ti.

Aṭṭhimā, ānanda, dānūpapattiyo ekuttarike suttaṃ—ayaṃ jāti.

Tattha katamā jarā?

“Acaritvā brahmacariyaṃ,
aladdhā yobbane dhanaṃ;
Jiṇṇakoñcāva jhāyanti,
khīṇamaccheva pallale”.

Pañca pubbanimittāni devesu—ayaṃ jarā.

Tattha katamo byādhi?

Sāmaṃ tena kuto rāja,
Tuvampi jarāyanti vedesi;
Khattiya kammassa phalo,
Loko na hi kammaṃ panayati.

Tayo gilānā—ayaṃ byādhi.

Tattha katamaṃ maraṇaṃ?

Yathāpi kumbhakārassa,
kataṃ mat­tika­bhāja­naṃ;
Khuddakañca mahantañca,
yaṃ pakkaṃ yañca āmakaṃ;
Sabbaṃ bheda­na­pariyan­taṃ,
evaṃ maccāna jīvitaṃ.

Mamāyite passatha phandamāne,
Maccheva appodake khīṇasote;
Etampi disvā amamo careyya,
Bhavesu āsatti­makub­bamāno.

Uda­kappa­na­suttaṃ—idaṃ maraṇaṃ.

Tattha katamo soko?

Idha socati pecca socati,
Pāpakārī ubhayattha socati;
So socati so vihaññati,
Disvā kamma­kiliṭ­ṭha­mattano.

Tīṇi duccaritāni—ayaṃ soko.

Tattha katamo paridevo?

Kāmesu giddhā pasutā pamūḷhā,
Avadāniyā te visame niviṭṭhā;
Dukkhūpanītā paridevayanti,
Kiṃsu bhavissāma ito cutāse.

Tisso vipattiyo—ayaṃ paridevo.

Tattha katamaṃ dukkhaṃ?

Sataṃ āsi ayosaṅkū,
sabbe paccattavedanā;
Jalitā jātavedāva,
acci­saṃ­ghasamā­kulā.

Mahā vata so pariḷāho saṃyuttake suttaṃ sacca­saṃ­yuttesu—idaṃ dukkhaṃ.

Tattha katamaṃ domanassaṃ?

Saṅkappehi pareto so,
kapaṇo viya jhāyati;
Sutvā paresaṃ nigghosaṃ,
maṅku hoti tathāvidho.

Dveme tapanīyā dhammā—idaṃ domanassaṃ.

Tattha katamo upāyāso?

Kammārānaṃ yathā ukkā,
anto ḍayhati no bahi;
Evaṃ ḍayhati me hadayaṃ,
sutvā nib­bat­ta­mambujaṃ.

Tayo aggī—ayaṃ upāyāso.

Tattha katamo appiya­sam­payogo?

Ayasāva malaṃ samuṭṭhitaṃ,
Tatuṭṭhāya tameva khādati;
Evaṃ ati­dhona­cāri­naṃ,
Sāni kammāni nayanti duggatiṃ.

Dveme tathāgataṃ abbhācikkhanti, ekuttarike suttaṃ dukesu—ayaṃ appiya­sam­payogo.

Tattha katamo piyavippayogo?

Supinena yathāpi saṅgataṃ,
Paṭibuddho puriso na passati;
Evampi piyāyitaṃ janaṃ,
Petaṃ kālaṅkataṃ na passati.

Te devā cavanadhammaṃ viditvā tīhi vācāhi anusāsanti. Ayaṃ piyavippayogo.

Yampicchaṃ na labhati,
tisso māradhītaro;
Tassa ce kāmayānassa,
chandajātassa jantuno;
Te kāmā parihāyanti,
sallaviddhova ruppati.

Saṃkhittena pañcu­pādā­nak­khan­dhā dukkhā.

Cakkhu sotañca ghānañca,
jivhā kāyo tato manaṃ;
Ete lokāmisā ghorā,
yattha sattā puthujjanā.

Pañcime bhikkhave khandhā—idaṃ dukkhaṃ.

Tattha katamā jarā ca maraṇañca?

Appaṃ vata jīvitaṃ idaṃ,
Oraṃ vassasatāpi mīyate;
Atha vāpi akicchaṃ jīvitaṃ,
Atha kho so jarasāpi mīyate.

Saṃyuttake pasena­di­saṃ­yuttake suttaṃ ayyikā me kālaṅkatā—ayaṃ jarā ca maraṇañca.

Tattha katamā cuti ca upapatti ca?

“Sabbe sattā marissanti,
Maraṇantaṃ hi jīvitaṃ;
Yathākammaṃ gamissanti,
Attakam­ma­phalū­pagā”ti.—

Ayaṃ cuti ca upapatti ca.

Imehi suttehi ekasadisehi ca aññehi navavidhaṃ suttaṃ taṃ anupaviṭṭhehi lakkhaṇato dukkhaṃ ñatvā sādhāraṇañca asādhāraṇañca dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ niddisitabbaṃ. Gāthāhi gāthā anuminitabbā, byākaraṇehi vā byākaraṇaṃ—idaṃ dukkhaṃ.

Tattha katamo dukkhasamudayo?

Kāmesu sattā kāmasaṅgasattā,
Saṃyojane vajja­ma­passamānā;
Na hi jātu saṃ­yoja­na­saṅga­sattā,
Oghaṃ tareyyuṃ vipulaṃ mahantaṃ.

Cattāro āsavā suttaṃ—ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo.

Tattha katamo dukkhanirodho?

Yamhi na māyā vasatī na māno,
Yo vītalobho amamo nirāso;
Panuṇṇakodho abhinibbutatto,
So brāhmaṇo so samaṇo sa bhikkhu.

Dvemā vimuttiyo, rāgavirāgā ca cetovimutti; avijjāvirāgā ca paññāvimutti—ayaṃ nirodho.

Tattha katamo maggo?

Eseva maggo natthañño,
dassanassa visuddhiyā;
Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo,
mārassetaṃ pamohanaṃ.

Sattime, bhikkhave, bojjhaṅgā—ayaṃ maggo.

Tattha katamāni cattāri ariyasaccāni?

“Ye dhammā hetuppabhavā,
Tesaṃ hetuṃ tathāgato āha;
Tesañca yo nirodho,
Evaṃvādī mahāsamaṇo”ti.

Hetuppabhavā dhammā dukkhaṃ, hetusamudayo, yaṃ bhagavato vacanaṃ. Ayaṃ dhammo yo nirodho, ye hi keci saṃyojaniyesu dhammesu assa­dānupas­sino viharanti. Kilesā taṇhā pavaḍḍhati, taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṃ … pe … evametassa kevalassa duk­khak­khan­dhassa samudayo hoti. Tattha yaṃ saṃyojanaṃ—ayaṃ samudayo. Ye saṃyojaniyā dhammā ye ca soka­pari­deva­duk­kha­do­manas­supāyāsā sambhavanti—idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yā saṃyojaniyesu dhammesu ādīna­vā­nu­passanā—ayaṃ maggo. Parimuccati jātiyā jarāya byādhīhi maraṇehi sokehi paridevehi yāva upāyāsehi—idaṃ nibbānaṃ. Imāni cattāri saccāni.

Tattha katamā anupādisesā nibbānadhātu?

Atthaṅgatassa na pamāṇamatthi,
Taṃ hi vā natthi yena naṃ paññapeyya;
Sabbasaṅgānaṃ samūhatattā vidū,
Sitā vādasatassu sabbe.

Saṃyuttake ­godhi­ka­saṃ­yuttaṃ.

Imāni asādhāraṇāni suttāni. Yahiṃ yahiṃ saccāni niddiṭṭhāni, tahiṃ tahiṃ sacca­lak­kha­ṇato otāretvā aparimāṇehi byañjanehi so attho pariyesitabbo. Tattha atthānupa­rivatti byañjanena puna byañ­janā­nupari­vatti atthena tassa ekamekassa aparimāṇāni byañjanāni imehi suttehi yathā­nikkhit­tehi cattāri ariyasaccāni niddisitabbāni. Pañcanikāye anupaviṭṭhāhi gāthāhi gāthā anuminitabbā, byākaraṇena byākaraṇaṃ. Imāni asādhāraṇāni suttāni.

Tesaṃ imā uddānagāthā

Yamekarattiṃ paṭhamaṃ,
aṭṭha dānūpapattiyo;
Pañca pubbanimittāni,
khīṇamacchaṃva pallalaṃ.

Sāmaṃ tena kuto rāja,
tayo devā gilānakā;
Yathāpi kumbhakārassa,
yathā nadidakappanaṃ.

Idha socati pecca socati,
Tīṇi duccaritāni ca;
Kāmesu giddhā pasutā,
Yāva tisso vipattiyo.

Sataṃ āsi ayosaṅkū,
pariḷāho mahattaro;
Saṅkappehi pareto so,
tattha tapaniyehi ca.

Kammārānaṃ yathā ukkā,
tayo aggī pakāsitā;
Ayato malamuppannaṃ,
abbhakkhānaṃ tathāgate.

Tividhaṃ devānusāsanti,
supinena saṅgamo yathā;
Tisso ceva māradhītā,
sallaviddhova ruppati.

Cakkhu sotañca ghānañca,
pañcakkhandhā pakāsitā;
Appaṃ vata jīvitaṃ idaṃ,
ayyikā me mahallikā.

Sabbe sattā marissanti,
upapatti cuticayaṃ;
Kāmesu sattā pasutā,
āsavehi catūhi ca.

Yamhi na māyā vasati,
dvemā cetovimuttiyo;
Eseva maggo natthañño,
bojjhaṅgā ca sudesitā.

Atthaṅgatassa na pamāṇamatthi,
Godhiko parinibbuto;
Ye dhammā hetuppabhavā,
Saṃ­yoja­nā­nu­passino.

Imā dasa tesaṃ uddānagāthā.

Tatthimāni sādhāraṇāni suttāni yesu suttesu sādhāraṇāni saccāni desitāni anulomampi paṭilomampi vomissakampi. Tattha ayaṃ ādi.

Avijjāya nivuto loko, (ajitāti bhagavā)
Vivicchā pamādā nappakāsati;
Jappā­bhi­lepanaṃ brūmi,
Dukkhamassa mahabbhayaṃ.

Tattha yā avijjā ca vivicchā ca, ayaṃ samudayo. Yaṃ mahabbhayaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Imāni dve saccāni—dukkhañca samudayo ca. “Saṃyojanaṃ saṃyojaniyā ca dhammā”ti saṃyuttake citta­saṃ­yutta­kesu byākaraṇaṃ. Tattha yaṃ saṃyojanaṃ, ayaṃ samudayo. Ye saṃyojaniyā dhammā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Imāni dve saccāni—dukkhañca samudayo ca.

Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca nirodho ca?

Ucchin­na­bhava­taṇhassa,
nettic­chinnassa bhikkhuno;
Vikkhīṇo jātisaṃsāro,
natthi dāni punabbhavo.

Yaṃ cittaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yo bhavataṇhāya upacchedo, ayaṃ dukkhanirodho. Vikkhīṇo jātisaṃsāro, natthi dāni punabbhavoti niddeso. Imāni dve saccāni— dukkhañca nirodho ca. Dvemā, bhikkhave, vimuttiyo; rāgavirāgā ca cetovimutti, avijjāvirāgā ca paññāvimutti. Yaṃ cittaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yā vimutti, ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni dve saccāni—dukkhañca nirodho ca.

Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca maggo ca?

Kumbhūpamaṃ kāyamimaṃ viditvā,
Nagarūpamaṃ cittamidaṃ ṭhapetvā;
Yodhetha māraṃ paññāvudhena,
Jitañca rakkhe anivesano siyā.

Tattha yañca kumbhūpamo kāyo yañca nagarūpamaṃ cittaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yaṃ paññāvudhena māraṃ yodhethāti ayaṃ maggo. Imāni dve saccāni. Yaṃ, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṃ, taṃ pajahitabbaṃ. Yā saṃyojanā, ayaṃ maggo. Ye te dhammā anattaniyā pahātabbā, rūpaṃ yāva viññāṇaṃ, idaṃ dukkhañca maggo ca.

Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca samudayo ca nirodho ca?

Ye keci sokā paridevitā vā,
Dukkhā ca lokasmi­maneka­rūpā;
Piyaṃ paṭic­cap­pabha­vanti ete,
Piye asante na bhavanti ete.

Ye sokaparidevā, yaṃ ca anekarūpaṃ dukkhaṃ, yaṃ pemato bhavati, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yaṃ pemaṃ, ayaṃ samudayo. Yo tattha ­chanda­rāga­vinayo piyassa akiriyā, ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni tīṇi saccāni. Timbaruko paribbājako pacceti “sayaṃkataṃ paraṃkatan”ti. Yathesā vīmaṃsā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yā ete dve ante anupagamma majjhimā paṭipadā avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā yāva jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṃ, idampi dukkhañca samudayo ca. Viññāṇaṃ nāmarūpaṃ saḷāyatanaṃ phasso vedanā bhavo jāti jarāmaraṇaṃ, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Avijjā saṅkhārā taṇhā upādānaṃ, ayaṃ samudayo. Iti idaṃ sayaṃkataṃ vīmaṃseyyāti yañca paṭic­ca­samup­pāde dukkhaṃ, idaṃ eso samudayo niddiṭṭho. Avijjānirodhā saṅ­khā­ra­nirodho ca yāva ca jarā­maraṇa­nirodhoti ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni tīṇi saccāni dukkhañca samudayo ca nirodho ca.

Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca samudayo ca maggo ca?

“Yo duk­kha­maddak­khi yatonidānaṃ,
Kāmesu so jantu kathaṃ nameyya;
Kāmā hi loke saṅgāti ñatvā,
Tesaṃ satīmā vinayāya sikkhe”ti.

Yo duk­kha­maddak­khi, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yato bhavati, ayaṃ samudayo. Sandiṭṭhaṃ yato bhavati yāva tassa vinayāya sikkhā, ayaṃ maggo. Imāni tīṇi saccāni.

Ekāda­saṅ­gutta­resu gopāla­kopama­suttaṃ.

Tattha yāva rūpasaññuttā yañca saḷāyatanaṃ yathā vaṇaṃ paṭicchādeti yañca titthaṃ yathā ca labhati ­dham­mūpa­sañ­hi­taṃ uḷāraṃ pītipāmojjaṃ catubbidhaṃ ca attabhāvato ca vatthu, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yāva āsāṭikaṃ hāretā hoti, ayaṃ samudayo. Rūpasaññuttā āsāṭakaharaṇaṃ vaṇa­paṭic­chāda­naṃ vīthiññutā goca­ra­kusa­lañca, ayaṃ maggo. Avasesā dhammā atthi hetū atthi paccayā atthi nissayā sāvasesadohitā anekapūjā ca kal­yāṇa­mitta­tappac­cayā dhammā vīthiññutā ca hetu, imāni tīṇi saccāni.

Tattha katamaṃ dukkhañca maggo ca nirodho ca?

Sati kāyagatā upaṭṭhitā,
Chasu phassāyatanesu saṃvuto;
Satataṃ bhikkhu samāhito,
Jaññā nibbānamattano.

Tattha yā ca kāyagatā sati yañca saḷāyatanaṃ yattha sabbañcetaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yā ca kāyagatā sati yo ca sīlasaṃvaro yo ca samādhi yattha yā sati, ayaṃ paññākkhandho. Sabbampi sīlakkhandho samā­dhik­khan­dho, ayaṃ maggo. Evaṃvihārinā ñātabbaṃ nibbānaṃ. Ayaṃ nirodho, imāni tīṇi saccāni. Sīle patiṭṭhāya dve dhammā bhāvetabbā samatho ca vipassanā ca. Tattha yaṃ cittasahajātā dhammā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yo ca samatho yā ca vipassanā, ayaṃ maggo. Rāgavirāgā ca cetovimutti, avijjāvirāgā ca paññāvimutti, ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni tīṇi saccāni.

Tattha katamo samudayo ca nirodho ca?

Āsā ca pīhā abhinandanā ca,
Anekadhātūsu sarā patiṭṭhitā;
Aññāṇa­mūlap­pabhavā pajappitā,
Sabbā mayā byantikatā samūlikā.

Aññāṇa­mūlap­pabha­vāti purimakehi samudayo. Sabbā mayā byantikatā samūlikāti nirodho. Imāni dve saccāni. Catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā vitthārena kātabbaṃ. Ariyassa sīlassa samādhino paññāya vimuttiyā. Tattha yo imesaṃ catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā, ayaṃ samudayo. Paṭivedho bhavanettiyā, ayaṃ nirodho. Ayaṃ samudayo ca nirodho ca.

Tattha katamo samudayo ca maggo ca?

Yāni sotāni lokasmiṃ, (ajitāti bhagavā)
Sati tesaṃ nivāraṇaṃ;
Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūmi,
Paññāyete pidhīyare.

Yāni sotānīti ayaṃ samudayo. Yā ca paññā yā ca sati nivāraṇaṃ pidhānañca, ayaṃ maggo. Imāni dve saccāni. Sañcetaniyaṃ suttaṃ daḷha­nemi­yānākāro chahi māsehi niddiṭṭho. Tattha yaṃ kāyaṃ kāyakammaṃ savaṅkaṃ sadosaṃ sakasāvaṃ yā savaṅkatā sadosatā sakasāvatā, ayaṃ samudayo. Evaṃ vacīkammaṃ manokammaṃ avaṅkaṃ adosaṃ akasāvaṃ, yā avaṅkatā adosatā akasāvatā, ayaṃ maggo. Evaṃ vacīkammaṃ manokammaṃ. Imāni dve saccāni samudayo ca maggo ca.

Tattha katamo samudayo ca nirodho ca maggo ca?

“Nissitassa calitaṃ, anissitassa calitaṃ natthi, calite asati passaddhi, passaddhiyā sati nati na hoti, natiyā asati āgatigati na hoti, āgatigatiyā asati cutūpapāto na hoti, cutūpapāte asati nevidha na huraṃ na ubhaya­manta­rena. Esevanto dukkhassā”ti.

Tattha dve nissayā, ayaṃ samudayo. Yo ca anissayo, yā ca anati, ayaṃ maggo. Yā āgatigati na hoti cutūpapāto ca yo esevanto dukkhassāti, ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni tīṇi saccāni. Anupaṭ­ṭhita­kāyagatā sati … pe … yaṃ vimutti­ñāṇadas­sanaṃ, ayaṃ samudayo. Ekā­rasa­upa­nissayā vimuttiyo yāva upa­nissa­ya­u­pasam­padā upaṭṭhi­ta­kāyaga­tā­satissa viharati. Sīlasaṃvaro sosāniyo hoti, yañca vimutti­ñāṇadas­sanaṃ, ayaṃ maggo. Yā ca vimutti, ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni tīṇi saccāni. Samudayo ca nirodho ca maggo ca.

Tattha katamo nirodho ca maggo ca?

Sayaṃ katena saccena,
Tena attanā abhi­nib­bā­na­gato vitiṇṇakaṅkho;
Vibhavañca ñatvā lokasmiṃ,
Tāva khīṇa­pu­nabbhavo sa bhikkhu.

Yaṃ saccena, ayaṃ maggo. Yaṃ khīṇa­pu­nabbhavo, ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni dve saccāni. Pañca vimut­tāyata­nāni satthā vā dhammaṃ desesi aññataro vā viññū sabrahmacārīti vitthārena kātabbā. Tassa atthap­paṭi­saṃ­ve­dissa pāmojjaṃ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, yāva nibbindanto virajjati, ayaṃ maggo. Yā vimutti, ayaṃ nirodho. Evaṃ pañca vimut­tāyata­nāni vitthārena. Imāni dve saccāni nirodho ca maggo ca.

Imāni sādhāraṇāni suttāni. Imehi sādhāraṇehi suttehi yathā­nikkhit­tehi paṭivedhato ca lakkhaṇato ca otāretvā aññāni suttāni niddisitabbāni aparihāyantena. Gāthāhi gāthā anuminitabbā, byākaraṇehi byākaraṇaṃ. Ime ca sādhāraṇā dasa parivaḍḍhakā eko ca catukko niddeso sādhāraṇo. Ayañca ­pa­kiṇṇa­ka­niddeso. Ekaṃ pañca cha ca savekadeso sabbaṃ. Ime dve parivajjanā purimakā ca dasa. Ime dvādasa parivaḍḍhakā saccāni. Ettāvatā sabbaṃ suttaṃ natthi, taṃ byākaraṇaṃ vā gāthā viya. Imehi dvādasahi parivaḍḍhakehi na otarituṃ appamattena pariyesitvā niddisitabbā.

Tatthāyaṃ saṅkhepo. Sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ sattahi padehi samosaraṇaṃ gacchati. Katarehi sattahi? Appiya­sam­payogo ca piyavippayogo ca, imehi dvīhi padehi sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ niddisitabbaṃ. Tassa dve nissayā—kāyo ca cittañca. Tena vuccati “kāyikaṃ dukkhaṃ cetasikañce”ti, natthi taṃ dukkhaṃ na kāyikaṃ vā na cetasikaṃ, sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ dvīhi dukkhehi niddisitabbaṃ kāyikena ca cetasikena ca. Tīhi dukkhatāhi saṅgahitaṃ duk­kha­duk­kha­tāya saṅ­khā­ra­duk­kha­tāya vipari­ṇāma­duk­kha­tāya. Iti taṃ sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ tīhi dukkhatāhi saṅgahitaṃ. Iti idañca dukkhaṃ tividhaṃ. Duvidhaṃ dukkhaṃ kāyikañca cetasikañca. Duvidhaṃ appiya­sam­payogo ca piyavippayogo ca. Idaṃ sattavidhaṃ dukkhaṃ.

Tattha tividho samudayo acatuttho apañcamo. Katamo tividho? Taṇhā ca diṭṭhi ca kammaṃ. Tattha taṇhā ca bhavasamudayo kammaṃ. Tathā nibbattassa hīnapaṇītatā, ayaṃ samudayo. Iti yāpi bhavagatīsu hīnatā ca paṇītatā ca, yāpi tīhi dukkhatāhi saṅgahitā, yopi dvīhi mūlehi samudānīto avijjāya nivutassa bhava­taṇhā­saṃ­yuttassa saviññāṇako kāyo, sopi tīhi dukkhatāhi saṅgahito.

Tathā vipallāsato diṭṭhi āgantabbā. Sā sattavidhā niddisitabbā. Eko vipallāso tīṇi niddisīyati, cattāri vipallā­sa­vatthūni. Tattha katamo eko vipallāso? Yo viparītaggāho paṭikkhepena, otaraṇaṃ yathā “anicce niccam”iti viparītaṃ gaṇhāti. Evaṃ cattāro vipallāsā. Ayameko vipallāsīyati saññā cittaṃ diṭṭhi. Katamāni cattāri vipallā­sa­vatthūni? Kāyo vedanā cittaṃ dhammā. Evaṃ vipallā­sa­gatassa akusalañca pavaḍḍheti. Tattha saññāvipallāso dosaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pavaḍḍheti. Cittavipallāso lobhaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pavaḍḍheti. Diṭṭhi­vi­pallāso mohaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pavaḍḍheti. Tattha dosassa akusalamūlassa tīṇi micchattāni phalaṃ—micchāvācā micchākammanto micchāājīvo; lobhassa akusalamūlassa tīṇi micchattāni phalaṃ—micchāsaṅkappo micchāvāyāmo micchāsamādhi; mohassa akusalamūlassa dve micchattāni phalaṃ—micchādiṭṭhi ca micchāsati ca. Evaṃ akusalaṃ sahetu sappaccayaṃ vipallāsā ca paccayo, akusalamūlāni sahetū eteyeva paṭipakkhena anūnā anadhikā dvīhi paccayehi niddisitabbā. Nirodhe ca magge ca vipallā­sa­mu­pādāya parato paṭipakkhena catasso.

Tatthimā uddānagāthā

Avijjāya nivuto loko,
cittaṃ saṃyojanampi;
Sā pacchin­na­bhava­taṇhā,
dvemā ceva vimuttiyo.

Kumbhūpamaṃ kāyamimaṃ,
Yaṃ na tumhākaṃ taṃ pajaha;
Ye keci sokaparidevā,
Timbaruko ca sayaṃkataṃ.

Dukkhaṃ diṭṭhi ca uppannaṃ,
yañca gopālakopamaṃ;
Sati kāyagatā māhu,
samatho ca vipassanā.

Āsā pihā ca abhinandanā ca,
Catunnama­nanu­bodhanā;
Yāni sotāni lokasmiṃ,
Daḷhaṃ nemiyānākāro.

Yaṃ nissitassa calitaṃ,
Anupaṭ­ṭhita­kāyaga­tā­sati;
Sayaṃ katena saccena,
Vimuttā­yata­nehi ca.

Peṭakopadese mahā­kaccāya­nena bhāsite paṭhamabhūmi ariya­saccap­pakāsanā nāma taṃ jīvatā bhagavatā mādisena samuddanena tathāgatenāti.