Arthaviniścayasūtram

19. Āryāṣṭāṅgo Mārgaḥ

Tatra bhikṣavaḥ katama āryāṣṭāṅgo mārgaḥ?

Tad-yathā:

  1. Samyag-dṛṣṭiḥ |
  2. samyak-saṁkalpaḥ |
  3. samyag-vāk |
  4. samyak-karmāntaḥ |
  5. samyag-ājīvaḥ |
  6. samyag-vyāyāmaḥ |
  7. samyak-smṛtiḥ |
  8. samyak-samādhiś-ca ||

19.1 Samyag-Dṛṣṭiḥ

Tatra bhikṣavaḥ samyag-dṛṣṭiḥ katamā?

Asty-ayaṁ lokaḥ, asti para-lokaḥ | asti mātā, asti pitā | asti dattam, asti hutam | asti iṣṭāniṣṭa-sukṛta-duṣkṛtānāṁ karmaṇāṁ phala-vipākaḥ | santi loke samyag-gatāḥ, samyak-pratipannā iti ||

Ayaṁ bhikṣavaḥ samyag-dṛṣṭiḥ, tad-viparītā micchā-dṛṣṭiḥ ||

19.2 Samyak-Saṁkalpaḥ

Samyak-saṁkalpaḥ katamaḥ?

Buddhatvādi-pariṇāmitaṁ śīlaṁ dānaṁ ca | na cakravartty-ādi-pariṇāmitaṁ ||

[Ayaṁ bhikṣavaḥ samyak-saṁkalpaḥ ||]

19.3 Samyag-Vāk

Samyag vāk katamā?

Iha bhikṣavaḥ phāruṣyānṛta-paiśunya-sambhinnapralāpa-varjitā vak ||

Ayam-ucyate bhikṣavaḥ samyag-vāk ||

19.4 Samyak Karmāntaḥ

Samyak karmāntaḥ katamaḥ?

Kāya-vāḍ-manasāṁ daśa-kuśaleṣu karma-patheṣu vyāpāraḥ ||

  1. Tatra kāyikaṁ tri-vidham:

    prāṇātipātādattādāna-kāma-mithyācārād-viratiḥ ||

  2. Vācikaṁ catur-vidhaṁ:

    anṛta-paiśunya-phāruṣya-sambhinnapralāpād viratiḥ ||

  3. Mānasaṁ trividham:

    abhidhyāvyāpāda-mithyā-dṛṣṭabhyo viratiḥ ||

    1. Tatra prāṇātipātaḥ katamaḥ?

      Prāṇī ca bhavati, prāṇi-saṁjño ca bhavati, vadhaka-cittaṁ cotpādayati | upakramaṁ ca karoti jīvitād vyaparopayati ||

      Ayam-ucyate bhikṣavaḥ prāṇātipātaḥ ||

      Anyatra pramādād-adṛṣṭād-vā aprāṇi-vadhaḥ ||

      Ayam-ucyate prāṇātipātaḥ ||

    2. Tatrādattādānaṁ katamaḥ?

      Steya-cittasya para-dravya-svīkaraṇam-adattādānam ||

      Anyatra mātṛ-pitṛ-bhrātṛ-svajana-mitra-dravyasya | svalpasyānuparodhino grahaṇaṁ nādattādānam ||

      Ayam-ucyate adattādānaṁ ||

    3. Tatra kāma-mithyācāraḥ katamaḥ?

      Para-strīṇām-upabhogaḥ, bhartṛ-rāja-mātṛ-pitṛ-rakṣitānām-athavā | asthānāgamyādeśākāleṣu vipratipattiḥ ||

      Ayam-ucyate kāma-mithyācāraḥ ||

    Kāyikam-etat tri-vidham ||

    1. Anṛtaṁ katamat?

      Sākṣi-praśne yathā-bhūtād vitatha-vacanam-anṛtam | Anarhato vā arhann-asmīti, parihāsavarjam ||

      Idam-ucyate anṛtam ||

    2. Paiśunyaṁ katamat?

      Abhūtena satyena vā bheda-karaṁ vacanaṁ, paiśunyam tat ||

      Idam-ucyate paiśunyam ||

    3. Tatra pāruṣyaṁ katamat?

      Para-duḥkha-cikīrṣor-yad-aniṣṭa-vacana-śrāvaṇaṁ pāruṣyaṁ ||

      Duḥkham-asya bhavaty-anayā buddhayā | yad-aniṣṭha-vacana-śrāvaṇaṁ kriyate tat-pāruṣyam ||

      Idam-ucyate pārūṣyam ||

    4. Sambhinnapralāpaḥ katamaḥ?

      Tad-yathā:

      Rāja-kathā, cora-kathā, yuddha-kathā | madya-kathā, dyūta-kathā, strī-kathā | ākhyāyika-kathā kathanaṁ vā ||

      Ayam-ucyate saṁbhinnapralāpaḥ ||

    Vācikam-evac-catur-vidham ||

    1. Tatrābhidhyā katamā?

      Para-dravya-svīkaraṇecchā abhidhyā | yān-yasya dravyāṇi tāni mama syur-iti ||

      Iyam-ucyate ’bhidhyā ||

    2. Tatra vyāpādaḥ katamaḥ?

      Para-jīvita-vyaparopaṇāvac-chedana-pīḍādi-cintanam ||

      Ayam-ucyate vyāpādaḥ ||

    3. Tatra mithyā-dṛṣṭiḥ katamā?

      Nāsty-ayaṁ lokaḥ, nāsti para-loka, iti pūrvavat ||

      Iyam-ucyate mithyā-dṛṣṭiḥ ||

    [Etan-mānasaṁ tri-vidham ||]

Ayam-ucyate bhikṣavaḥ samyak-karmāntaḥ ||

19.5 Samyag-Ājīvaḥ

Tatra samyag-ājīvaḥ katamaḥ?

Bhikṣus-tāvat

  1. kuhanā
  2. lapanā
  3. naimittikatvaṁ |
  4. naiṣpeṣikatvaṁ
  5. lābhena lābha-pratikāṁkṣā ca ||
  1. Tatra kuhanā katamā?

    Bhikṣur-dāna-patīḥ dṛṣṭvā, paryaṅkaṃ baddhvā | pathi śūnyāgāre vā niṣīdati:

    Dhyāyī bhikṣur-ayam-arhann-iti lābha-satkāro me bhaviṣyati ||

    Evam-ādikā kuhanety-ucyate ||

  2. Tatra lapanā katamā?

    Iha bhikṣur-lābha-satkāra-nimittam-eva:

    Tvaṁ me mātā, tvaṁ me pitā, tvaṁ me bhāginī, tvaṁ me duhiteti | evam-anyānyapi priya-vacanāni bravīti ||

    Evam-ādikā lapanety-ucyate ||

  3. Tatra naimittikatvaṁ katamat?

    Bhikṣus-tāvat piṇḍapātaṁ paribhujva asakṛd brūte:

    Yādṛśo ’yaṁ piṇḍapātas-tādṛśo ’nyeṣūpāsaka-gṛheṣu na labhyateti ||

    Alābha-satkāra-cittasya tu vadato ’doṣaḥ ||

    Idam-ucyate naimittikatvam ||

  4. Tatra naiṣpeṣikatvaṁ katamat?

    Bhikṣus-tāvat yatra gṛhe piṇḍapātaṁ na labhate | dāpayitu-kāmaś-ca bhavati, tatra brūte:

    Adāna-patayo hi nirayaṁ gacchanti | yūyam-apyadāna-patayo, vyaktaṁ niraya-gāmini iti ||

    Naraka-bhaya-bhītāḥ piṇḍapātam-anuprayacchanti | taṁ ca labdhvā paribhuṅkte ||

    Idam-ucyate naiṣpaṣikatvam ||

  5. Tatra lābhena lābha-pratikāṅkṣā katamā?

    Bhikṣus-tāvad-ātmīyena dhanena śobhanāni cīvarāṇi copakrīya upāsakebhyo darśayati:

    Īdṛśāni vayaṁ vastrāṇi labhāmahe iti ||

    Te lajjatā yāni vastrāṇi prayacchanti tāni paribhuṅkte ||

    Iyam-ucyate bhikṣavo lābhena lābha-pratikāṅkṣā ||

    Ayaṁ bhikṣavo mithyājīvaḥ, [asmād-viratir-iti samyag-ājīvaḥ ||]

    Iha khalu bhikṣavaḥ upāsakasya mithyā-jīvaḥ:

    Viṣa-vikrayaḥ, śastra-vikrayaḥ, sattva-vikrayaḥ | madya-vikrayaḥ, māṃsa-vikrayaḥ | apratyavekṣita-tila-sarṣapa-pīḍanaṁ mithyājīvaḥ | asmād-viratiḥ samyag-ājīvaḥ ||

Ayam-ucyate bhikṣavaḥ samyag-ājīvaḥ ||

19.6 Samyag-Vyāyāmaḥ

Tatra samyag-vyāyāmaḥ katamaḥ?

Iha bhikṣavo ’bhivādana-vandana-pratyutthānāñjali-sāmīcī-karma karaṇīyam ||

Ayam-ucyate bhikṣavaḥ samyag-vyāyāmaḥ ||

19.7 Samyak-Smṛtiḥ

Tatra bhikṣavaḥ samyak-smṛtiḥ katamā?

Iha khalu bhikṣavo [bhikṣuḥ] striyaṁ dṛṣṭvā | utpanne rāge | bāhyādhyātmikayoḥ śarīrayor-aśubhākāreṇa yathā-bhūta-darśī bhavati | santy-asmin kāye:

Keśā, romāṇi, nakhā, dantā, rajo, malaṁ, tvak | māṁsam, asthi, snāyuḥ, śirā, vṛkkā | hṛdayaṁ, plīhā, klomakaḥ, āmāśayaḥ, pakvāśayaḥ, antrāṇi, antragūṇāḥ | audariyakaṁ, yakṛt, pūriṣam | aśru, svedaḥ, kheḍaḥ, siṅhāṇako, vasā, lasikā | majjā, medaḥ, pittaṁ, śleṣmā, pūyaṁ | śoṇitaṁ, mastakaṁ, mastaka-luṅgaḥ ||

uccāra-prasrāvaiḥ pūrṇaṁ nānā-prakārasyāśucir-iti ||

Iyam-ucyate bhikṣavaḥ samyak-smṛtiḥ ||

19.8 Samyak-Samādhiḥ

Samyak-samādhiḥ katamaḥ?

Catvāri dhyānāni ||

  1. Iha [bhikṣavo] bhikṣur-viviktaṁ kāmair-viviktaṁ | pāpakair-akuśalair-dharmaiḥ | savitarkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ prīti-sukhaṁ | prathamaṁ dhyānam-upasaṁpadya viharati ||
  2. Sa vitarka-vicārāṇāṁ vyupaśamād-adhyātma-saṁprasādāc-cetasa ekoti-bhāvād-avitarkam-avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ prīti-sukhaṁ | dvitīyaṁ dhyānam-upasaṁpadya viharati ||
  3. Sa prīter-virāgād-upekṣako viharati | smṛtaḥ saṁprajānan, sukhaṁ ca kāyena pratisaṁvedayati | yat-tad-Āryā ācakṣate: Upekṣakaḥ smṛtimān sukha-vihārati | tṛtīyaṁ dhyānam-upasaṁpadya viharati ||
  4. Sa sukhasya ca prahāṇād-duḥkhasya ca prahāṇāt | pūrvam-eva ca saumanasya-daurmanasyayor-astaṁgamād-aduḥkhāsukham-upekṣā-smṛti-pariśuddhaṁ | caturthaṁ dhyānam-upasaṁpadya viharati ||

Imāni khalu bhikṣavaś-catvāri dhyānāni ||

Ayam-ucyate samyak-samādhiḥ ||

Ayaṁ bhikṣava āryāṣṭāṅgo mārgaḥ ||