Arthaviniścayasūtram

5. Dvā-Daśāṅga-Pratītya-Samutpādaḥ

Tatra bhikṣavaḥ katamo dvā-daśāṅgaḥ pratītya-samutpādaḥ?

Yad-uta:

Asmiṁ sat-idaṁ bhavati, asyotpādād-idam-utpadyate ||

Yad-uta:

  1. Avidyā-pratyayāḥ saṁskārāḥ |
  2. saṁskāra-pratyayaṁ vijñānaṁ |
  3. vijñāna-pratyayaṁ nāma-rūpaṁ |
  4. nāma-rūpa-pratyayaṁ ṣaḍ-āyatanaṁ |
  5. ṣaḍ-āyatana-pratyayaḥ sparśaḥ |
  6. sparśa-pratyayā vedanā |
  7. vedanā-pratyayā tṛṣṇā |
  8. tṛṣṇā-pratyayam-upādānaṁ |
  9. upādāna-pratyayo bhavaḥ |
  10. bhava-pratyayā jātiḥ |
  11. jāti-pratyayā
  12. jarā-maraṇa-śoka-parideva-duḥkha-daurmanasyopāyāsā saṁbhavanti | evam-asya kevalasya mahato duḥkha-skandhasya samudayo bhavati ||
  13. Avidyā-nirodhāt-saṁskāra-nirodhaḥ |
  14. saṁskāra-nirodhād-vijñānā-nirodhaḥ |
  15. vijñāna-nirodhān-nāma-rūpa-nirodhaḥ |
  16. nāma-rūpa-nirodhāt-ṣaḍ-āyatana-nirodhaḥ |
  17. ṣaḍ-āyatana-nirodhāt-sparśa-nirodhaḥ |
  18. sparśa-nirodhād vedanā-nirodhaḥ |
  19. vedanā-nirodhāt-tṛṣṇā-nirodhaḥ |
  20. tṛṣṇā-nirodhād-upādāna-nirodhaḥ |
  21. upādāna-nirodhād bhava-nirodhaḥ |
  22. bhava-nirodhāj-jāti-nirodhaḥ |
  23. jāti-nirodhāj-
  24. jarā-maraṇa-śoka-parideva-duḥkha-daurmanasyopāyāsā nirudhyante | evam-asya kevalasya mahato duḥkha-skandhasya nirodho bhavati ||

5.1 Avidyā

Tatra katamā avidyā?

Yad-uta:

Pūrvānte ’jñānam, aparānte ’jñānam, pratyupante ’jñānam; adhyātme ’jñānam, bahirdhā ’jñānam, adhyātma-bahirdhā ’jñānam; karmaṇy-ajñānam, vipāke ’jñānam, karma-vipāke ’jñānam; sukṛte ’jñānam, duṣkṛte ’jñānam, sukṛta-duṣkṛte ’jñānam; hetāvajñānam, phale ’jñānam, hetu-phale ’jñānam; hetu-samutpanneṣu dharmeṣv-ajñānam, pratītya-samutpādeṣv-ajñānam |

pratītya-samutpanneṣu dharmeṣu ajñānam; Buddhe ’jñānam, Dharme ’jñānam, Saṁghe ’jñānam; duḥkhe ’jñānam, samudaye ’jñānam, nirodhe ’jñānam, mārge ’jñānam; kuśalākuśaleṣu dharmeṣu ajñānam | sāvadyānavadyeṣu dharmeṣu ajñānam | sevitavyāsevitavyeṣu dharmeṣu ajñānam | hīna-praṇīteṣu kṛṣṇa-śukleṣu dharmeṣu ajñānam ||

Ṣaṭsu vā sparśāyataneṣu | yathā-bhūtam-ajñānam-adarśanam-anabhisamayas-tamaḥ | saṁmoho ’vidyāndhakāram ||

Iyam-ucyate ’vidyeti ||

5.2 Saṁskārā

Avidyā-pratyayāḥ saṁskārā iti ||

Saṁskārāḥ katame?

Trayaḥ saṁskārāḥ:

  1. Kāya-saṁskāraḥ
  2. vāk-saṁskāraḥ
  3. manaḥ-saṁskāraḥ ||
  1. Kāya-saṁskāraḥ katamaḥ?

    Āśvāsaḥ praśvāsaḥ, kāyiko hyeṣa dharmaḥ | kāya-niśritaḥ, kāya-pratibaddhaḥ, kāyaṁ niśritya vartate ||

    Tasmād-āśvāsaḥ praśvāsaḥ kāya-saṁskāra ity-ucyate ||

  2. Vāk-saṁskāraḥ katamaḥ?

    Vitarkya vicārya vācaṁ bhāṣate, nāvitarkya, nāvicārya ||

    Tasmād-vitarka-vicāro vāk-saṁskāra ity-ucyate ||

  3. Manaḥ-saṁskāraḥ katamaḥ?

    Raktasya yā cetanā, dviṣusya yā cetanā, mūḍhasya yā cetanā | caitasiko hyeṣa dharmaḥ | citta-niśritaḥ citta-pratibaddhaḥ, cittaṁ niśritya pravartate ||

    Tasmāc-cetanā manaḥ-saṁskāra ity-ucyate ||

Ime bhikṣavaḥ trayaḥ saṁskārā ucyante ||

5.3 Vijñānam

Saṁskāra-pratyayaṁ vijñānam-iti ||

Vijñānaṁ katamat?

Ṣaḍ vijñāna-kāyāḥ ||

Katame ṣaṭ?

Tad-yathā:

  1. Cakṣur-vijñānaṁ |
  2. śrotra-vijñānaṁ |
  3. ghrāṇa-vijñānaṁ |
  4. jihvā-vijñānaṁ |
  5. kāya-vijñānaṁ |
  6. mano-vijñānam ||

Ime ṣaḍ vijñāna-kāyā vijñānam-ity-ucyante ||

5.4 Nāma-Rūpam

Vijñāna-pratyayaṁ nāma-rūpam-iti ||

Tatra kataman-nāma?

Catvāro ’rūpiṇaḥ skandhāḥ ||

Katame catvāraḥ?

  1. Vedanā-skandhaḥ |
  2. saṁjñā-skandhaḥ |
  3. saṁskāra-skandhaḥ |
  4. vijñāna-skandhaḥ | Idaṁ nāma ||

Rūpaṁ katamat?

Yat-kiṁcid-rūpam | sarvaṁ tat: catvāri mahā-bhūtāni | catvāri ca mahā-bhūtāny-upādāya ||

Katamāni catvāri?

Tad-yathā:

  1. Pṛthivī-dhātuḥ |
  2. ab-dhātuḥ |
  3. tejo-dhātuḥ |
  4. vāyu-dhātuś-ca ||
  1. Pṛthivī-dhātuḥ katamaḥ?

    Yad gurutvaṁ kakkhaṭatvaṁ ca ||

  2. Ab-dhātuḥ katamaḥ?

    Yad dravatvam-abhiṣyandanatvaṁ ca ||

  3. Tejo-dhātuḥ katamaḥ?

    Yad-uṣṇatvaṁ ca paripācanatvaṁ ca ||

  4. Vāyu-dhātuḥ katamaḥ?

    Yad-ākuñcana-prasāraṇa-laghu-samudīraṇatvaṁ ca ||

Yad-idaṁ rūpaṁ pūrvakaṁ ca nāma ||

Tad-ubhayam-ekatrābhisaṁkṣipya nāma-rūpam-ity-ucyate ||

5.5 Ṣaḍ-Āyatanam

Nāma-rūpa-pratyayaṁ ṣaḍ-āyatanam-iti ||

Ṣaḍ-āyatanaṁ katamat?

Ṣaḍ-ādhyātmikāny-āyatanāni ||

Tad-yathā:

  1. Cakṣur-āyatanaṁ |
  2. śrotrāyatanaṁ |
  3. ghrāṇāyatanaṁ |
  4. jihvāyatanaṁ |
  5. kāyāyatanaṁ |
  6. mana āyatanam ||

Idam-ucyate ṣaḍ-āyatanam ||

5.6 Sparśa

Ṣaḍ-āyatana-pratyayaḥ sparśa iti ||

Sparśaḥ katamaḥ?

Ṣaṭ sparśa-kāyāḥ ||

Katame ṣaḍ?

  1. Cakṣu-saṁsparśaḥ |
  2. śrotra-saṁsparśaḥ |
  3. ghrāṇa-saṁsparśaḥ |
  4. jihvā-saṁsparśaḥ |
  5. kāya-saṁsparśaḥ |
  6. manaḥ-saṁsparśa iti ||

Ayam-ucyate sparśaḥ ||

5.7 Vedanā

Sparśa-pratyayā vedaneti ||

Vedanā katamā?

Ṣaḍ vedanā-kāyāḥ ||

Katame ṣaḍ?

{1} Cakṣuḥ-saṁsparśajā vedanā | sukhā duḥkhā aduḥkhāsukhā ca | evaṁ {2-6} śrotra-ghrāṇa-jihvā-kāya-manaḥ-saṁsparśajā vedanā | sukhā duḥkhā aduḥkhāsukhā ca ||

Iyam-ucyate vedanā ||

5.8 Tṛṣṇā

Vedanā-pratyayā tṛṣṇeti ||

Tṛṣṇā katamā?

Ṣaṭ tṛṣṇā-kāyāḥ | Katame ṣaṭ?

  1. Rūpa-tṛṣṇā |
  2. śabda-tṛṣṇā |
  3. gandha-tṛṣṇā |
  4. rasa-tṛṣṇā |
  5. sparśa-tṛṣṇā |
  6. dharma-tṛṣṇeti ||

Iyam-ucyate tṛṣṇā ||

5.9 Upādānam

Tṛṣṇā-pratyayam-upādānam-iti ||

Upādānaṁ katamat?

Catvārupādānāni ||

Katamāni catvāri?

  1. Kāmopādānaṁ |
  2. dṛṣṭy-upādānaṁ |
  3. śīlavratopādānaṁ |
  4. ātmavādopādānaṁ ceti ||

Idam-ucyate upādānam ||

5.10 Bhava

Upādānapratyayo bhava iti ||

Bhavaḥ katamaḥ?

Trayo bhavāḥ ||

Katame trayaḥ?

Tad-yathā:

  1. Kāmabhavaḥ |
  2. rūpabhavaḥ |
  3. ārūpyabhavaḥ ||

Tad-yathā:

  1. Narakāḥ

    Uṣṇanarakāḥ aṣṭau ||

    Katame ’ṣṭau?

    Tad-yathā:

    1. Saṁjīvaḥ |
    2. kālasūtraḥ |
    3. saṁghātaḥ |
    4. rauravaḥ |
    5. mahārauravaḥ |
    6. tapanaḥ |
    7. pratāpanaḥ |
    8. avīciś-ca ||

    Śītanarakā aṣṭau ||

    (Katame ’ṣṭau?)

    Tad-yathā:

    1. Arbudaḥ |
    2. nirarbudaḥ |
    3. aṭaṭaḥ |
    4. hahavaḥ |
    5. huhuvaḥ |
    6. utpalaḥ |
    7. padmaḥ |
    8. mahāpadmaḥ ||
  2. pretaḥ
  3. tiryaś-ca
  4. manuśyāḥ
  5. devāḥ ||

Ṣaṭ kāmāvacarāś-ca devāḥ ||

Katame ṣaṭ?

  1. Cātur-mahā-rājikāḥ |
  2. Trayas-triṁśāḥ |
  3. Yāmāḥ |
  4. Tuṣitāḥ |
  5. Nirmāṇa-ratayaḥ |
  6. Paranirmita-vaśavartino devāḥ ||

Tatra rūpa-bhavaḥ katamaḥ?

Tad-yathā:

  1. Brahma-kāyikāḥ |
  2. Brahma-purohitāḥ |
  3. Mahā-brahmāṇaḥ |
  4. Parīttābhāḥ |
  5. Apramāṇābhāḥ |
  6. Ābhāsvarāḥ |
  7. Parītta-Śubhāḥ |
  8. Śubha-Kṛtsnāḥ |
  9. Anabhrakāḥ |
  10. Puṇya-Prasavāḥ |
  11. Bṛhat-Phalāḥ
  12. Abṛhāḥ |
  13. Atapāḥ |
  14. Sudṛśāḥ |
  15. Sudarśanāḥ |
  16. Akaniṣṭhāś-ceti ||

Ārūpya-bhavaḥ katamāḥ?

Tad-yathā:

  1. Ākāśānantyāyatanaṁ |
  2. Vijñānānantyāyatanaṁ |
  3. Ākiṁcanyāyatanaṁ |
  4. Naivasaṁjñā-nāsaṁjñāyatanam ||

Ārūpiṇāṁ devānāṁ citta-mātra-dhyāyināṁ cātur-vidhopapattiḥ ||

Ayam-ucyate ārūpya-dhātuḥ ||

Ime trayo bhavāḥ ||

Ayam-ucyate bhavaḥ ||

5.11 Jātiḥ

Bhava-pratyayā jātir-iti ||

Jātiḥ katamā?

[teṣāṁ] teṣāṁ sattvānāṁ tasmiṁs-tasmin sattva-nikāye jātiḥ, saṁjātiḥ, upapattiḥ, avakrāntiḥ, abhinirvṛttiḥ, prādurbhāviḥ | skandha-pratilambhaḥ, dhātu-pratilambhaḥ, āyatanānāṁ pratilambhaḥ | skandha-nāmābhinirvṛttiḥ, jīvitendriyasyodbhavaḥ | nikāya-sabhāga-tāyāḥ sama-vadhānam ||

Iyam-ucyate jātiḥ ||

5.12 Jarā-maraṇam

Jāti-pratyayaṁ jarā-maraṇam-iti ||

Jarā katamā?

Yat khālityaṁ pālityaṁ valīpracuratā jīrṇatā bhugnatā | kubja-gopānasī-vakratā khuru-khuru-niśvāsa-praśvāsa-kaṇṭhatā | tilakālopahvata-gātratā, daṇḍāvastambhanatā | purataḥ prāgbhāra-kāyatā, indriyāṇāṁ paripākaḥ | paribhedaḥ saṁskārāṇāṁ, purāṇībhāvo | jarjarībhāvaś-ca, dhandhatvaṁ mandatvaṁ | hāniḥ parihāṇiḥ ||

Iyam-ucyate jarā ||

Maraṇaṁ katamat?

Yat-teṣāṁ teṣaṁ sattvānāṁ tasmāt-tasmāt-sattva-nikāyāc-cyutiḥ | cyavanatā bhedaḥ antarhāṇiḥ | maraṇaṁ kāla-kriyā, āyuṣo hāniḥ, ūṣmaṇo hāniḥ jīvitendriyasya nirodhaḥ, skandhānāṁ nikṣepaḥ ||

Idam-ucyate maraṇam ||

Yad-etan-maraṇaṁ pūrvikā jarā | tad-ubhayam-ekatrābhisaṁkṣipya jarā-maraṇam-ity-ucyate ||

Ayaṁ bhikṣavo dvā-daśāṅgaḥ pratītya-samutpādaḥ ||